Essentials of Ultrasound Physics by James A. Zagzebski, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. I used this book for the ASCeXam physics portion and did extremely well_(~90%) . Ultrasound principles from the basic level to understanding exactly the. BUY NOW soundofheaven.info PDF DOWNLOAD Frank R. Miele DOWNLOAD PDF Essentials of Ultrasound Physics: The Board Review Book.
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Request PDF on ResearchGate | Essentials of Ultrasound Physics / J.A. Zagzebski. | Contenido: Física del diagnóstico con ultrasonido; Propiedades de los. The Essentials of Ultrasound Physics, by Zagzebski, is an ideal textbook for those who find physics a dry and te- dious discipline to review. Instead of the. Essentials of Ultrasound Physics is about ultrasound technology and ultrasound instrumentation. This text- book is intended for students, sonographers, and tech .
However due to the wide range of angles, regardless of the incident angle, some US energy is always reflected back. Most biological tissues fall into this category and give rise to the speckled appearance observed of most soft tissues[ 16 ].
Refraction involves changes in the direction of US waves due to an interface of tissues with different speeds of sound transmission. This is similar to seeing a bent spoon when observed in a glass of water. This gives rise to loss of energy when not captured from the transducer[ 16 ].
Even when captured, acts as a source of several artifacts duplication error commonly encountered[ 15 ]. Attenuation refers to the loss of energy as the sound waves travel through increasing depth.
It is related to the depth of beam penetration, type of tissue being imaged and the frequency of the wave. Due to friction, a vast amount of energy is lost as heat. More dense structures have higher attenuation coefficients as the oscillatory tissue motion produced by the sound wave creates more friction and heat[ 15 ]. Higher frequency signals are attenuated more than the lower frequency signals.
Hence a high frequency probe cannot be of much help in visualising deeper structures such as the sciatic nerve. Posterior acoustic enhancement, a commonly observed artefact, is largely due to an intrinsic compensating mechanism provided to counter the attenuation and loss of signal when imaging highly hyperechoic structures such as blood vessels[ 15 ].
Transmission refers to loss of signal due to unopposed transmission away from the probe[ 16 ].
A good use of US guidance can only be made when one understands how to operate the equipment and also how to modify the variables to get the best possible image. The following section gives an understanding of these elements Figure 5. It describes the ability to separately identify to individual structures[ 8 , 12 ].
Axial resolution refers to the possible differentiation between the 2 objects in the plane of US beam. Higher frequencies and superficial structures give better axial resolution[ 10 ]. Temporal resolution refers to the rate at which consecutive images are visualised.
It depends on the frame rate or pulses. A transducer emits the next pulse only after it has received the previous pulse. Increasing the depth of US beam affects the temporal resolution. Similarly, using Doppler has the same effect as it requires more time to process the incoming signals and hence lower temporal resolution.
Lateral resolution refers to separation of structures lying side by side. Inappropriate use of focus zone-as explained below can decrease the lateral resolution. Contrast resolution is referred to the optimal visualisation achieved in terms of hyper and hypo-echogenic structures displayed on the screen.
To enhance visualisation and to improve resolution there are 3 important settings which can be altered. This simply refers to the strength of the signal.
The brightness of the image is proportional to the strength of the signal received by the transducer. A highly reflective structure sends back proportionately more sound signals causing whiter shadow-hyperechogenic, where as less denser and less reflective structures send back less signals to the transducer causing blacker shadow-hypoechogenic.
Increasing the gain increases the signal strength and brightness in general. This may not be optimal as even the background structures noise are also increased[ 12 ]. The optimal gain necessary for visualisation might be different from what is set as auto-gain and might need individual adjustments.
Such well adjusted image is referred to as contrast resolution. Increasing the gain can also affect lateral resolution. The sound waves converge to a point called focal zone and then diverge[ 10 ]. The divergence of these waves beyond the focal zone can allow for missed information in a horizontal plane. To minimise this loss, it is important to set the focal zone at the same level as the target of interest. It is achieved usually by a dial setting and is observed on the monitor as a small arrow on either side of the screen Figure 6.
Time gain compensation: As the name suggests there is an increase in gain signal strength which is restricted to a set field of depth. Attenuation increases with increasing depth. To compensate for this time gain compensation TGC allows for stepwise increase in gain which can be adjusted for a particular depth. It is suggested that TGA adjustments are made less frequently than gain adjustments, which is not usually optimal[ 16 ].
Waves of higher frequency are more attenuated. One should choose a higher frequency probe for superficial structures, and low frequency probe for deeper structures. Color doppler: This function helps to detect structures with movement, like blood flow. It is based on the doppler principle. Structures moving away from the probe appear blue and those towards the probe appear red.
One important thing to remember is that the angle of incidence should be as less as possible. To help visualise even smaller vessels and also to be independent of the incident angle, newer machines have power Doppler[ 9 , 13 ]. This function provides only a single color pattern. The image produced on the monitor is a 2 dimensional image obtained from converting mechanical energy into electrical signals. These give rise to artifacts: It is difficult to avoid them altogether and hence must be able to distinguish them[ 17 ].
Commonly understood artifacts are described below. Acoustic shadowing: This happens when a superficial structure has greater attenuation coefficient than the structures deep to it. Due to this the underlying structure appears less echogenic than normal. This is typically seen under a bone as a black shadow[ 8 , 18 ]. Posterior acoustic enhancement: This is almost the opposite of shadowing. Due to the presence of a less attenuating structure superficially, the region behind that structure produces stronger echoes than the surrounding structures.
This is typically seen underneath or posterior to a blood vessel and can be mistaken as a nerve due to its hyperechoic quality[ 8 , 17 ].
It is the multiple representation of the same structure at different depths of display. It is usually caused by a specular reflector such as a needle. It reflects a strong signal back to the tranducer, some of which is again reflected back to cause a repeat of the shadow at a different depth, because of the time delay involved.
The lumen and the walls of a hollow needle can also give rise to reverberation artifacts due to differences in the time of reflected wave and appear as multiple but similar shadows.
They also give rise to comet tail shadows[ 19 ]. Mirror image: It is a type of reverberation artifact, commonly produced due to a significant mismatch in the acoustic impedance between 2 adjacent structures such as air-bone, soft tissue-lung etc. Interestingly this artifact appears in all modes including doppler. This is also called as bayonet effect[ 20 ].
This appears as a subtle bend in the length of the needle due to refraction. Dealing with artifacts[ 8 , 17 ]: Appropriate and effective use of US requires a thorough knowledge of its operating principles. This helps one to utilise the controls to get an optimal image which is clear, with more signal transmission than background noise. Key points include: All of these help to minimise the artifacts. Advanced Search. This Article. Citation of this article.
Review of essential understanding of ultrasound physics and equipment operation. Corresponding Author of This Article. Publishing Process of This Article. Research Domain of This Article. Article-Type of This Article. Therapeutics Advances. Open-Access Policy of This Article. This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers.
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All rights reserved. World J Anesthesiol. Author contributions: This manuscript was written completely by the stated author. Correspondence to: October 29, Revised: December 9, Accepted: February 16, Published online: March 27, Key Words: Ultrasound physics , Ultrasound in regional anesthesia , Essential concepts of ultrasound , Ultrasound basics , Artifacts.
Advantages of US as an imaging modality. Understanding the physics behind the use of US. Understanding the controls and improving the image quality. Artifacts associated with US imaging. P- Reviewers: Song XX L- Editor: A E- Editor: Liu SQ.
The history of echocardiography. Ultrasound Med Biol. Application of the Doppler ultrasound bloodflow detector in supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Submit Search. Successfully reported this slideshow. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Upcoming SlideShare. Like this presentation?
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