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CaSO, Thiosulphates: The two ends of the combined system are maintained at different temperatures. A the level remains constant in each case B water overflows in both the cases C water overflows in the latter case, while come down in the previous case D in previous case water overflows while in later case its levels comes down Q. Group Outer shell configuration Common oxid. An aluminium sphere has" diameter of exactly When equilibrium is set up. Nucleons

If the radius were halved and the temperature doubled, the power radiated in watt would be: A B C D If all the solar energy falling on a lens of area 0. It cools according to Newton's law of cooling. At time tj its temperature is found to be K.

At this time t p the body X is connected to a larger body Y at atmospheric temperature TA, through a conducting rod of length L, cross-sectional area A and thermal conductivity K. The heat capacity of Y is so large that any variation in its temperature may be neglected. The cross-sectional area A of the connecting rod is small compared to the surface area of X. The energy of radiation emitted by this object with wavelength between nm and nm is U p between nm and nm is U2 and between nm and nm is U3.

The coefficient of linear expansion of the two metals are a c and aB. On heating, the temperature ofthe strip goes up by AT and the strip bends to form an arc of radius of curvature R. Then R is: Which of the following curves represents the phenomenon qualitatively?

Each rod is of the same length. It is observed that A initially it is the darkest body and at later times the brightest. B it the darkest body at all times C it cannot be distinguished at all times. D initially it is the darkest body and at later times it cannot be distinguished. The expansion in both the h rods is same on variation of temperature. D None of these a s.

Calculate L—Hot oil a rate of heat loss per unit area due to radiationfromthe lid. The wavelengths corresponding to maximum intensity are nm, nm and nm respectively. In the second case, the rods are joined end to end and connected to the same vessels. The rate of heating is constant. Which of the following graphs represents the variation of temperature with time?

What is the rate at which energy is radiated per second at temperature T A 0. LC tj Q. Time Limit: The graph of temperature against distance of the bar when it has attained steady state is shown here. The other end of the rod is in contact with a block of ice at its melting point. The rate in kg. The ends of the rod are kept at temperature T1 and T r The temperature T at x, where x is the distancefromthe end whose temperature is T ; is X.

If all the ice melts, the final temperature of the drink is: It is found that the power received by the foil is P. Ifboth the temperature and distance are doubled, the power received by the foil will be: The reading is 25 cm on the tape, the real length of the given piece ofwood must be: It expands by 0. Another rod of a different metal B having the same length expands by 0.

Thus rod expand by 0. The portion made of metal A has the length: Then the cubical coefficient of expansion is: One shall observe that: A the level remains constant in each case B water overflows in both the cases C water overflows in the latter case, while come down in the previous case D in previous case water overflows while in later case its levels comes down Q.

The rate of fall of temperature of P is x times that of Q when both are at the same surface temperature. The value ofx is: Thevesselis connectedto a vacuum pump to pump out water vapour. This results in some water gettingfrozen. The maximum percentage amount ofwater that will be solidified in this manner will be A If Young's modulus of elasticity of the metal is E and the mean coefficient of linear expansion is a per degree Celsius, then the compressional force required to prevent the rodfromexpanding along its length is: Which one will conduct most heat?

The two ends of the combined system are maintained at different temperatures. There is no loss ofheatfromthe cylindrical surface and the system is in steady state. If cubical coefficient of expansion ofthe solid and the liquid by ys and y j respectively, then Wis equal to: Their thermal conductivities are 2k and k respectively.

All the heat entering the face AB leavesfromthe face CD. An aluminium sphere has" diameter of exactly The sphere is placed on top ofthe ring at i two are allowed to come to thermal equilibrium, no heat being lost to the surrounding.

The sphere just passes through the ring at the equilibrium temperature. The variation oftemperature of the body with time is given by. The ice melts uniformly, such that shape remains spherical. After a time't' the radius ofthe sphere has reduced to r.

Assuming the rate of energy of outside heat is proportional to the surface area ofthe sphere at any moment, which graph best depicts r t. At steady state, the graph oftemperature: On heating both oil and vessel, A the vessel can contain more volume and more mass of oil B the vessel can contain same volume and same mass of oil C the vessel can contain same volume but more mass of oil D the vessel can contain more volume but same mass of oil Q.

What is the maximum amount of ice that can melt approx. At a different dX temperature T2 the area is found to be 9A. Then ratio ofthermal conductivity of thinner and thicker sheet are A 1 B 2 C 3 D 4 d 2d. Then ratio of their heat capacity per unit volume is A 1: How much heat should be supplied to the apparatus to evaporate the water thus formed?

It melts completely in sec. The rate of rise oftemperature thereafter will be Assume no loss of heat. All three layers have the same thickness and the thermal conductivity of the brick is much greater than that of air. The left layer is at a higher temperature than the right layer and steady state condition exists.

Which of the following graphs predicts correctly the variation of temperature T with distance d inside the cavity? If these stars behave like black bod; es then the ratio of the surface temperature of the Sun and the North Star is A 1.

Surface areas of these bodies are same and the total radiant power is also emitted at the same rate. If temperature of P is 9 P kelvin then temperature of Q i. Thefinaltemperature of mixture is: The approximate temperature of surrounding is: A gm B mg C gm D gm Q.

The thermal conductivity ofthe material A is twice that of B. The heat carried increases to 2H. The temperature 20cm. The rate of melting of ice is doubled if: Find the H temperature of the junction A'. The temperature of junction B will be: Knowledge when not" Classified " or assorted properly is as useless as a book not placed according to the order in a Huge library. Hydration and Hydration Energy for cations Size of Hydrated ion.

Acidic nature of oxides. Basic nature of oxides. Reducing Nature. Isoelectric ions have different size. Inert pair effect is in p-block. Stability of higher state decreases and that of lower state increases going along a group. Many attempts were made to classify the known elementsfromtime to time. These are: The physical and chemical properties of elements are periodic functions of their atomic weight. The physical and chemical properties of elements are periodic functions of their atomic number.

Group A: Group B: Total 16 Groups Period 1 to 7 classified as short, shortest, long, longest and incomplete period. The last electron enters which subshell gives idea of its block. Also for s and p block elements. Period no. Group no. Atomic Volume: Volume occupied by one gm atom of an element.

Atomic Radius: Problem in calculating actual size of atom and hence distance between nuclei is calculated giving rise to three type of radii for atoms. A cation is smaller than parent atom. An anion is larger than parent atom. Calculation of Zeff. J gn2 —— where E is I. Each ns, nP electron contribute to a screening factor of 0. Each n - 1 th shell electron contribute to a screening factor of 0. Each n - 2 nd and deeper shell electron contribute to a screening factor of 1.

Each screening causing electron d and f only of same shell has factor of 0. Each electron other than Rule-1 have screening factor of 1. General Trend: Along a period, size decrease ['n' constant, Z eff T ] Along a group, size increase ['n' increasing, Zeff constant] Exceptions: However, their covalent radii are smaller e.

Amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bounded electronfroman isolated gaseous atom. Ionisation is endothermic endoergic i. Varies inversely 2 Screening effect: Halffillnessand fullfillnessof inner orbitals. Along period I. Amount of energy released when an electron is added to an isolated gaseous atom. Exothermic exoergic. EAj is always released.

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EA a r—: CI has the highest E. When expressed in terms of enthalpy change AH then it is termed as E. Along a period, electron affinity increases [with exception] as ZeffT.

Along a group, electron affinity decreases after 3rd period. Between 2nd and 3rd period in p block electron affinity of 2nd period is lowering to high electron density. Pauling Scale: MuIIiken's Scale: Mulliken's values of EN are about 2.

More positive charge more electronegativity and more -ve change less electronegativity. General Trends: Along a period, electronegativity increases Along a group, electronegativity decreases Exceptions: None noteworthy.

Periodicity of hydra acids: Periodicity of oxy acids: Periodicity of nature of oxide: Solubility of salt in water: Physical properties are mostly dependent on. Atomic weight and so not regular trend. Mark out exception in the graph and think out of the reasons? Second most electronegative element-Oxygen 2. Hydrogen is the lightest element and Lithium is lightest metal. Helium has the highest value of I. Fr has minimum value of electronegativity and ionisation potential.

In periodic table metalloids are only in p-block. According to CAS system chemical abstract system total no. Liquid metal is - Hg.

Diamond is hardest natural substance. Francium has the highest atomic volume. Halogens have highest electron affinity and in that to CI has the highest amongst them. Br liquid non-metal. Osmium heaviest element known. Flourine is the most electronegative element. Noble Gases: Element of group 18 are called noble gases. These are also called as inert gases because their outermost ns and np orbitals are compl etelyfilled except He and 1 s2 and these gaseous are non- reactive in nature under ordinary conditions.

Representative elements: All the s and p block elements are known as representative elements except zero group. Transition elements: All the d-block elements except IIB group are called transition element. It comprises into 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th period. They lie between s and p block elements. Inner transition elements: All the f-block elements or 4f and 5f block elements are called inner transition element. Total number of these elements is They lie in IIIB and placed at the bottom of periodic table.

Typical elements: Elements second and third period are known as typical elements. Diagonal relationship: Properties of elements of second period resemble with the element of third period. These resembled properties between two periods or this type of relation between two periods are called diagonal relationship. The solubilities are comparable to those of corresponding magnesium compound. The oxides as well as their hydroxides amphoteric and dissolve in sodium hydroxide solution.

B oth the chlorides are soluble in organic solvent and are strong Lewis acid. Aluminium halides are only partially hydrolysed by water. Boro silicates are known in which form can replace silicon in three dimensional lattice. However boron can also form planer B0 3 unit. Bridge Elements: Typical elements of III period. The names are derived by using roots for the three digits in the atomic number of the element and adding the ending -ium.

The roots for the number are. General Info about periodic table Q.

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A Is2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 3d5, 4s1 B Is2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 3d10, 4s1 C 1 s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3 s2, 3p6, 4s1 D all ofthe above Q. C First ionization energy of elements is not change continuously with increasing of atomic no. D d-subshell isfilledbyfinalelectron with increasing atomic no. NH3 IV. She makes the following observations: Element X has a metallic lusture and conducts electricity. It reacts slowly with aq HCl to produce H9. Element Yis a light-yellow solid and does not conduct electricity Element Z has a metallic lusture and conducts electricity.

When exposed to air, it forms a white powder aqueous solution ofwhich is basic. What can you conclude about the elementsfromthese observations? Properties and Periodic trends Q.

What do you predict about the relative covalent radii ofK and F? If second and third IE values are in the ratio 2: Calculate IE2 and IE3. The ionisation potential of K is 4. What is the electron affinity of F? The electron affinities of these atoms are Prove that which of the atoms has higher electronegativity.

If this value applies to both of the compounds shown in figure. What is CI - CI distance in a and b.

IE per atom EA per atom F What is the value of x. Take I. Miscellaneous Properties Q. The resulting figure is a measure of the strength of the oxide. What is the link between the figures and the structures of the oxides? Born Haber Cycle Q. Show that this reaction can be analysed in terms of a series of steps in which the metal is a vaporized, the oxygen dissociated, the gaseous atoms converted to ions, and the ions converted to a solid. Discuss how the AHf of the oxide is affected by a the strength of the bonding in the metallic crystal, b the ionization energy ofthe metal atom, and c the size ofthe metallic ion.

Its electronic configuration is Is2, 2s2 2p6, 3s2 3p6 4s1. The true statement for that element is: From the data given below predict whether it would remain covalent or become ionic in aqueous solution. Atomic No. The questions below to consist of an 'assertion in column-1 and the 'reason' in column Against the specific question number, write in the appropriate space.

F atom has a less negative electron gain enthalpy than CI atom.

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Additional electronis repelled more efficiently by 3p electroninCl atom than by 2p electronin F atom. Al OH 3 is amphoteric in nature. Thefirstionization energy ofBe is greater than that of B.

Sn or Pb, Y: An outline ofthe topics to be discussed in class lectures. Aroutemap correlating different subtopics in coherent manner. Equilibrium is said to have reached in a physical or chemical system when rate of forward and reverse processes are equal.

At equilibrium macroscopic properties of the system like concentration. Pressure ect.

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State ofchemical equilibrium is characterised by equilibrium constant. Equilibrium constant have constant value at a given temperature. There are two approaches to understand nature of equilibrium. One stems from kinetics as developed by Gulberg and Wagge The other approach comesfromthermodynaics. Equilibrium criteria is explained on the basis of thermodynamic function like AH change in enthalpy , AS change in entropy and AG change in Gibb's function.

According to kinetic approaches -The state of equilibrium is characterised by equal rate of forward and backward process. Physical equilibria. Solid ice and liquid can coexist at K and 1 atm. Solid form is said to be in equilibrium with liquid form. At equilibrium, ifheat exchangedfromsurrounding is zero, amount of solid ice and liquid water will remain unchanged.

However it must be noted that, the process of conversion of ice into water and vica-versa-never ceases. At equilibrium. At equilibrium, the solution of sugar in aqueous solution is called saturated solution. The reaction quotient for the reversible reaction.

When a mixture of reactants and products of a reaction reaches equilibrium at a given temperature, its reaction quotient always has the same value.

This value is called the equilibrium constant, K, of the reaction at that temperature. When a reaction is at equilibrium at a given temperature, the concentration of reactants and products is such that the value ofreaction quotient, Q is always equal to the equilibrium constant, K, for that reaction at that temperature.

When a reaction has attained equilibrium at a given temperature, the reaction quotient for the reaction always has the same value.

A large value for K indicates that equilibrium is attained only after the reactants have been largely converted into products. Asmall value ofK-much less than 1 -indicates the equilibrium is attained when only a small proportion of the reactants have been converted into products.

Regardless of the initial mixture of reactants and products in a reversible reaction, the composition of a system will always adjust itselfto a condition of equilibrium for which the value ofthe reaction quotient is equal to the equilibrium constant for the system, provided that the temperature does not change.

An equilibrium can be established either startingfromreactants or startingfromproducts. In fact, one technique that is used to determine whether a reaction it truly at equilibrium is to approach equilibrium starting with reactants in one experiment and starting with products in another. If the same value ofthe reaction quotient is observed when the concentrations stop changing in both experiments, then we may be certain that the system has reached equilibrium.

We should calculate the value of Q or Kfromthe activities ofthe reactants and productsratherthan from their concentrations. However, the activity of a dilute solute is usefully approximated by its molar concentration,- so we will use concentrations as approximated by its pressure in atmospheres , so we use pressures for gases. However, we also can use molar concentrations of gases in our equilibrium calculations, because the molar concentration of a gas is directly proportional to its pressure.

The activity ofa pure solid or pure liquid is 1, and the activity of a solvent in a dilute solution is close to 1.

Thus these species solids, liquids, and solvents are omittedfromreactions quotients and equilibrium calculations. Using concentrations and pressure instead of activities means that we calculate approximate values for reaction quotients and equilibrium constants. However, these approximations hold well for dilute solutions and for gases with pressures less than about 2 atmospheres.

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Ammonia is formed. At initially conc. On the others hand conc. This graph shows how equilibrium [H2] state can be achieved from both -[N2] direction. The subscrit 'C' denoting active masses of solute expressed in terms of molar concentration. Equilibrium constant for gaseous homogeneous equilibrium can be expressed in two ways Vi2; Kp and K c This means value ofequilibrium constant depends upon choice ofstandard state in which concentration of reactant's and product are expressed.

Active masses ofpure solid and liquid are taken as T. It is because as pure solids and liquid took part in reaction, their concentration or density remain constant.

In thermodynamic sense. We can say this is because Gibb's functions for pure solid and liquid is defined at stipulated pressure of 1. Its value changes for the new equation obtained by multiplying or dividing the original equation by anumber.

Thus, units of equilibrium constant will turn out to be units based on molarity or pressure, unless the sum ofthe exponents in the numerator is equal to the sum ofthe exponents in the denominator. Thus for the reaction: The standard state for pure gas is 1 bar and now the partial pressure are measured with respect to this standard.

Similarly for a solute the standard state; c0, is 1 molar solution and all concentrations are measured with respect to it. The numerical value of equilibrium constant depends on the standard state chosen.

Achemical system at equilibrium can be shifted out of equilibrium by adding or removing one more ofreactants or products. Shifting out of equilibrium doesn't mean that value of equilibrium constant change. Any alteration of concentration of reactant or product will disturb the equilibrium and concentration of reactant and product one readjust to one again attain equilibrium concentration.

In other word, as we add or remove reactant or product the ratio of equilibrium concentration become 'Q' reaction quotient and depending upon. However, changes in pressure have a measurable effect only in system where gases are involved - and then only when the chemical reaction produces a change in the total number of gas molecules in the system.

As we increase the pressure of a gaseous system at equilibrium, either by decreasing the volume ofthe system or by adding more of the equilibrium mixture, we introduce a stress by increasing the number of molecules per unit of volume.

In accordance with Le Chatelier's principle, a chemical reaction that reduces the total number ofmolecules per unit ofvolume will be favored because this relieves the stress.

The reverse reaction would be favoured by a decrease in pressure. This reduces the total pressure exerted by the system and reduces, but does not completely relieve, the stress of the increased pressure. On the other hand, a decrease in the pressure on the system favors decomposition of N0 2 into NO and 0 2 which tends to restore the pressure. Changing the temperature of a system at equilibrium has a different effect: A change in temperature changes the value of the equilibrium constant.

However, we can predict the effect of the temperature change by treating it as a stress on the system and applying Le Chatelier's principle. When hydrogen reacts with gaseous iodine, energy is released as heat is evolved. Thus, increasing the temperature has the effect of increasing the amount of one of the products of this reaction.

The reaction shifts to the left to relieve the stress, and there is an increase in the concentration of H2 and I2 and a reduction in the concentration of HI. When we change the temperature of a system at equilibrium, the equilibrium constant for the reaction changes. Lowering the temperature in the HI system increases the equilibrium constantfrom At equilibrium at the lower temperature, the concentration of HI has increased and the concentrations of H2 and I2 have decreased.

Raising the temperature decreases the value of the equilibrium constantfrom A catalyst has no effect on the value of an equilibrium constant or on equilibrium concentrations. The catalyst merely increase the rates of both the forward and the reverse reactions to the same extent so that equilibrium is reached more rapidly. Although increasing the pressure of a mixture of N2, H2 and NH3 increase the yield ammonia, at low temperatures the rate of formation of ammonia is slow.

At room temperature, for example, the reaction is so slow that if we prepared a mixture of N2 and H2, no detectable amount of ammonia would form during our lifetime. Attempts to increase the rate of the reaction by increasing the temperature are counterproductive. The formation of ammoniafromhydrogen and nitrogen is an exothermic process: If we lower the temperature to shift the equilibrium to the right to favor the formation of more ammonia, equilibrium is reached more slowly because of the large decrease of reaction rate with decreasing temperature.

Part ofthe rate of formation lost by operating at lower temperatures can be recovered by using a catalyst to increase the reaction rate.

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Iron powder is one catalyst used. However, as we have seen, a catalyst serves equally well to increase the rate of a reverse reaction in this case, the decomposition of ammonia into its constituent elements.

Thus the net effect ofthe iron catalyst on the reaction is to cause equilibrium to be reached more rapidly. Before we consider the applications of equilibrium constants, let us consider its important features: Equilibrium constant has one unique value for a particular reaction represented by a balanced equation at a given temperature.

Now we will consider some applications of equilibrium constant and use it to answer question like: Predicting the extent of a reaction The magnitude of equilibrium constant is very useful especially in reactions of industrial importance. An equilibrium constant tells us whether we can expect a reaction mixture to contain a high or low concentration of produces at equilibrium.

It i s important to note that an equilibrium constant tells us nothing about the rate at which equilibrium is reached. In the expression ofK c or Kp, product of the concentrations of. High value of equilibrium constant indicates that product s concentration is high and its low value indicates that concentration ofthe produces in equilibrium mixture is low.

The large value of equilibrium constant indicates that concentration ofthe product, HBr is very high and reaction goes nearly to completion. Small values of equilibrium constant smaller than 10"3 , favour the reactants strongly. Predicting the direction of the reaction.

The equilibrium constant is also used tofindin which direction an rabidity reaction mixture of reactants and products will proceed. For this purpose, we calculate the reaction quotient, Q. The reaction quotient is defined in the same way as the equilibrium constant with molar concentrations to give Qc, or with partial pressure to give Qp at any stage of reaction.

For a general reaction: The reaction, therefore, will move to right i. Physical Equilibrium Chemical Equilibrium 1. Solid - Liquid 1 Reaction quotient: Liquid - gas 2 Significance of equilibrium constant 3.

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