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(Best 50 Testing Interview Questions And Answers Pdf). QAload(Compuware): This tool is used for load testing of web, database and char-based systems. Software testing interview questions / Shivprasad Koirala, Sham Sheikh. p. cm. resume. testcompletedemo setup is a software automation tool. In position you were looking for you get this answer, “we are not hiring for that position?. + Testing Tools Interview Questions and Answers, Question1: What is a bug? Question2: What is a test case? Question3: What is the purpose of test plan in.


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People often ask us for software testing interview questions and answers. At the bottom / end of this post you will find the link to download the PDF with Software Testing Interview Questions for fresher and experienced with a list of frequently What is the function of the software testing tool "phantom"? .. Free PDF Download: Software Testing Interview Questions & Answers. with answers. Also refer the pdf file with a list of sample basic 32 interview questions. Software Testing Interview Questions with answers – basic questions list pdf . What are the main tools you are used for Software Testing? What are the.

What is Software Testing? Quality Management Tutorial. Provide ideas for test process improvement. Agile is the mindset. What Is Code Complete? In data driven testing process, the application is tested with multiple test data.

The reason for this is that there is an associated logic diagramming technique called 'cause-effect graphing' which was sometimes used to help derive the decision table What is the MAIN objective when reviewing a software deliverable?

To identify defects in any software work product. Which of the following defines the expected results of a test? Test case specification or test design specification. Test case specification defines the expected results of a test. What is the benefit of test independence? It avoids author bias in defining effective tests. As part of which test process do you determine the exit criteria? The exit criteria are determined on the bases of 'Test Planning'.

What is Alpha testing? Pre-release testing by end user representatives at the developer's site. What is beta testing? Testing performed by potential customers at their own locations. Mention what the difference between Pilot and Beta testing is? The difference between a pilot and beta testing is that pilot testing is actually done using the product by the group of users before the final deployment, and in beta testing, we do not input real data, but it is installed at the end customer to validate if the product can be used in production.

None, existing test cases can be used. What is the difference between Testing Techniques and Testing Tools? Testing technique: Testing Tools: The tool is a resource to the tester, but itself is insufficient to conduct testing Learn More About Testing Tools here We use the output of the requirement analysis, the requirement specification as the input for writing … User Acceptance Test Cases Repeated Testing of an already tested program, after modification, to discover any defects introduced or uncovered as a result of the changes in the software being tested or in another related or unrelated software component: Regression Testing A wholesaler sells printer cartridges.

The minimum order quantity is 5. You have been asked to prepare test cases using various values for the number of printer cartridges ordered. Which of the following groups contain three test inputs that would be generated using Boundary Value Analysis?

What is component testing? Component testing, also known as unit, module, and program testing, searches for defects in and verifies the functioning of software e.

Component testing may be done in isolation from the rest of the system depending on the context of the development life cycle and the system. Most often stubs and drivers are used to replace the missing software and simulate the interface between the software components simply. A stub is called from the software component to be tested; a driver calls a component to be tested.

Here is an awesome video on Unit Testing What is functional system testing? Testing the end to end functionality of the system as a whole is defined as a functional system testing. What are the benefits of Independent Testing? Independent testers are unbiased and identify different defects at the same time.

The bulk of the test design work begun after the software or system has been produced. What are the different Methodologies in Agile Development Model? There are currently seven different agile methodologies that I am aware of: Which activity in the fundamental test process includes evaluation of the testability of the requirements and system?

A 'Test Analysis' and 'Design' includes evaluation of the testability of the requirements and system. What is typically the MOST important reason to use risk to drive testing efforts? Because testing everything is not feasible. When is it used? Random testing is often known as monkey testing. In such type of testing data is generated randomly often using a tool or automated mechanism. With this randomly generated input, the system is tested, and results are analyzed accordingly. These testing are less reliable; hence it is normally used by the beginners and to see whether the system will hold up under adverse effects.

Which of the following are valid objectives for incident reports? Provide developers and other parties with feedback about the problem to enable identification, isolation, and correction as necessary.

Provide ideas for test process improvement. Provide a vehicle for assessing tester competence. Provide testers with a means of tracking the quality of the system under test. Consider the following techniques.

Which are static and which are dynamic techniques? Equivalence Partitioning. Use Case Testing. Data Flow Analysis. Exploratory Testing. Decision Testing.

Why are static testing and dynamic testing described as complementary? Because they share the aim of identifying defects but differ in the types of defect they find. What are the phases of a formal review?

In contrast to informal reviews, formal reviews follow a formal process. A typical formal review process consists of six main steps: What is the role of moderator in the review process? The moderator or review leader leads the review process. He or she determines, in co-operation with the author, the type of review, approach and the composition of the review team.

The moderator performs the entry check and the follow-up on the rework, in order to control the quality of the input and output of the review process. The moderator also schedules the meeting, disseminates documents before the meeting, coaches other team members, paces the meeting, leads possible discussions and stores the data that is collected. Learn More about Review process in Video Tutorial here What is an equivalence partition also known as an equivalence class? An input or output ranges of values such that only one value in the range becomes a test case.

When should configuration management procedures be implemented? During test planning. A Type of Functional Testing, which investigates the functions relating to the detection of threats, such as virus from malicious outsiders? Security Testing Testing wherein we subject the target of the test, to varying workloads to measure and evaluate the performance behaviors and the ability of the target and the test to continue to function properly under these different workloads?

Load Testing Testing activity which is performed to expose defects in the interfaces and in the interaction between integrated components is? Integration Level Testing What are the Structure-based white-box testing techniques? Structure-based testing techniques which are also dynamic rather than static use the internal structure of the software to derive test cases.

They are commonly called 'white-box' or 'glass-box' techniques implying you can see into the system since they require knowledge of how the software is implemented, that is, how it works. For example, a structural technique may be concerned with exercising loops in the software.

Different test cases may be derived to exercise the loop once, twice, and many times. This may be done regardless of the functionality of the software.

Tools questions and pdf testing interview answers

When should "Regression Testing" be performed? After the software has changed or when the environment has changed Regression testing should be performed. What is negative and positive testing? A negative test is when you put in an invalid input and receives errors. While positive testing is when you put in a valid input and expect some action to be completed in accordance with the specification.

What is the purpose of a test completion criterion? The purpose of test completion criterion is to determine when to stop testing What can static analysis NOT find? For example memory leaks. What is the difference between re-testing and regression testing? Re-testing ensures the original fault has been removed; regression testing looks for unexpected side effects.

What are the Experience-based testing techniques? In experience-based techniques, people's knowledge, skills, and background are a prime contributor to the test conditions and test cases. The experience of both technical and business people is important, as they bring different perspectives to the test analysis and design process. Due to previous experience with similar systems, they may have insights into what could go wrong, which is very useful for testing.

Top 100 Software Testing Interview Questions & Answers | Software Testing Material

What type of review requires formal entry and exit criteria, including metrics? Inspection Could reviews or inspections be considered part of testing? Yes, because both help detects faults and improves quality. An input field takes the year of birth between and what the boundary values for testing this field are? Which of the following tools would be involved in the automation of regression test? Data tester b. Boundary tester c.

200+ Software Testing Interview Questions and Answers PDF

Output comparator. Output comparator To test a function, what has to write a programmer, which calls the function to be tested and pass test data. Driver What is the one Key reason why developers have difficulty testing their own work?

Lack of Objectivity When should testing be stopped? It depends on the risks for the system being tested. There are some criteria based on which you can stop testing. Deadlines Testing, Release Test budget has been depleted Bug rate fall below a certain level Test cases completed with certain percentage passed Alpha or beta periods for testing ends Coverage of code, functionality or requirements are met to a specified point Which of the following is the primary purpose of the integration strategy for integration testing in the small?

The primary purpose of the integration strategy is to specify which modules to combine when and how many at once. What are semi-random test cases? Semi-random test cases are nothing, but when we perform random test cases and do equivalence partitioning to those test cases, it removes redundant test cases, thus giving us semi-random test cases. Given the following code, which statement is true about the minimum number of test cases required for full statement and branch coverage?

Which review is normally used to evaluate a product to determine its suitability for the intended use and to identify discrepancies? Technical Review. Faults found should be originally documented by whom? By testers. Which is the current formal world-wide recognized documentation standard? There isn't one. Which of the following is the review participant who has created the item to be reviewed?

Author A number of critical bugs are fixed in software. All the bugs are in one module, related to reports. The test manager decides to do regression testing only on the reports module. Regression testing should be done on other modules as well because fixing one module may affect other modules. Why does the boundary value analysis provide good test cases? Because errors are frequently made during programming of the different cases near the 'edges' of the range of values.

What makes an inspection different from other review types? It is led by a trained leader, uses formal entry and exit criteria and checklists. Why can be tester dependent on configuration management? Because configuration management assures that we know the exact version of the testware and the test object.

What is V-Model? A software development model that illustrates how testing activities integrate with software development phases What is maintenance testing? What Is Quality Management? That aspect of the overall management function that determines and implements the quality policy.

What Is Quality Policy? The overall intentions and direction of an organization as regards quality as formally expressed by top management. What Is Quality System? The organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes, and resources for implementing quality management. What Is Race Condition? A cause of concurrency problems.

Multiple accesses to a shared resource, at least one of which is a write, with no mechanism used by either to moderate simultaneous access. What Is Ramp Testing? Continuously raising an input signal until the system breaks down. What Is Recovery Testing? Confirms that the program recovers from expected or unexpected events without loss of data or functionality. Events can include shortage of disk space, unexpected loss of communication, or power out conditions. What Is Release Candidate?

A pre-release version, which contains the desired functionality of the final version, but which needs to be tested for bugs which ideally should be removed before the final version is released. What Is Scalability Testing? Performance testing focused on ensuring the application under test gracefully handles increases in work load. What Is Security Testing?

Testing which confirms that the program can restrict access to authorized personnel and that the authorized personnel can access the functions available to their security level.

What Is Smoke Testing? A quick-and-dirty test that the major functions of a piece of software work. Originated in the hardware testing practice of turning on a new piece of hardware for the first time and considering it a success if it does not catch on fire.

What Is Soak Testing? Running a system at high load for a prolonged period of time. For example, running several times more transactions in an entire day or night than would be expected in a busy day, to identify and performance problems that appear after a large number of transactions have been executed. What Is Software Requirements Specification? A deliverable that describes all data, functional and behavioral requirements, all constraints, and all validation requirements for software.

What Is Static Analysis? Analysis of a program carried out without executing the program. A tool that carries out static analysis. What Is Static Analyzer? What Is Static Testing? What Is Storage Testing?

Testing that verifies the program under test stores data files in the correct directories and that it reserves sufficient space to prevent unexpected termination resulting from lack of space. This is external storage as opposed to internal storage. What Is Stress Testing? Testing conducted to evaluate a system or component at or beyond the limits of its specified requirements to determine the load under which it fails and how.

Often this is performance testing using a very high level of simulated load. What Is Structural Testing? Testing based on an analysis of internal workings and structure of a piece of software.

What Is Testability? The degree to which a system or component facilitates the establishment of test criteria and the performance of tests to determine whether those criteria have been met.

What Is Testing? The process of exercising software to verify that it satisfies specified requirements and to detect errors. The process of analyzing a software item to detect the differences between existing and required conditions that is, bugs , and to evaluate the features of the software item. The process of operating a system or component under specified conditions, observing or recording the results, and making an evaluation of some aspect of the system or component.

What Is Test Bed? An execution environment configured for testing. May consist of specific hardware, OS, network topology, configuration of the product under test, other application or system software, etc.

The Test Plan for a project should enumerated the test beds s to be used. What Is Test Case?

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Test Case is a commonly used term for a specific test. This is usually the smallest unit of testing. A Test Case will consist of information such as requirements testing, test steps, verification steps, prerequisites, outputs, test environment, etc. A set of inputs, execution preconditions, and expected outcomes developed for a particular objective, such as to exercise a particular program path or to verify compliance with a specific requirement.

Test Driven Development Testing methodology associated with Agile Programming in which every chunk of code is covered by unit tests, which must all pass all the time, in an effort to eliminate unit-level and regression bugs during development.

Practitioners of TDD write a lot of tests, i. What Is Test Driver? A program or test tool used to execute a tests. Also known as a Test Harness.

What Is Test Environment? The hardware and software environment in which tests will be run, and any other software with which the software under test interacts when under test including stubs and test drivers. What Is Test First Design? Test-first design is one of the mandatory practices of Extreme Programming XP. It requires that programmers do not write any production code until they have first written a unit test. What Is Test Harness? Also known as a Test Driver. What Is Test Plan? A document describing the scope, approach, resources, and schedule of intended testing activities.

It identifies test items, the features to be tested, the testing tasks, who will do each task, and any risks requiring contingency planning. What Is Test Procedure? A document providing detailed instructions for the execution of one or more test cases.

What Is Test Script? Commonly used to refer to the instructions for a particular test that will be carried out by an automated test tool. What Is Test Specification? A document specifying the test approach for a software feature or combination or features and the inputs, predicted results and execution conditions for the associated tests.

What Is Test Suite? A collection of tests used to validate the behavior of a product. The scope of a Test Suite varies from organization to organization. There may be several Test Suites for a particular product for example.

In most cases however a Test Suite is a high level concept, grouping together hundreds or thousands of tests related by what they are intended to test. What Is Test Tools?

+ Software Testing Interview Questions and Answers PDF

Computer programs used in the testing of a system, a component of the system, or its documentation. What Is Thread Testing? A variation of top-down testing where the progressive integration of components follows the implementation of subsets of the requirements, as opposed to the integration of components by successively lower levels.

What Is Top Down Testing? An approach to integration testing where the component at the top of the component hierarchy is tested first, with lower level components being simulated by stubs.

Tested components are then used to test lower level components. The process is repeated until the lowest level components have been tested. What Is Total Quality Management? A company commitment to develop a process that achieves high quality product and customer satisfaction. What Is Traceability Matrix? A document showing the relationship between Test Requirements and Test Cases. What Is Use Case? The specification of tests that are conducted from the end-user perspective.

Use cases tend to focus on operating software as an end-user would conduct their day-to-day activities. What Is Validation? The process of evaluating software at the end of the software development process to ensure compliance with software requirements. The techniques for validation is testing, inspection and reviewing. Stress testing means increasing the load ,and checking the performance at each level.

Load testing means at a time giving more load by the expectation and checking the performance at that level. Volume testing means first we have to apply initial.

Memory leaks means incomplete deallocation - are bugs that happen very often. Buffer overflow means data sent as input to the server that overflows the boundaries of the input area, thus causing the server to misbehave. Buffer overflows can be used. Quality assurance involves the entire software development process and testing involves operation of a system or application to evaluate the results under certain conditions.

QA is oriented to prevention and Testing is oriented to detection. By using Endurance Testing. Endurance Testing means checking for memory leaks or other problems that may occur with prolonged execution. If SRS is not there we can perform Exploratory testing. In Exploratory testing the basic module is executed and depending on its results, the next plan is executed. The basic difference in webtesting is here we have to test for URL's coverage and links coverage.

Using WinRunner we can conduct webtesting. But we have to make sure that Webtest option is selected in "Add in Manager". What Is 'configuration Management'? Configuration management is a process to control and document any changes made during the life of a project.

The Testing Tools will be in the ambiguity to determine which browser is opened by which tool. We can use Verification points rational Robot to validate the fields.

Using objectdata,objectdata properties VP we can validate fields. We can create a textfile in a certain location, and update the auto generated value each time we run the test and compare the currently generated value with the previous one will be one solution. To find this, select the suite of tests which are most important for your application. First run them with automated tool. Next subject the same tests to careful manual testing. If the results are coinciding you can say your testing tool has been performing.

Maintainability, Reliability, Flexibility, Efficiency, Portability, Robustness, and Usability - these are the main attributes in test automation. The inability of winrunner to identify the third party control like infragistics controls. The change of the location of the table object will cause object not found error. The inability of the winrunner to execute the script against multiple langauges.

Good Logic for programming. Analytical skills. Pessimestic in Nature. As I know it, test case design is about formulating the steps to be carried out to verify something about the application under test. And this cannot be automated. However, I agree that the process of putting the test results into the excel sheet. For defect tracking BugZilla, Test Runner are available. Proper code guiding standards. Standard format for defining functions, exception handler etc. Comments for functions.

Proper errorhandling mechanisms. The appropriate synchronization techniques. The common problems are: Maintenance of the old script when there is a feature change or enhancement. The change in technology of the application will affect the old scripts. Automate all the high priority test cases which needs to be executed as a part of regression testing for each build cycle.

Testing activities start from the elaboration phase. The choice of automation tool for certain technologies. Wrong set of test automated. We need to concentrate on the features of the tools and how this could be beneficial for our project.

The additional new features and the enhancements of the features will also help. Application to be tested. Test environment. Scope and limitation of the tool. Feature of the tool. Cost of the tool. Whether the tool is compatible with your application which means tool should be able to interact with your application.

Ease of use. Does Automation Replace Manual Testing? There can be some functionality which cannot be tested in an automated tool so we may have to do it manually. We can write the scripts for negative testing also but it is hectic task. When we talk about real environment we do negative testing manually. Prepare the automation Test plan 2.

Identify the scenario 3. Record the scenario 4. Enhance the scripts by inserting check points and Conditional Loops 5.

Incorporated Error Handler 6. Debug the script 7. Fix the issue 8. Rerun the script and report the result. Test Plan is a document which is prepared with the details of the testing priority. A test Plan generally includes:. Test plan is a document that contains the scope, approach, test design and test strategies. It includes the following: Test case identifier.

Features to be tested. Features not to be tested. Test strategy. Test Approach. Test Deliverables. Staffing and Training. Risk and Contingencies.

What Is Rad Testing Model? Rapid Application Development RAD is an incremental software development process model that emphasizes a very short development cycle [typically days]. The RAD model, is a very high-speed adaptation of the waterfall model, where the result of each cycle a fully functional system.

The information flow defined as part of the business modeling phase is refined into a set of data objects that are needed to support the business. The characteristics called attributes of each object are identified and the relationships between these objects are defined. The data objects defined in the data-modeling phase are transformed to achieve the information flow necessary to implement a business function. Processing descriptions are created for adding, modifying, deleting, or retrieving a data object.

The RAD works to reuse existing program components when possible or create reusable components when necessary. In all cases, automated tools are used to facilitate construction of the software.

Since the RAD process emphasizes reuse, many of the program components have already been tested. This minimizes the testing and development time. If a system cannot be properly modularized, building components for RAD will be problematic. RAD is not appropriate when technical risks are high, e. What S Spiral Model? In the Spiral Model, a cyclical and prototyping view of software development is shown. Test are explicitly mentioned risk analysis, validation of requirements and of the development and the test phase is divided into stages.

The test activities include module, integration and acceptance tests. However, in this model the testing also follows the coding. The exception to this is that the test plan should be constructed after the design of the system.

The spiral model also identifies no activities associated with the removal of defects. Explain Top-down And Bottom-up Design? Top-down and bottom-up are strategies of information processing and knowledge ordering, mostly involving software, but also other humanistic and scientific theories. In practice, they can be seen as a style of thinking and teaching.

In many cases top-down is used as a synonym of analysis or decomposition, and bottom-up of synthesis. Explain Waterfall Model? The waterfall model is a sequential software development process, in which progress is seen as flowing steadily downwards like a waterfall through the phases of Conception, Initiation, Analysis, Design validation , Construction, Testing and Maintenance.

What Is V Model? By the ordering of activities in time sequence and with abstraction levels the connection between development and test activities becomes clear. Oppositely laying activities complement one another i.

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For example, the system test is carried out on the basis of the results specification phase. What Is W Model? From the testing point of view, all of the models are deficient in various ways:.

Butterflies are composed of three pieces — two wings and a body. Each part represents a piece of software testing, as under. What Is The Waterfall Model? The waterfall model derives its name due to the cascading effect from one phase to the other. In this model each phase well defined starting and ending point, with identifiable deliveries to the next phase.

Explain The Waterfall Model Phases? The waterfall model phases are followed in order: Requirements specification. Construction AKA implementation or coding. Testing and debugging AKA Validation. Explain Waterfall Model Supporting Arguments? Time spent early in the software production cycle can lead to greater economy at later stages. It has been shown that a bug found in the early stages such as requirements specification or design is cheaper in terms of money, effort and time, to fix than the same bug found later on in the process.

To take an extreme example, if a program design turns out to be impossible to implement, it is easier to fix the design at the design stage than to realize months later, when program components are being integrated, that all the work done so far has to be scrapped because of a broken design.

Testing is inherent to every phase of the waterfall model. It is an enforced disciplined approach. It is documentation driven, that is, documentation is produced at every stage. Explain Disadvantages Of Waterfall Model? The waterfall model is the oldest and the most widely used paradigm. However, many projects rarely follow its sequential flow.

This is due to the inherent problems associated with its rigid format, Namely. It only incorporates iteration indirectly, thus changes may cause considerable confusion as the project progresses.

As The client usually only has a vague idea of exactly what is required from the software product, this WM has difficulty accommodating the natural uncertainty that exists at the beginning of the project. The customer only sees a working version of the product after it has been coded. This may result in disaster if any undetected problems are precipitated to this stage. Testing Tools Tutorial.

Testing Tools Practice Tests. IT Skills. Management Skills. Communication Skills. Business Skills. Digital Marketing Skills. Human Resources Skills.

Health Care Skills. Finance Skills. All Courses. All Practice Tests. Question 1. What Is A Bug? What Is Trm? Common factors in deciding when to stop are: Deadlines release deadlines, testing deadlines, etc. Test cases completed with certain percentage passed. Test budget depleted. Bug rate falls below a certain level. Beta or alpha testing period ends. A description of the required hardware and software components, including test tools.

This information comes from the test environment, including test tool data. A description of roles and responsibilities of the resources required for the test and schedule constraints. This information comes from man-hours and schedules. Testing methodology. This is based on known standards. Functional and technical requirements of the application. This information comes from requirements, change request, technical and functional design documents.

Requirements that the system can not provide, e.

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Outputs for this process: An approved and signed off test strategy document, test plan, including test cases. Testing issues requiring resolution. Usually this requires additional negotiation at the project management level. One software testing methodology is the use a three step process of: Creating a test strategy. Executing tests. We also: Speed up the work of the development staff. Positive Testing: It is to determine what system supposed to do. It helps to check whether the application is justifying the requirements or not.

Negative Testing: It is to determine what system not supposed to do. It helps to find the defects from the software. It is a document which captures the approach on how we go about testing the product and achieve the goals.

It is usually prepared by the Test Lead or Test Manager. Test Suite is a collection of test cases. The test cases which are intended to test an application. Test Scenario gives the idea of what we have to test. Test Scenario is like a high-level test case.

Test cases are the set of positive and negative executable steps of a test scenario which has a set of pre-conditions, test data, expected result, post-conditions and actual results.

An environment configured for testing. Test bed consists of hardware, software, network configuration, an application under test, other related software. Test Environment is the combination of hardware and software on which Test Team performs testing. Test data is the data that is used by the testers to run the test cases. Whilst running the test cases, testers need to enter some input data. To do so, testers prepare test data. It can be prepared manually and also by using tools.

For example, To test a basic login functionality having a user id, password fields. We need to enter some data in the user id and password fields.

So we need to collect some test data. A test harness is the collection of software and test data configured to test a program unit by running it under varying conditions which involves monitoring the output with expected output. Test Closure is the note prepared before test team formally completes the testing process. This note contains the total no. Test Completion Check: To ensure all tests should be either run or deliberately skipped and all known defects should be either fixed, deferred for a future release or accepted as a permanent restriction.

Test Artifacts handover: Tests and test environments should be handed over to those responsible for maintenance testing. Known defects accepted or deferred should be documented and communicated to those who will use and support the use of the system.

Lessons learned: Analyzing lessons learned to determine changes needed for future releases and projects. In retrospective meetings, plans are established to ensure that good practices can be repeated and poor practices are not repeated.

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Archiving results, logs, reports, and other documents and work products in the CMS configuration management system. Test coverage helps in measuring the amount of testing performed by a set of tests.

Test coverage can be done on both functional and non-functional activities. It assists testers to create tests that cover areas which are missing. Code coverage is different from Test coverage. Code coverage is about unit testing practices that must target all areas of the code at least once. It is usually done by developers or unit testers. Integration Testing is the process of testing the interface between the two software units. Integration testing is done by three ways.

Combining all the modules once and verifying the functionality after completion of individual module testing. Top down and bottom up are carried out by using dummy modules known as Stubs and Drivers. These Stubs and Drivers are used to stand-in for missing components to simulate data communication between modules. Testing takes place from top to bottom.

High-level modules are tested first and then low-level modules and finally integrating the low-level modules to a high level to ensure the system is working as intended. Stubs are used as a temporary module if a module is not ready for integration testing. It is a reciprocate of the Top-Down Approach. Testing takes place from bottom to up. Lowest level modules are tested first and then high-level modules and finally integrating the high-level modules to a low level to ensure the system is working as intended.

Drivers are used as a temporary module for integration testing. In simple words, what the system actually does is functional testing. To verify that each function of the software application behaves as specified in the requirement document. Testing all the functionalities by providing appropriate input to verify whether the actual output is matching the expected output or not.

It falls within the scope of black box testing and the testers need not concern about the source code of the application. In simple words, how well the system performs is non-functionality testing.

Non-functional testing refers to various aspects of the software such as performance, load, stress, scalability, security, compatibility etc. It is also known as pre-production testing. This is done by the end users along with the testers to validate the functionality of the application. After successful acceptance testing. Formal testing conducted to determine whether an application is developed as per the requirement. It allows the customer to accept or reject the application.

Alpha testing is done by the in-house developers who developed the software and testers. Sometimes alpha testing is done by the client or outsourcing team with the presence of developers or testers. Beta testing is done by a limited number of end users before delivery. Usually, it is done in the client place. Gamma testing is done when the software is ready for release with specified requirements. It is done at the client place.

It is done directly by skipping all the in-house testing activities. Smoke Testing is done to make sure if the build we received from the development team is testable or not.

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Sanity Testing is done during the release phase to check for the main functionalities of the application without going deeper. It is also called as a subset of Regression testing. To ensure that the defects which were found and posted in the earlier build were fixed or not in the current build.

Say, Build 1. Test team found some defects Defect Id 1. Build 1. Repeated testing of an already tested program, after modification, to discover any defects introduced or uncovered as a result of the changes in the software being tested or in another related or unrelated software components. Graphical User Interface Testing is to test the interface between the application and the end user. Recovery testing is performed in order to determine how quickly the system can recover after the system crash or hardware failure.

It comes under the type of non-functional testing.