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principles of anatomy&physiology Gerard J. Tortora / Bryan Derrickson 14th Edition Experience + Innovation start here go anywhere Principles of ANATOMY. Find all the study resources for Principles of Anatomy and Physiology by Gerard J . Tortora. Find all the study resources for Principles of Anatomy and Physiology by Gerard J . Tortora; Bryan H. Derrickson.
Nearly every chapter of the text has a new or revised illustration or photograph. An understanding of anatomy is important for the ing up of complex chemical substances from smaller. Tovin Nguyen. Within a few seconds, the cell membrane of the oocyte depolarizes, which acts as a fast block to polyspermy— the inability of a depolarized oocyte to fuse with another sperm. Bones and joints structures. Treatment options include surgery or the use of a cancer drug called methotrexate, which causes embryonic cells to stop dividing and eventually disappear.
The design has been refreshed to ensure that the content is clearly presented and easy to access. Clinical Connections that help students understand the relevance of anatomical structures and functions have been updated throughout and in some cases are now placed alongside related illustrations to strengthen these connections for students. The all-important illustrations that support this most visual of sciences have been scrutinized and revised as needed throughout.
Nearly every chapter of the text has a new or revised illustration or photograph. Enhancing our emphasis on the importance of homeostasis and the mechanisms that support it, we have redesigned the illustrations describing feedback diagrams throughout the text. Introduced in the first chapter, the distinctive design helps students recognize the key components of a feedback cycle, whether studying the control manBody.
To pressure via baroreceptor reflexes. Figure 1. The broken return arrow with a negative sign surrounded by a circle symbolizes negative feedback. Return to homeostasis when increased cardiac output and increased vascular resistance bring blood pressure back to normal. What would happen to heart rate if some stimulus caused blood pressure to decrease? Would this occur by way of positive or negative feedback? Does this negative feedback cycle represent the changes that occur when you lie down or when you stand up?
In addition, following the chapter or chapters covering each body system, a page is devoted to fostering understanding of how each system contributes to overall homeostasis through its interaction with other body systems. These Focus on Homeostasis pages have been redesigned for a more effective presentation of this summary material. Glucocorticoids such as cortisol depress inflammation and immune responses Thymic hormones promote maturation of T cells a type of white blood cell.
Androgens stimulate growth of axillary and pubic hair and activation of sebaceous glands Excess melanocyte-stimulating hormone MSH causes darkening of skin. Epinephrine and norepinephrine depress activity of the digestive system Gastrin, cholecystokinin, secretin, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide GIP help regulate digestion Calcitriol promotes absorption of dietary calcium Leptin suppresses appetite.
We are most excited about the enhanced digital experience now available with the 14th edition of this text. WileyPLUS now includes a powerful new adaptive learning component called ORION that allows students to take charge of their study time in ways they have not previously experienced and prepares them for more meaningful classroom and laboratory interactions.
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Disruptions to homeostasis often set in motion corrective cycles, called feedback systems, that help restore the conditions needed for health and life.
Our fascinating journey through the human body begins with an overview of the meanings of anatomy and physiology, followed by a discussion of the organization of the human body and the properties that it shares with all living things.
Next, you will discover how the body regulates its own internal environment; this unceasing process, called homeostasis, is a major theme in every chapter of this book. Finally, we introduce the basic vocabulary that will help you speak about. Today, a variety of imaging techniques see Table 1. Table 1. Because structure and function are so closely related, you will learn about the human body by studying its anatomy and physiology together.
The structure of a part of the body often reflects its. For example, the bones of the skull join tightly to form a rigid case that protects the brain. The bones of the fingers are more loosely joined to allow a variety of movements. The walls of the air sacs in the lungs are very thin, permitting rapid movement of inhaled oxygen into the blood. What body function might a respiratory therapist strive to improve? What structures are involved?
Give your own example of how the structure of a part of the body is related to its function. Specific regions of the body such as the head or chest. Surface markings of the body to understand internal anatomy through visualization and palpation gentle touch. Chemical level. This very basic level can be compared to the letters of the alphabet and includes atoms, the smallest units.
Certain atoms, such as carbon C , hydrogen H , oxygen O , nitrogen N , phosphorus P , calcium Ca , and sulfur S , are essential for maintaining life. Two familiar molecules found in the body are deoxyribonucleic acid DNA , the genetic material passed from one generation to the next, and glucose, commonly known as blood sugar.
Chapters 2 and 25 focus on the chemical level of organization. The levels of structural organization are chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, and organismal. Which level of structural organization is composed of two or more different types of tissues that work together to perform a specific function?
Your exploration of the human body will extend from atoms and molecules to the whole person. From the smallest to the largest, six levels of organization will help you to understand anatomy and physiology: Cellular level. Molecules combine to form cells, the basic structural and functional units of an organism that are composed of chemicals.
Just as words are the smallest elements of language that make sense, cells are the smallest living units in the human body. Among the many kinds of cells in your body are muscle cells, nerve cells, and epithelial cells. The cellular level of organization is the focus of Chapter 3. Tissue level. Tissues are groups of cells and the materials surrounding them that work together to perform a particular function, similar to the way words are put together to form sentences.
There are just four basic types of tissues in your body: Epithelial tissue covers body surfaces, lines hollow organs and cavities, and forms glands. Connective tissue connects, supports, and protects body organs while distributing blood vessels to other tissues. Muscular tissue contracts to make body parts move and generates heat.
Nervous tissue carries information from one part of the body to another through nerve impulses. Chapter 4 describes the tissue level of organization in greater detail. Shown in Figure 1. Organ level. At the organ level different types of tissues are joined together.
Similar to the relationship between sentences and paragraphs, organs are structures that are composed of two or more different types of tissues; they have specific functions and usually have recognizable shapes.
Examples of organs are the stomach, skin, bones, heart, liver, lungs, and.
Underneath are three layers of a type of muscular tissue called smooth muscle tissue, which contracts to churn and mix food and then push it into the next digestive organ, the small intestine. The innermost lining is an epithelial tissue layer that produces fluid and chemicals responsible for digestion in the stomach.
System level. A system or chapter in our language analogy consists of related organs paragraphs with a common function. An example of the system level, also called the organsystem level, is the digestive system, which breaks down and absorbs food. Its organs include the mouth, salivary glands, pharynx throat , esophagus food tube , stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. Sometimes an organ is part of more than one system. The pancreas, for example, is part of both the digestive system and the hormone-producing endocrine system.
Organismal level. An organism OR-ga-nizm , any living individual, can be compared to a book in our analogy. All the parts of the human body functioning together constitute the total organism. In the chapters that follow, you will study the anatomy and physiology of the body systems. You will also discover that all body systems influence one another. As you study each of the body systems in more detail, you will discover how.
Skin and associated structures, such as hair, fingernails and toenails, sweat glands, and oil glands. Protects body; helps regulate body temperature; eliminates some wastes; helps make vitamin D; detects sensations such as touch, pain, warmth, and cold; stores fat and provides insulation. Bones and joints of the body and their associated cartilages. Supports and protects body; provides surface area for muscle attachments; aids body movements; houses cells that produce blood cells; stores minerals and lipids fats.
Health-care professionals and students of anatomy and physiology commonly use several noninvasive diagnostic techniques to assess certain aspects of body structure and function. A noninvasive diagnostic technique is one that does not involve insertion of an instrument or device through the skin or a body opening. In inspection, the examiner observes the body for any changes that deviate from normal. For example, a physician may examine the mouth cavity for evidence of disease.
Following inspection, one or more additional techniques may be employed. An example is palpating the abdomen to detect enlarged or tender internal organs or abnormal masses. An example is auscultation of the lungs during breathing to check for crackling sounds associated with abnormal fluid accumulation. Hollow cavities or spaces produce a different sound than solid organs. For example, percussion may reveal the abnormal presence of fluid in the lungs or air in the intestines.
It may also provide information about the size, consistency, and position of an underlying structure. An understanding of anatomy is important for the effective application of most of these diagnostic techniques. Basic Life Processes Certain processes distinguish organisms, or living things, from nonliving things.
Following are the six most important life processes of the human body: For example, digestive processes catabolize split. Specifically, skeletal muscle tissue—muscle usually attached to bones other muscle tissues include smooth and cardiac. Define the following terms: At what levels of organization would an exercise physiologist study the human body? Refer to Table 1. Referring to Table 1. Development and Inheritance Development, inheritance, and homeostasis Both the genetic material inherited from parents heredity and normal development in the uterus environment play important roles in determining the homeostasis of a developing embryo and fetus and the subsequent birth of a healthy child.
Developmental biology is the study of the sequence of events from the fertilization of a secondary oocyte by a sperm cell to the formation of an adult organism. Pregnancy is a sequence of events that begins with fertilization; proceeds to implantation, embryonic development, and fetal development; and ideally ends with birth about 38 weeks later, or 40 weeks after the last menstrual period.
The ffirst trimester is the most critical stage of development, during which the rudiments of all the major organ systems appear, and also during which the developing organism is the most vulnerable to the dur effects of drugs, radiation, and microbes. The second trimester is characterized by the nearly complete development of organ systems. By the end of this stage, the fetus assumes distinctively human features.
The third trimester represents a period of rapid fetal growth. During the early stages of this period, most of the organ systems are becoming fully functional. Did you ever wonder why the heart, blood vessels, and blood begin to form so early in the developmental process. First Week of Development The embryonic period extends from fertilization through the eighth week.
The first week of development is characterized by several significant events including fertilization, cleavage of the zygote, blastocyst formation, and implantation.
Fertilization normally occurs in the uterine fallopian tube within 12 to 24 hours after ovulation. Sperm can remain viable for about 48 hours after deposition in the vagina, although a secondary oocyte is viable for only about 24 hours after ovulation.
Thus, pregnancy is most likely to occur if intercourse takes place during a 3-day window—from 2 days before ovulation to 1 day after ovulation. Sperm swim from the vagina into the cervical canal by the whiplike movements of their tails flagella. The passage of sperm through the rest of the uterus and then into the uterine tube results mainly from contractions of the walls of these organs.
Prostaglandins in semen are believed to stimulate uterine motility at the time of intercourse and to aid in the movement of sperm through the uterus and into the uterine tube.
Sperm that reach the vicinity of the oocyte within minutes after ejaculation are not capable of fertilizing it until about seven hours later. During capacitation, sperm are acted on by secretions in the female reproductive tract that result in the removal of cholesterol, glycoproteins, and proteins from the plasma membrane around the head of the sperm cell.
Only capacitated sperm are capable of being attracted by and responding to chemical factors produced by the surrounding cells of the ovulated oocyte. For fertilization to occur, a sperm cell first must penetrate two layers: Acrosomal enzymes and strong tail movements by the sperm help it penetrate the cells of the corona radiata and come in contact with the zona pellucida.
One of the glycoproteins in the zona pel-. Its binding to specific membrane proteins in the sperm head triggers the acrosomal reaction, the release of the contents of the acrosome.
The acrosomal enzymes digest a path through the zona pellucida as the lashing sperm tail pushes the sperm cell onward. Within a few seconds, the cell membrane of the oocyte depolarizes, which acts as a fast block to polyspermy— the inability of a depolarized oocyte to fuse with another sperm.
Depolarization also triggers the intracellular release of calcium ions, which stimulate exocytosis of secretory vesicles from the oocyte. The broken return arrow with a negative sign surrounded by a circle symbolizes negative feedback. Real Anatomy. In addition. Human growth hormone hGH and Erythropoietin regulates amount of insulinlike growth factors IGFs stimulate oxygen carried in blood by adjusting bone growth number of red blood cells Estrogens cause closure of the epiphyseal plates at the end of puberty and help maintain bone mass in adults Parathyroid hormone PTH and calcitonin DIGESTIVE regulate levels of calcium and other minerals in bone matrix and blood SYSTEM Thyroid hormones are needed for normal Epinephrine and norepinephrine depress development and growth of the skeleton activity of the digestive system Gastrin.
This choice offers you a full e-text to download and keep. WileyPLUS itself has been refreshed with a new design that allows easier discoverability and access to the rich resources including new 3-D animations. It provides you with everything you need for your course. Anatomy Drill and Practice. WileyPLUS now includes a powerful new adaptive learning component called ORION that allows students to take charge of their study time in ways they have not previously experienced and prepares them for more meaningful classroom and laboratory interactions.
Muscles in Motion. Hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting needed for generation and conduction of hormones. An Introduction to the Human Body The human body and homeostasis Humans have many ways to maintain homeostasis.
Disruptions to homeostasis often set in motion corrective cycles. Our fascinating journey through the human body begins with an overview of the meanings of anatomy and physiology. Body Systems Table 1. Renal physiology Functions of the kidneys. Cardiovascular physiology Functions of the heart and blood Cell biology Cellular structure and functions. Histology Microscopic structure of tissues.
For example. It was first studied by dissection dis-SEK-shun. Whereas anatomy deals with structures of Organization and the body. The structure of a part of the body often reflects its organs present in each. The bones of the fingers are Defined more loosely joined to allow a variety of movements. What body function might a respiratory therapist strive Two branches of science—anatomy and physiology—provide the to improve?
What structures are involved?
This very basic level can be compared to the cal level of organization. Two familiar molecules found in the body understand anatomy and physiology: Chapters 2 and 25 focus on the chemi- 1 Chemical level. Certain atoms. From the phorus P. The levels of structural organization are chemical. Your exploration of the human body will extend from atoms and molecules to the whole person.
Supports and Functions: Protects body. Connective tis. Examples of cover that all body systems influence one another. An example of the system level. Its organs include the mouth. Just as words are the smallest elements tissue and connective tissue that reduces friction when the of language that make sense.
Bone eliminates some wastes. At the organ level different types of tissues are joined together. Fingernails T Toenails. Table 1. Shown in Figure 1.
The uting blood vessels to other tissues. All the zation in greater detail. As you study organs are the stomach. The cellular level of organization most lining is an epithelial tissue layer that produces fluid and is the focus of Chapter 3.
Similar to the relationship between sentences In the chapters that follow. Epithelial tissue covers body surfaces.
Nervous tissue and the hormone-producing endocrine system. Among the many kinds of cells in three layers of a type of muscular tissue called smooth muscle your body are muscle cells. Underneath are units in the human body. Chapter 4 describes the tissue level of organi. There are just four basic types of tissues in your system level. An organism OR-ga-nizm. The inner- of muscle cells in the body.
Molecules combine to form cells. Skin and associated Hair Components: Bones and joints structures. You will also dis- tions and usually have recognizable shapes. A system or chapter in our language analogy surrounding them that work together to perform a particular consists of related organs paragraphs with a common func- function. Sometimes an organ is part of more than one system. Tissues are groups of cells and the materials 5 System level. Muscular tissue contracts pancreas. Following inspection.
The other phase of metabolism is vide information about the size. Define the following terms: Brain muscle tissue—muscle usually nerves. T Tendon internal and external environments. It may also pro. An example is auscultation of the lungs during breathing to cesses of the human body: One phase of metabolism is resulting sound. An understanding of anatomy is important for the ing up of complex chemical substances from smaller. Generates action potentials Functions: Participates in body Skeletal nerve impulses to regulate body muscle movements.
Certain processes distinguish organisms. In inspec. A noninvasive diagnostic technique is one that does not involve insertion of an instrument or device through the skin or a body opening.
In percussion pur-KUSH-un. Referring to Table 1. Following are the six most important life pro- sounds. An exam- ple is palpating the abdomen to detect enlarged or tender internal organs or abnormal masses. The third trimester represents a period of rapid fetal growth. Did you ever wonder why the heart.
The ffirst trimester is the most critical stage of development. Developmental biology is the study of the sequence of events from the fertilization of a secondary oocyte by a sperm cell to the formation of an adult organism. During the early stages of this period. Pregnancy is a sequence of events that begins with fertilization. The second trimester is characterized by the nearly complete development of organ systems.
Development and Inheritance Development. Obstetrics ob-STET-riks. By the end of this stage. Sperm can remain viable for about 48 hours after deposition in the vagina. During capacitation. One of the glycoproteins in the zona pel. Fertilization normally occurs in the and a secondary oocyte merge to form a single diploid uterine fallopian tube within 12 to 24 hours after ovulation.
What is capacitation? Prostaglan- dins in semen are believed to stimulate uterine motility at the time Zona pellucida of intercourse and to aid in the movement of sperm through the uterus and into the uterine tube.
During this time in the female oocyte reproductive tract. Depolarization also triggers the intracellular release of calcium ions. For fertilization to occur. Its binding to specific Although many sperm bind to ZP3 molecules and undergo acrosomal reactions. Sperm that reach the vicinity of the Plasma membrane oocyte within minutes after ejaculation are not capable of fertiliz. Sperm swim from the vagina into the cervical canal by the whip. The embryonic period extends from fertilization through the The fusion of a sperm cell with a secondary oocyte sets in motion eighth week.
Only capacitated sperm cell oocyte sperm are capable of being attracted by and responding to chemical factors produced by the surrounding cells of the ovulated oocyte. The passage of sperm CELL: Within a few seconds. Of Figure The trophoblast egg and a smaller second polar body that fragments and disinte.
Around the single diploid nucleus. This fluid. Because zygote. They are the same age and in the uterus at the same time. What is the histological difference between a morula the blastocyst is still about the same size as the original zygote. By the second day after fertilization. The Once a sperm cell enters a secondary oocyte. By the end of the third day. Dizygotic fraternal twins are produced from the independent release of two secondary oocytes and the subsequent fertilization of Figure Dizygotic twins may or may not be the same sex.
Monozygotic twins arise from separation of the Blastomeres developing cells into two embryos. Cleavage of the Zygote After fertilization. It develops into the male pronucleus. Though it now has hundreds of cells.
The nucleus in the head of the sperm cial layer of cells that forms the spherelike wall of the blastocyst. It divides into a larger ovum mature ternally and eventually develops into the embryo. The fertilized ovum squeezing through the hole. Once the blastocyst cavity is formed. Blastocyst cavity sprout. Embryoblast tomeres. Recent experiments suggest that the ovaries of adult mice con.
If these same types of stem cells are found in the ovaries of adult women.