Teacher's Guide: The Lord of the Rings Trilogy. 2 book I: plot summary & discussion questions. Book I begins with a party Bilbo is throwing for himself. I have the book you are looking for >>> The Lord of the Rings An extraordinary work -- pure excitement." -- New York Times Book Review One Ring to rule them . The story starts in the Shire, where the hobbit Frodo Baggins acquires the Ring from Bilbo Baggins, his cousin and watchman. Neither one of.
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Three Rings for the Elven-kings under the sky,. Seven for the Dwarf-lords in their halls of stone,. Nine for Mortal Men doomed to die,. One for the Dark Lord on his. of the Red Book of Westmarch, and is now told in The Lord of the Rings. A final note The Lord of the Rings Part 1 The Fellowship of the Ring By JRR Tolkien. “THE LORD OF THE RINGS' V*art One THE FELLOWSHIP OF THE RING J.R.R. ToIkien Complete Table of Contents Foreword Prologue 1. Concerning Hobbits.
Retrieved 28 May Longtime Member. But, as a result of being advised that he had lost his copyright, even before the Ace edition was issued, Tolkien began to revise The Lord of the Rings, so that there could be an authorised paperback which would be a new edition, and more importantly, a new edition for which he would still own the copyright. They were the most inclined to settle in one place, and longest preserved their ancestral habit of living in tunnels and holes. A number of errors and inconsistencies that still remained in the text have been corrected, and an attempt has been made to provide information on a few points which attentive readers have raised.
Wollheim , science fiction editor of the paperback publisher Ace Books , claimed that The Lord of the Rings was not protected in the United States under American copyright law because Houghton Mifflin, the US hardcover publisher, had neglected to copyright the work in the United States.
Tolkien took issue with this and quickly notified his fans of this objection. Authorized editions followed from Ballantine Books and Houghton Mifflin to tremendous commercial success. Tolkien undertook various textual revisions to produce a version of the book that would be published with his consent and establish an unquestioned US copyright. On September 4, , the novel debuted on New York Times' Paperback Bestsellers list as number three, and was number one by December 4, a position it held for eight weeks.
In , for the 50th Anniversary Edition, Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull, under supervision from Christopher Tolkien, studied and revised the text to eliminate as many errors and inconsistencies as possible, some of which had been introduced by well-meaning compositors of the first printing in , and never been corrected.
Further corrections were added to the 60th Anniversary Edition in Several editions, notably the 50th Anniversary Edition, combine all three books into one volume, with the result that pagination varies widely over the various editions. From to Christopher Tolkien published the surviving drafts of The Lord of The Rings , chronicling and illuminating with commentary the stages of the text's development, in volumes 6—9 of his History of Middle-earth series.
The novel has been translated, with various degrees of success, into at least 56 languages. Because The Lord of the Rings purports to be a translation of the fictitious Red Book of Westmarch , with the English language representing the Westron of the "original", Tolkien suggested that translators attempt to capture the interplay between English and the invented nomenclature of the English work, and gave several examples along with general guidance.
While early reviews for The Lord of the Rings were mixed, reviews in various media have been, on the whole, highly positive and acknowledge Tolkien's literary achievement as a significant one. The initial review in the Sunday Telegraph described it as "among the greatest works of imaginative fiction of the twentieth century". Auden , an admirer of Tolkien's writings, regarded The Lord of the Rings as a "masterpiece", further stating that in some cases it outdid the achievement of John Milton 's Paradise Lost.
New York Times reviewer Judith Shulevitz criticized the "pedantry" of Tolkien's literary style, saying that he "formulated a high-minded belief in the importance of his mission as a literary preservationist, which turns out to be death to literature itself". Both the characters and the work itself are, according to Jenkyns, "anemic, and lacking in fibre". Hugo Dyson complained loudly at its readings.
Lewis , had very different feelings, writing, "here are beauties which pierce like swords or burn like cold iron. Here is a book which will break your heart. Despite its numerous detractors, the publication of the Ace Books and Ballantine paperbacks helped The Lord of the Rings become immensely popular in the United States in the s.
The book has remained so ever since, ranking as one of the most popular works of fiction of the twentieth century, judged by both sales and reader surveys.
In similar polls both Germany  and Australia  also found The Lord of the Rings to be their favourite book. In a poll of Amazon. Although The Lord of the Rings was published in the s, Tolkien insisted that the One Ring was not an allegory for the atomic bomb ,  nor were his works a strict allegory of any kind, but were open to interpretation as the reader saw fit.
A few critics have found what they consider to be racial elements in the story, generally based upon their views of how Tolkien's imagery depicts good and evil, characters' race e. The opinions that pit races against one another are likely to reflect Tolkien's critique on war rather than a racist perspective.
In The Two Towers , the character Samwise sees a fallen foe and considers for a moment the humanity of this fallen Southron who, just moments before, is shown to be a man of color. Critics have also seen social class rather than race as being the determining factor in the portrayal of good and evil. The book has been read as fitting the model of Joseph Campbell 's " monomyth ".
The book has been adapted for radio four times. In the s radio station WBAI produced a short radio adaptation. For this purpose it is generally edited into 13 one-hour episodes. Following J. Tolkien 's sale of the film rights for The Lord of the Rings to United Artists in , rock band The Beatles considered a corresponding film project and approached Stanley Kubrick as a potential director; however, Kubrick turned down the offer, explaining to John Lennon that he thought the novel could not be adapted into a film due to its immensity.
After the script was written, which included many changes to the story and the characters, the production company scrapped the project, thinking it too expensive and too risky. Two film adaptations of the book have been made. The first was J. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , by animator Ralph Bakshi , the first part of what was originally intended to be a two-part adaptation of the story; it covers The Fellowship of the Ring and part of The Two Towers. A three-issue comic book version of the movie was also published in Europe but not printed in English , with illustrations by Luis Bermejo.
When Bakshi's investors shied away of financing the second film that would complete the story, the remainder of the story was covered in an animated television special by Rankin-Bass. Stylistically, the two segments are very different.
The second and more commercially successful adaptation was Peter Jackson 's live action The Lord of the Rings film trilogy , produced by New Line Cinema and released in three instalments as The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King All three parts won multiple Academy Awards , including consecutive Best Picture nominations.
The final instalment of this trilogy was the second film to break the one-billion-dollar barrier and won a total of 11 Oscars something only two other films in history, Ben-Hur and Titanic , have accomplished , including Best Picture , Best Director and Best Adapted Screenplay.
The Hunt for Gollum , a fan film based on elements of the appendices to The Lord of the Rings , was released on the internet in May and has been covered in major media. On 13 November , it was announced that Amazon had acquired the global television rights to The Lord of the Rings, committing to a multi-season television series.
The series will not be a direct adaptation of the books, but will instead introduce new stories that are set before The Fellowship of the Ring. Tolkien's original writings". The enormous popularity of Tolkien's work expanded the demand for fantasy fiction.
Largely thanks to The Lord of the Rings, the genre flowered throughout the s, and enjoys popularity to the present day. The opus has spawned many imitators, such as The Sword of Shannara , which Lin Carter called "the single most cold-blooded, complete rip-off of another book that I have ever read". However, Gary Gygax , lead designer of the game, maintained that he was influenced very little by The Lord of the Rings , stating that he included these elements as a marketing move to draw on the popularity the work enjoyed at the time he was developing the game.
Research also suggests that some consumers of fantasy games derive their motivation from trying to create an epic fantasy narrative which is influenced by The Lord of the Rings. Rock bands of the s were musically and lyrically inspired by the fantasy embracing counter-culture of the time; British 70s rock band Led Zeppelin recorded several songs that contain explicit references to The Lord of the Rings , such as mentioning Gollum in " Ramble On ", the Misty Mountains in " Misty Mountain Hop ", and Ringwraiths in " The Battle of Evermore ".
In , the Swedish musician Bo Hansson released an instrumental concept album based on the book titled Sagan om ringen translated as "The Saga of the Ring", which was the title of the Swedish translation of The Lord of the Rings at the time. The songs "Rivendell" and "The Necromancer" by the progressive rock band Rush were inspired by Tolkien. Styx also paid homage to Tolkien on their album Pieces of Eight with the song "Lords of the Ring", while Black Sabbath 's song, "The Wizard", which appeared on their debut album , was influenced by Tolkien's hero, Gandalf.
Later, from the s to the present day, many heavy metal acts have been influenced by Tolkien. Blind Guardian has written many songs relating to Middle-earth, including the full concept album Nightfall in Middle Earth. Almost the entire discography of Battlelore are Tolkien-themed. Summoning 's music is based upon Tolkien and holds the distinction of the being the only artist to have crafted a song entirely in the Black Speech of Mordor.
The Finnish metal band Nightwish and the Norwegian metal band Tristania have also incorporated many Tolkien references into their music. They are not to be confused with the '70s folk rock band Thorin Eichenschild.
In the symphony was awarded the Sudler Composition Award , awarded biennially for best wind band composition. The Danish Tolkien Ensemble have released a number of albums that feature the complete poems and songs of The Lord of the Rings set to music, with some featuring recitation by Christopher Lee.
The Lord of the Rings has had a profound and wide-ranging impact on popular culture, beginning with its publication in the s, but especially throughout the s and s, during which time young people embraced it as a countercultural saga. Boy Genius episode "Lights! Since then all "authorized" merchandise has been signed-off by Tolkien Enterprises, although the intellectual property rights of the specific likenesses of characters and other imagery from various adaptations is generally held by the adaptors.
Outside any commercial exploitation from adaptations, from the late s onwards there has been an increasing variety of original licensed merchandise, from posters and calendars created by illustrators such as Pauline Baynes and the Brothers Hildebrandt , to figurines and miniatures to computer, video , tabletop and role-playing games.
Recent examples include the Spiel des Jahres award-winning for "best use of literature in a game" board game The Lord of the Rings by Reiner Knizia and the Golden Joystick award-winning massively multiplayer online role-playing game , The Lord of the Rings Online: Shadows of Angmar by Turbine, Inc.
Rex took his name from the hobbit Peregrin Took better known as Pippin. Took later recorded under the pseudonym ' Shagrat the Vagrant ', before forming a band called Shagrat in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the novel. For the film series, see The Lord of the Rings film series. For other uses, see The Lord of the Rings disambiguation. Fantasy Adventure. See also: Main article: Tolkien's influences.
Translations of The Lord of the Rings. Reception of J. Themes of The Lord of the Rings. Adaptations of The Lord of the Rings. Works inspired by J. Middle-earth portal Novels portal. Lewis's "lies breathed through silver". Mythopoeia was also the title of one of his poems, first published in Tree and Leaf in Toronto Star.
Archived from the original on 9 March Retrieved 8 March The Tolkien Society. Archived from the original PDF on 3 March Retrieved 24 October Tolkien , Boston: Houghton Mifflin , Archived from the original on 1 November Retrieved 4 December A Biographical Sketch". Archived from the original on 3 March Retrieved 16 June Tolkien Companion and Guide: Reader's Guide , pp.
National Geographic. Archived from the original on 13 June The Ring of Words: Tolkien and the Oxford English Dictionary.
Oxford University Press. The New York Times. Archived from the original on 5 December Retrieved 3 April The Lord of the Rings. Archived from the original on 25 August Retrieved 26 December In a later letter The Letters of J. Tolkien , , he writes that they were "evidently relatives".
Genesis" PDF. Archived from the original PDF on 27 February Retrieved 14 June This PDF contains no information about its source. It appears to be a lecture for a course on Tolkien by Assoc. Tolkien Finally Speaks Out". Archived from the original on 10 February Archived from the original on 19 December The Letters of J. Tolkien , Houghton Mifflin. The Road to Middle-earth, 3rd ed. Tolkien's Elves".
Archived from the original on 2 June Retrieved 4 January Archived from the original on 7 January Retrieved 29 October Archived from the original on 6 January Retrieved 28 October Tolkien" in Ukrainian. Archived from the original on 25 April Retrieved 6 November Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings". In Reilly, Robert. The Transcendent Adventure: Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. Hobbits, Elves, and Wizards: Exploring the Wonders and Worlds of J. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
National Geographic News. National Geographic Society. Archived from the original on 16 March Retrieved 4 October Chiron pp. Chiron p.
We find that all four hobbits undergo an individuation process, often sparked by the interaction with different characters of Middle-earth. Merry and Pippin mature from their child-like consciousness to young adulthood through their imprisonment at the hands of the Uruk-hai and their meeting with Tree-beard.
Sam's meeting with the elves initiates his individuation process, which is further reinforced when he fights against Shelob, the shadow archetype of anima. His transformation from an adolescent to a responsible and mature hobbit culminates when Sam, believing Frodo to be dead, takes upon himself the responsibility of completing the quest alone Whereas the dwarfs and men represent the adult consciousness and the elves the most evolved, spiritual and balanced beings, the hobbits represent a childlike innocence.
It is this quality of purity that enables Frodo to wear the ring without being immediately corrupted.
Unlike all the other races of Middle-earth, the hobbits tend to be less immediately susceptible to the power of the One Ring. Frodo's journey from the Shire into Mordor tells the story of the loss of innocence by the awareness and acceptance of shadow and the consequent integration of all aspects of his personality.
Thus Frodo's story concerns itself with the duality of light and shadow that resides within him as well as outside him. As the Fellowships struggles against these aspects of shadow, we find that those who are unable to resist the temptation of the One Ring, are overpowered and slain. Taking into account that Jung juxtaposed self and God, then the loss of self can be understood as the inability to act in accordance with the divine aspect of self, and instead being seduced by the temptations of the world — as is the case with Boromir and Saruman.
As the story progresses, we find that the internal battles that our heroes undergo, are of even greater importance than the physical ones.
Frodo, like Aragorn, must come to terms with his personal shadow in order to complete his quest, a struggle that culminates at the edge of Mount Doom. And there was Frodo, pale and worn, and yet himself again; and in his eyes there was peace now Individuation is an inherent process in which we become the full expression of who we were born to be by integrating all of our aspects, specially those aspects of self which are the most polarized and unconscious.
In transcending our dualities and split aspects of our personality we recreate a unified self and achieve good mental health. An individuation process is marked by different stages of psychological development towards an individual personality.
Frodo's meeting with Gollum is crucial for his individuation process as Gollum embodies what Frodo could become if he gave into his lust for the One Ring. Their relationship represents the different stages of individuation.
In the beginning of the story Frodo laments that Bilbo did not kill Gollum when he had the chance 40 reflecting a somewhat immature psyche, with a need to destroy an outer expression of himself as he does not recognise it as such. However, as the story progresses he is able to extend his understanding and compassion to Gollum 41 revealing a maturation of the mind.
Frodo is 37 Tolkien, J. Jung's term for: In Mordor, at the pinnacle of the journey, Frodo merges with shadow and succumbs to temptation - he forfeits the quest in order to keep the One Ring for himself Frodo's capitulation to the One Ring completes his immersion into shadow and his personality fuses with that of Gollum. However, Frodo's self survives the merging with shadow and he is able to detach himself from it again having gained an experiential and complex knowledge of his whole self.
This process of transformation perfectly exemplifies how we must bring into consciousness our personal and collective shadow, in order to integrate the totality of the psyche and achieve mental and emotional balance. Having experienced his own shadow, Frodo can never go back to his prior state of blissful ignorance. His journey through Middle-earth is a transformational passage from a polarised and immature psyche to a rounded psyche that encompasses all aspects of self.
Furthermore, the characters in Middle-earth who achieve individuation do not die in the conventional way as they have not lost their self. Instead they are transported to the Grey Havens where life continues, albeit in a different setting. The positive aspect of self is mental stability, wholeness and emotional well-being. Thus, we may wonder why Tolkien chose this object to represent evil? Looking at the question from a Jungian standpoint, the choice is that of a genius.
In the shadow aspect of the self archetype stands for the distorted and fragmented mind. The One Ring is emblematic of the ambiguous nature of shadow. It is both an incredible source of power and a corrupting element. The fact that the One Ring causes the wearer to become invisible is related to the loss of self that occurs when the ego becomes excessively identified with symbols of 42 Tolkien, J.
In the One Ring the aspects of light and shadow are bound together in an eternal and circular continuum. The one cannot exists without the other. Tolkien illustrates this fragmentation in the appearance of the main shadow characters of the story.
Sauron, who represents the culmination of evil, is so fragmented that all that is left of him is a fiery eye and a mouth It is noteworthy how Tolkien focuses on the internal, spiritual injury of this stab-wound in a higher degree than the physical harm the wound causes. Frodo would have become an undead, neither alive or dead, a fate that is descriptive of the loss of self. However, he manages to survive but the encounter has given him with a transparent quality indicating that he self is dissolving into the collective unconscious.
Thus, the One Ring is a catalyst for emergence and empowerment of our repressed collective shadow and as a eradication of the self.
It is no coincidence that the One Ring is a representation of almost unlimited power and has the unavoidable consequence of corrupting the wearer. Tolkien is clearly demonstrating to us how excessive power inevitably leads to evil doing and can dissolve the personality of even the most well- intentioned. The power of the One Ring is tempting even for the most spiritual beings of Middle-earth, such as Galadriel and Gandalf who, in contrast to Saruman, are able to resist the One Ring even when it is offered to them freely.
But the shadow is not necessarily evil, merely less sophisticated; and in any case is part of the whole picture. In Jungian terms the devil archetype is the sum of the darkness of human nature, collectively projected onto an outside force.
In context of The Lord of the Rings the devil archetype is represented by Sauron, who, although disembodied, is the essence of all that we perceive as being evil. Thus the devil becomes our most potent adversary. It represents an immense source of strength, the submission to which would lead to the disintegration of ego.
However it is vital to bear in mind that it is in the battle with an enemy figure that we are given the opportunity to discover who we are. Without temptation or evil to overcome, the individuation process would not be possible, thus one could go as far as interpreting the devil as a saviour figure.
In battling against the devil we are given the opportunity to identify and come to terms with the otherwise unacknowledged traits in ourselves.
These are the aspects of ourselves that we most need to make peace with in order to realise our full potential. If we are unable to do this we will, in Jungian terms, continue a life-long battle with ourselves. The All-Seeing Eye is universally a symbol that represents spiritual sight, inner vision, higher knowledge as well as insight into occult mysteries.
In the The Lord of the Rings these qualities are reverse to a certain degree as the Eye of Fire is not only the eye of Sauron but also the eye of our collective shadow — representing a malevolent, supernatural and destructive force. Sauron who is the primary antagonist of the trilogy, rules over the Land of Shadow which is associated with our repressed, unrefined and instinctive aspects of self.
Violence, aggression and other aspects of our emotions which usually go repressed and unacknowledged in civilised society, dwell and thrive here. In the land of Shadow, the otherwise unaccepted and repressed is free to unabashedly express itself, thus the characters who originate in shadow do not experience the feelings of regret, remorse or guilt that could otherwise urge them into conformity.
Viewed through the Jungian lens it is obvious to see Sauron as a personification of the collective shadow of Middle-earth.
The trickster-figure signifies that we are now entering the realm of the instinctive, natural and unspoilt part of the psyche. Tom Bombadil is the only character in The Lord of the Rings whose complete lack of fear enables him to handle the One Ring and even peer into it 52 thus matching Sauron's eye with his , without it having any negative effect on him. The trickster nature of this figure reveals itself by the fact that Tom Bombadil lives apart from conventional society.
He has no fear, is full of song and dance and lives by his own rules only. Thus his trust in the process of life makes him immune to the lust for power, without the need to control anyone or anything he is insusceptible to the power of the ring.
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