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Architectural Theories of Design - George Salvan - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. book. xD. DOWNLOAD PDF. Report this file. Description. Download George Salvan Architectural Theories of Design Free in pdf format. S ARCHITECTURAL THEORY OFDESIGN THENEW LADDER TYPECURRICULUM GEORGE SALINDA SALVAN fuap ASSISTANT.
Like the triangle, the square is stable when resting on one of its sides, and dynamic when standing on one of its corners. This corner condition deteriorates the form's volume, allows the in- terior space to leak outward and clearly reveals the surfaces as planes In space. The East as the origin of light is also the source of life. To do things in his own particular way. Widths of streets:
STEP In the process of doing the space programming, it is better to consider the conceptualization of plumbing, electrical, artificial ventilation, and other significant building utility system in preparation for the juxtaposition and horizontal arrangement of spaces.
STEP Bubble diagramming interrelationship analysis and circulatory diagram shall follow the utility system conceptualization. This process will determine the possible arrangement of spaces in relation to site data and utility system. STEP Floor plan scheming or Plotting the spaces and sizing of circulatory elements shall follow the bubble diagramming, interrelationship analysis and circulatory analysis. In this step, the most important consideration is the establishment of vertical structural system as well as the.
You've reached the end of this preview. Openings in one or both of the planes will also in- troduce secondary axes to the field and modulate the directional quality of the space. U-shaped configuration defines a field of space that has an in- ward focus as well as an outward orientation. Secondary zones are created when openings are introduced. The corners can be articulated as independent elements. This U -configuration can be used iri building forms and organizations. Openings provide continuity with adjacent space, they can begin to weaken the enclosure of the space, depending on t heir size, number and location.
To achieve visual dominance within the space, or become its primary face, one of the en- cl osing planes can be differentiated f rom the others by its size, form, surface, articulation, or the nature of the openings within it.
Architectural surface are Areas of materials which enclose a building and are of secondary importance to the masses which they create. But in order that a building may be wholly sa- tisfactory in its appeal, the necessary attention must be given to the Treatment and articula- tion of the exterior.
The surfaces of a structure must have texture, tone, and color. Texture is usually associated with materials. Lime- stone may be polished and reflect light in sparkling manner, folished black graHite a5.
Stucco, with its various texture Of treatments to catch the sunlight, has played an important part in the design of homes which are mediterranean in character.
Thus, texture depends largely upon the choice and use of materials. The selection of a definite material fixes, to some extent, the character of the f inal effect , but the treatment which is given to that material often produces startling results.
There should be a consistency in the selection of the texture of materials-a harmonious re- lationship between the various surfaces. Contrast and the variety must be present but the character and the quality of different textures should agree.
Simplicit-y of arcf1i1ecture tone. Restricted ro sfladowg of c: The character of each particular type of room or building calls for a corresponding type of texture. Texture can be used to destroy a form perception. The figure below showing the different texture on different sides of the cube cause the experience of form to be disturbed. We do not perceive a unit from here, but a fragment of a larger now destroyed form.
The percep- tion of a room can also be destroyed in the same way. Two ways in which the attributes of a sensation of grain may vary hard-soft, smooth- rough. Material examples of four extreme is shown in the figure below: The texture of a plane's surface, together with its color, will affect its visual weight. D simple surface of opening articulated surface and opening B. TONE Is a variety in the use of the gradations from black to white. Tone comes from the change of impressions carried to the eye as a result of the juxtaposition of dark and light areas.
Tone, or the creation of light and shade, may be secured by the use of doors and windows, or by shadows cast by projecting parts of the building, or by mouldings. Tone gives interest to an exterior and if the results are to be entil"ely satisfactory, requires the same careful study that was devoted to the general massing.
Poor arrangement of windows, plasters, and cornices can mar a powerful composition. It may be in- herent as in marble which is colored by nature, black or gray stones, white or cream stone, red clay bricks. It may use colored tiles or metals. It may also apply colored wallpapers. Or it may apply or rather be applied, as in the case of surfaces which are painted or decor- ated by man.
The color scheme. Simple conventionalized ar- rangements in subdued tones are preferable to garish and bizarre effects. The relationship between color and the character of a building results from the combining of warm and cool colors in the proper amounts. The visual weight of a plane can be increased or decreased by manipulating the tonal blue of its surface color. It ref lects the spirit of the people who create it Color is definitely related to the lives of the individuals and the material things with which they are associated.
Spanish art which is gay and sparkling for example are pro- duced by a dashing, vibrant people. RED - tends to produce rage or passion; it is exciting and stimulates the brain. It has an aggressive quality and is frequently associ ated with violence and excitement.
It is the most luminous color. Yellow also demands attention, and so it is used in dangerous locations, such as the edge of a subway plat- form to mark the hazard, while red used to be the color for firetrucks, yellow is now preferred. The occupant of an orange office, for instance will become ill at ease after a short time and will leave it at every opportunity.
BROWN - is restful and warming but should be combined with orange, yellow or gold because it could be depressing if used alone. GRAY - suggests cold and is also depressing unless combined with at least one livelier color. It suggests a stately or melancholy atmos- phere. Cheerfulness or cowardice, cheapness. It reduces excitability and therefore helps one to concentrate. This psychological use of color has been related to architecture for centuries. Theatres and circuses are gay and brilliant with banners, decorations and pageants.
Bright colors stimulate the imagination and excite the senses to produce a feeling of joy and pleasure. While the funeral chapel is sombre in its color appeal. Garish hues would be an offense to those who come in a mood of respectful worship, whereas, subdued colors lend themselves to the spirit of the occasion.
The color scheme of a restaurant for dining and dancing should be quite different from that of a library for reading and meditation. Color can be used functionally. We can make it maximize or minimize the size of objects. Color can be used to help express architectural forms - and -if carelessly used, it can destroy architectural form. Color on walls, floor, and ceiling is modified by other colors pre- sent in the same area. For instance, if three walls of a room are a warm gray and the fourth wall is a shade of yellow, the yellow will be reflected in the gray walls and will modify their appearance.
Again, the pate green may look good in a room until a bright shade of green is used next to it. Suddenly the gray green looks gray and quite inadequate. An enclosed room which is painted with warm colors makes those who work in it feel warm. Similarly, if a large, open, windowed space with a great deal of glass painted with coot col- ors, people who work in it.
One is ' prepared' "for a room' s color if the entrance is painted a complimenta. Deep colors always seem to make the walls of a room seem heavy, while pale pastel colors seem to make the walls light.
If a room is long and narrow, its appearance can be modified by painting the end walls with warm colors-red, yellow, orange. Similarly in a small room, the walls can be made to recede by painting them with cool colors such as green and blue. If members of a fami- ly have tastes which differ widely, they may be satisfied by sel ecting the colors of their own rooms. The plan of living of a household group should be studied before any color selections are made.
Someone engaged in a business which uses a great deal of energy shl"luld have a retreat at home-a room with a quietly harmonious color scheme.
A person whose day is spent in a monotonous business, on the other hand, will probably enjoy color contrasts and bright colors. But all the colors in such an installation must relate to each other and to a central scheme. There are a number of reasons for such color the main one being that there is usually a certain amount of circulation of personnel ; and everyone may have different col - or opinions.
In most cases the walls of the lobby of a commercial building should be stimulating and exciting, and the corridors should be neutral, so that when the doors of the offices are open, harmony will be apparent.
Individual offices may vary in color, texture and materials, but they must have a basic similarity. The main objectives in determining the color scheme of a commercial installation are to provide colors which are rich, definite, and harmonious which will be easyto live with, and which will contribute to the efficiency and well-being of all who tenant the building.
Colors should be subtle; for example, no brash greens or blues should be used unless compensating colors are used with them. Where offices are located upon an uninterest- ing interior court, the colors of such offices should be ''sunny" and brilliant. It will depend, to a large extent, upon the type of operation performed. It is equally important that the proper kind of light be used to avoid shadows and glare. For ease of seeing, it is generally wise to keep the wall color darker than the machines or work benches.
If the space is small, the walls can be warm in color yellow, orange, etc.
J , a, fV protectfo. Action" n- ll , ,, , ,.. Also an obligation to wear p8raonal rl. WiUl1 "marka such n and floor. First aid 4. The aim should be to provide an atmosphere that is friendly and inviting. Color and illumination are probably the most important of the visual elements.
While pastel colors are most often emplo' ed in patient rooms, variety can be obtained by deep- ening the tone of the bed wall, painting the window wall plus an adjacent wall a deeper tone, or perhaps using a contrasting color on one or two of the other walls. If the room is an odd shape, the judicious use of the two tones of color can help visually improve its proportions. A dado of wood or other material is an additional tool for providing color variation.
The use of pattern to provide visual relief should be taken Into consideration in the overall scheme of patient rooms as well on other areas. Reception areas, dining rooms, day rooms, libraries, and chapels can provide patients, staff and visitorS with welcome relief from the functional areas.
Colors, furnishings, and illumination can be varied to provide relaxing atmosphere. Laboratories and specific examination areas such as X-ray, operating and other treament rooms may be attractively designed with cheerful coJors.
There is no reason why an X-ray or radiology room cannot be treated in a decorative manner, despite the seriousness of the activity therO quite abstract graphic design on a wall, complementary to the color scheme, may provide just the right balance to the awesome equipment to remind both the patient and professional that they are not isolated from the real world.
The use of colorful utility cabinets and other accessories can also be considered. Vinyl wall coverings should also be considered.
As with any other group of spaces, there shouldbe a basic scheme to unify the whole, but the individual areas should each reflect their own personality. Long corridors can be used as a tool to unify; the tack ot interest can be countered with art work and with colorful accents- unusual treatment of the ends of the corridors, of doors and frames, or periodical spaces, or of handrails, for examples.
The flooring in corridors should also r. In most contemporary schools almost anything that can be colored is treated in a bright and brilliant way.
Corridor walls, for instance, are sometimes yellow; rooms facing cool north light are given warm tones, and those facing warm south light are given cool tones. The front wall of each classroom is often painted darker than the other walls of the room. Every effort should be made to select a color that will be of approximately the same value as the color of the chalkboard so as to minimize eye fatigue.
It colors are pastels. Doors and trim are usually darker than the walls in which. However, while a stimulating atmosphere is desirable in a teaching situation, care should be exercised to prevent overstimulation, which may produce restlessness, tension and fatigue.
NOTE Establishments such as department stores and retail or specialty shops require special color treatments. By careful observation, one can be able to formulate guidelines similar to those given above. Each type of building has its own needs, and these must be analyzed before any color scheme is designed for a specifi c proj ect. When the room was finished, it was impossible to distinQuish any difference in colour bet- ween the walls painted c and e, and the same was true forthe walls painted q and i.
In the corner where e and i met, however, a distinct difference in colour could be seen and this was also the case in the corner c, q. The explanations is that the two sides of a corner form part of a room. As a result of this pressure, we try to perceive a uniform colour and this is easier when the. They are then perceived as the satne local colours in different il- lumination. This perception is impossible if the difference in lightness is too great, and then lhe two wall colours are perceived at different local colours.
One special result of the influence of form on col our is the "spread1ng effect". In this figure, divide into halves by a finger or pencil placed between the black and wh1te gnlles. Where the red meets the black parts of the grill, it becomes darker tllan where it meets the white, an ef- fect directly opposed to contrast induction. This may be called the "area effect". It is well known to architects and interior decorat ors that a wall painted in accordance with a given colour sample has a much stronger colour than the sample itself.
The colour on a figure may change at times according to the distance from which it is observed. The deep blue and pale yellow bands change to black, and nearly white when looked at from a distance. Thjs is apparently caused by the diminution in size of the retinal image. Colours on a non-uniform background Such colours are subject to many unexpected changes. The blue areas in the pattern below are printed with exactly the same colour ink.
Note their different appearance, a hightened ef- fect can be seen if the design is tilted or looked at from a distance. The blue areas in the pattern are printed with exactly the same Ink.
Note that the left s1de blue seems darker than the blue at the right. Now look at it from a distance, the effect is heightened. The effect of colour on form If the form are able to change the colour, then the colour is also able to change the form.
THe figure sliows what is called al"! Fields of different colours whose breadth is geometrically equal may, at times, be perceived as having different breadths. When blue band became bigger geometric ally, when seen fron afar, RWB seems to be all the same breadth.
The iradiation effect-the white figure looks larger in size than the black one. They are geometrically equal. It deals with unity, balance, rhythm, and composition. It is organized around a central plot, as in a novel. It has design, as has a sonata. It can be rhythmic as the dance. A painting has contrast of color, and a fine piece of sculpture has beauty of form and line.
Good architecture attains pleasing composition through the relation of contrasting masses and tones. It is difficult to isolate a singl e quality and consider it alone. A synthesis of all the principles is necessary in order to insure a unified and satisfactory composition, but for the sake of study, it will be to analyze separately these qualities and their application to archi- tectural problems.
Mere recognition of these principles does not, however, insure a success- ful design. An individual may be a good critic but still be unable to write a poem, paint a landscape, or design a building. Creative ability, in addition to a knowledge of application of the elements of design, is neces- sary for the production of distinguished results. Ability to discern between what is fine and what is mediocre that quality which we call TASTE-must be developed. Good taste steers an individual through the seas of social adjustments and aesthetic decisions.
It enables him to choose correctly in accordance with cultural or artistic standards. Popular taste, however, is so often a matter concerned with group action and changes so with the times, that it is not a reliable guide. Taste must, therefore, be based upon a knowledge of the rules of proper conduct with respect to our actions and of the prin- ciples of good composition in regard to our artistic endeavors. Good taste and creative abili- ty together should produce buildings which merit the name architecture.
In each pair, one design is definitely more unified, better balanced or more interesting than the other. I A t;;:: On these pages are eight pairs of designs; they are not intended to depict or represent anything or look like any familiar object. Study each pair as long as you wish and check the one, A or B. If all selections correct - you should have faith in your taste or innate artistic sense, how- ever, there is a great difference between appreciati ng art and creating art.
In addition to appreciation, the creation of fine art requires talent, study, training and indefatigable effort. We can hear because of the contrast between silence and sound, because of the difference between the lengths of the sound We can feel because of the contrast between the quality of objects.
The nerves in our finger tips tells us that some things are cold and smooth whereas others are warm and rough. We can see a building because of the contrast in the shapes and textures of the surfaces which enclose space to make architecture.
Not only is it possible for us to see a building through the element of contrast but also the building is given beauty and interest by t he difference between the types of treatment which are introduced. It is essential that certain areas, directions, and colors vary or differ from others so that by contrast the qualities of each are emphasized. It is t hrough contrast that we secure proper scale, proportion, and unity and consequently, a satisfactory design.
Square and circular areas may create a diversified interest. If form is more properly conceived in three dimensions, the architectural result is mass If bulks are combined, it is possible that the resulting composttton may be rnterestmg and satisfying. It is possible to have a horizontal line op- posing a vertical or diagonal lines may form a composition.
It may be curved or straight, regular or irregular, broken, or continuous. In an architectural example, contrast of type of line gives an interesting contour or silhouette to a building.
If this change in size is gradual and uniform, the result is called gradation. The exterior of the building is given interest on account of the contrast between the dark roof and the light walls. This feeling is strenghtened by the introduction of the darks of the openings and by the shadows cast by the projecting wings of the build- ing.
Contrast of tone is secured in the examples below of abstract design, by the use of black and white, or gray and white, areas. An architectural composition is presented which illustrates in a combined way some of the various types ot contrast. There is, first of all, contrast of mass - not only with references to whether it is cylindrical or rectangular , but also wi th reference to the direction of the mass or volume.
The entire composition is decidedly horizontal ; but variety is secured by the ver- tical direction of the tower, of the end wings, and the chi mneys. Contrast of shape is also present in the rectangular and arched openings of the building, and contrast of tone is secured by the darks and lights of the roots, walls, and windows.
If similarity exists to a marked degree, the ef- fect is monotony. The facade of a building may consist of a si mple, unadorned wall pierced with many uninteresting windows, and the effect may be very monotonous. On the other hand, it is--possible to go to the other extreme and to have contrast which is too violent. Pi - laster, belt courses, and decoration may be used too profusely. The resul t will. It is thus, necessary that contrast be present in and just the correct amount: Here there is contrast of vertical and horizontal volumes giving a composition in abstract form which becomes capable of housing human interests through the introduction of windows, doors, and floor levels.
A pleasing composi- tion is secured chiefly by the relationship which exists between the various block-like units of the buildings and by the disposition of the windows which give interest to the surfaces of the masses.
In this figure, attention should be called to the manner in which the eye is carried along to the tower by means of a series of minor vertical units which prepare one for the climax of the dominant element near the centre.
Consideration should also be given to the horizontal treatment of the windows on the left, which emphasizes the direction of that portion of the building and opposes the vertical feeling of the forms near the main entrances. It is well to remember that contrast is opposition.
If verticals did not oppose horizon- tals, if openings did not differ from wall, and if accents did not successfully compete for the interest of the observer, contrast would not exist. There is also here a transition in the relationship between masses. This situation is shown where the adjacent volumes prepare the observer for the dominant vertical near the centre of the composition. The termination of the tower gives additional emphasis and contrast to that part of the structure.
There is also present in this connection contrast of tone, which is seen in the deco- rative treatment of the upper and lower portions of the tower.
Interest in other parts of the facade is secured by the contrast of the windows with the wall surfaces. In the wing at the right, the upper windows are pointed and are larger than the rectangular ones below, while at the left the arched openings with balconies are surrounded by large areas of wall space which again give variety and contrast.
The different elements must be wide or narrow. In addition, there should be a variation in the projections of the various parts of the plan, in order that the proper emphasis may be secured. The church must have ecclesiastical character and the parish house must harmonize with the former, but not to such an extent that it might be mistaken for a place of worship. This calls for a subtle balance of contrast and similarity- the con- trast of character.
Here the spire of the church which we associate with ecclesiasti cal buildings gives a suggestion of function, and the import ant entrance indicates the public character of the structure. The house has smaller windows than the church, their size being regu- lated by the interior which they are to light. Tt,e shutters and chimneys impart a touch of domesticity and intimacy which would not be desirabl e in the church and which is lacking therein. Contrast of direction is also present. The church is vertical, whereas the parish house is horizontal.
Contrast of size is evident - the large church over the smaller dwelling. Ac- cents are also obtained by the change in di- rection of the voussoirs of the lower arches. Interest is secured by changing the character of the treatment of the upper and lower portion of the facade. The arch entrance also offers the quality of variety when used with the rectangular door and windows, while contrast or opposition is secured by the upward thrust of the columns against the inert weight of the entablature.
In the roof, the lines of the tile oppose the horizon- tal direction of the roof itself. A satisfactory contrasting relation exists between the width of the windows and that of the piers. The piers are wider than the windows and provide for dissi- milarity of surface, or an interesting proportion of parts.
It is evident that contrast result from dissimilarity, or the association of unlike masses, areas or tones. Contrast is also opposition -opposition by which one element wages a successful battle against competing elements.
One shape or color clearly dominates the others. This con- dition may also be called emphasis, but this emphasis must be present in just the proper amount. If a doorway, a window, or a panel seems to detach itself from the wall or appears to be unrelated to the rest of the composition, it may be too emphatic in its appeal. The ele- ment of contrast is too strong. There is not a satisfactory transition between the surrounding wall surface and the dominant architectural motif.
Therefore, although contrast is essential to a unified composition, transi- tion shoul d always tend to alleviate the burden imposed by excessive and sudden changes in treatment. Mouldings and decorative details should have structural or circulatory elements, and belt courses, cornices, and quoins should help one surface to member gracefully wit h the next and assist in tying t he entire arrangement together in a pleasing and interesting manner.
It is evident by a comparison which the eye makes between the size, shape, and tone of various objects or parts of a composition. These are certain geometrical forms which have very definite proportions. These are the: Just as a circle is more evident and less intriguing than a freehand curve, so is a square less interesting t han a rectangle.
However a rectangle should very definitely take on the propor- tions of that particular shape. It should not approach a square in its dimensions, because a state of doubt will exist in the mind of the observer as to its classifi cation.
On the other hand of the roctangle becomes too long, it approaches the area of two squares, and there is an un- conscious tendency for the eye to divide it into two equal space. To get the most pleasing rectangular porportion. It is static and stable. It's centre of gravity is low, and it tapers in a regular manner from the base of the composition.
It goes so far in insuring good results that the privelege of using it has been abused, and it is regarded as the easiest way out of a difficult situation. A sense of harmony will be the results of use is made of a rythmic repetition of moti fs whi ch have a common geo met ric shape as a base.
See figure above. It will be noticed that the diagonals pass through important parts in the composition. One of the most important phases of proportion and one which should be considered in the development of a facade is the relat ion of the solids to the voids, of the wall surfaces to the openings. It is necessary that one clearly dominate the other that the element of a contrast will be present. If there is a similarity between the width of the windc;,ws and the spaces bet- ween, indecision or competition will exist.
In classical , Romanesque, and Renaissance buildings, where heavy stone constructi on pre- dominates. The windows and doors usuall y occupy a minor portion of the facade and the wall surfaces are quite dominant. When the Gothic builders learned the art and science of transmitting t he thrust or weight of the vaults to isolated buttresses. Large areas of stained glass took the place of these walls, and regularly spaced piers carried the load of the roof and vaul ts. In contemporary architecture, the cantil ever of concrete and steel f rees the designer from many restrictions of masonry and construction and there is a tendency to use openings free- ly.
This 15 a Thts IS a more. Natural Material Proportions All building materials in architecture have distinct properties of stiffness, hardness and durability. And they all have an ultimate strength beyond which they cannot ex- tend themselves without fracturing, breaking or coll apsing.
Masonry units like brick, are strong m compres- sion and depend on their mass for strength, and are volumetric in form logs are also volumetric in element and is used in log cabin construction. Wood is flexible and is used as beams and posts steel are strong both in com pression and tension. Manufactured Porportions Many architectural elements are sized and proportioned not only according to their structural properties and func- tion, but also by the process through which they are manufactured.
Be- cause these elements are mass- - produced in factories, they have standard sizes and proportions im- posed on them by the individual manu- factures. While plywood is common in 1. Iaiiy column r'J Mode of Construction or Structural Proportions The size and proportions of structural elements such as beams, columns, are directly related to the structural tasks they perform and can be, therefore; visual indicators of the size and scale of the spaces they help enClose.
Since beams transmit their loads nori- zontally across space to their vertical supports, its depth, therefore is the critical dimension.
The proportion of a column may de- pend upon the spacing or its height. The proportion of the height of a room is controlled by local building ordinances, logic and artistic sense. Auditorium proportions are influenced by visual and acoustical considerations. Proportions between heights and areas of rooms are controlled by the capacity and lighting requirements of the room. Traditions and Generally A ccepted Taste a. At the exterior, the height of an edifice should be in proportion to the character th;H the edifice demanc1s.
Buildings of worship such as: Classical buildings usually have proportions based upon traditional rules. Relative Proportion -deals with the re lationship between the parts of an object and the whole e ample ratro between the diameter of a Classical col umn and its height or the relation of the panels of the door and the whole door.
Absolute - deals with the relationship between the different parts of an object or the whole to the various parts. Proportion of a cabinet or appliance to the room. Anthropo- morphic proportioning methods seek not abstract or symbolic rat ios, but functional ones.
The dimensions and proportions of the human body affect the proportion of things we handle, the height and distance of things we must reach, the dimensions of the furniture we use to sitting, working, eating, and sleeping.
In addition to these elements that we used in a building, the dimensions of the human body also affect the volume of space we require for movement. Le Corbusier. He tkerefore t: These sysiEm of meDsurement governs leHgtl1, surfaces. Third step 1ransfer tl1e diagonal to the b: This is a formull!
OS - As the modulor uses LS3 r! After a serie5 of mathematical co11versio11s, trials at1d measurementG. It is found out that huma11 is composed of 7. At1d so iu get your f1ead aime11sior1, measure your height it1 meters next divide your height by 7. SZM 1. J5 lOS Height of persot1 7. JG a Go! G part; belottg to 1e family of prq: They caH provide a of order i11, at1d heignte11 the COt1tinuity of a s-equet1ce of They caH efabf refatio11ships t: They can alternate at1d they cart.
A cammot1 difr! Exampte 1 fr tf a 1, Y2 of tke diago11al ig tke widtn cf -tHe 11ext square 2. This dyHamic , projected itt two eJ witH of COmpleting tke Gecmd usi11g tHe -tke diag:: Jtfal d-z draw c3f an:: It-s rate of t11roout the 5erie;;. AP for aeetic a11d ecettomy i11 the duplildtion of moaule7 frum their t imber? Arithmetic mean tht Wtal? Um divided by 2, therefore?. JI c. Considering similar triangles, programmed so that the longest side of one triangle becomes the shortest side of the next, they subtend similar angles at the origin, the centre of rotation.
The whirling equilateral triangle is the simplest, completing a regular hexagon in one revolution. In any two similar triangles, the ratio of areas equals the square of the ratios of corresponding sides.
Therefore, when whirling a 3, 4, 5 triangle, the correspondidng sides of adjacent triangles are in ratio of 5: Their areas are in ration of Whirling a right angled triangle so that the medium side of one becomes the shortest side of the next produces a spiral sitting neatly on the x andy axes.
A whirling isosceles triangle generates a logarithmic spiral. An approx. Scale has reference to proportions which are good for humans. Scale deals with the relation of architectural motifs, such as doors, windows or mouldings, to each other and the human figure.
Architecture must be adapted to human needs. Doors should be large enough to walk through in comfort but not so gigantic that they require an almost impossible physical effort to close them.
Steps should be of such a size as to permit easy ascent and descent. Ceiling heights must be properly proportioned to the size and function of the room. In order to prevent one from fall- ing from one level to the next, a balustrade should be related to the human figure in such a way that safety is secured. Thus, design is a matter of the adjustment of architectural ele- ments to meet the needs of the human race, and proper scale should be present when this adaptation is made.
While proportion refers to the mathematical relationships among the real dimensions of a form or space, scale refers to how we perceive the size of a building element or space rela- tive to other forms. In visually measuring the size of an element we tend to use other ele- ments of known-size in their context as measuring devices.
These are known as scale-giving elements, and tall into two general categories. In architecture, therefore, we are concerned with two types of scale: In this figure, there is an area which represents the facade of a building but it has no scale. There are no details of any kind which might tell whether the building is thirty or one hundred fifty meters long.
The structure lacks doors, windows. Mldittg In the above figures, a man has been introduced and immediately we are in a posi- tion to estimate the size of the structure,whether it is a one or a two storey building. Scale is thereby established. The above figures show how the number of doors and windows give a definite clue to the comprative sizes of the other. If the top figure is about 15 meters long then the figure below is about 30 meters long.
Correct scale is then to bring all parts of the building and landscape into proper rela tion with each other. The interlocking portion can serve as a distinct space and may link the two interlocking volume. The interlocking portion can be merge with one of the spaces and become integral part of its volume. The interlocking portion of the two volumes can be shared by each space. Adjacent spaces may have limited visual or direct access as reinforcement of individuality or differences. Adjacent spaces may be separated by a free standing plane.
Adjacent spaces may just be separated by row of columns. Adjacent spaces may be separated simply by surface articulation. Sources of Most of Illustrations. Figures and Photos of this Presentation: Lacking wide-open spaces. During the Heian period Japanese are ingenious in stretching visual space by exaggerating kinesthetic involvement. Meaning is not only the first mental entity to come into consciousness. A visual dictionary of architecture.
Francis DK. Architectural theories of design: The Fundamentals of architecture. New York: AVA Pub. Theory of Architecture Uploaded by ar-chi. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Jump to Page. Search inside document. A circulation space may be enclosed.
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