Jazz Harmony I (Chord Symbols/Extensions); and MU , Jazz Harmony II ( Chord Progression) Reference: TC , Basic Music and TC , Harmony. Other influences have come from books that have been written by theorists and twentieth century composers about harmony. In Self-Portrait of a Jazz Artist, my. Forex: The Ultimate Guide To Price Action Trading √PDF A permutational triadic approach to jazz harmony and the chord/scale relationship.
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soundofheaven.info - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. most Popular and Jazz Harmony. To understand how to construct chords a thorough understanding of Scales and Key Signatures is necessary. There are three. so, it still only suggests the actual complexity of the most advanced jazz harmony. Chapters IX and X touch briefly on chord scale theory, modal jazz, and free.
The diatonic reading models our temporal experience of hearing the progression, while the latter models its compositional derivation. You are commenting using your Twitter account. Do you have access to any of the other modules? Dubuque, Iowa: Berkman offers valuable suggestions for how to incorporate variations on tritone substitution based on cues from the structure of the music. PhD diss.
This essay focuses on jazz theory pedagogy, but throughout I urge the reader to consider to what degree the scholarly practices that Martin described in have or have not formed a substrate for the ways of teaching and learning that have followed in the subsequent nineteen years. A number of questions will be raised, then, that transcend the contents of the volumes under consideration, asking the reader, in a few cases, to consider why this or that theoretical construct became accepted into mainstream jazz pedagogical practice and offering some possible alternative frameworks or why certain aspects of jazz practice have traditionally been foregrounded at the expense of others I will do this in as value-free a way as can be mustered; asking earnest questions rather than casting judgments or taking sides.
A few more contextualizing questions are in order, which should be kept in mind through the narrative that follows. First, in a theoretical methodology, what gets to count as first-order information—what is privileged, and why? How is that information structured, how is it sequenced, and what prior knowledge is assumed? Toward what end is the reader being steered, and what are the political reasons for doing so?
A subtext here is that there are many entrance points to a deep investigation into the syntactic objects and processes that define jazz harmony.
But a further question looms beneath the surface, which has to do with how we navigate between how a methodology reflects the practice of the exemplars that it claims to represent, versus how it aims to steer ongoing or future practice. All three texts under consideration here balance those two needs in very different ways, with fruitful results in all cases. That those balance points, and even the respective assumptions about what constitutes essential fundamental information, vary radically between the three volumes demonstrates the staggering breadth of the subject matter as well as the fact that there are still very few universally agreed-upon aspects of jazz practice or how to teach it.
The Berklee Book of Jazz Harmony Hal Leonard, , co-authored by Joe Mulholland and Tom Hojnacki, represents the most deeply-rooted of the three books from the perspective of pedagogical practice. Mulholland and Hojnacki develop a conceptual frame that has animated the music theory curriculum at the Berklee College of Music for several decades, including a hierarchically grounded analytic orientation, a robust notational system calculated to reinforce that analytic reading, and a fundamental assumption of chord—scale isography that underlies its entire theoretical orientation.
From Basic to Advanced Study Routledge, aims for a comprehensive approach that subtends harmony, melody, voice-leading, formal design, and improvisational considerations. That said, an important theme will emerge below that questions the efficacy and pedagogical value of an approach that decouples harmony from melody, voice leading, and so on; furthermore, I will suggest that even though Mulholland and Hojnacki and Berkman are careful to remind their readers that linear considerations are important, their examples rarely speak to this in anything but the most cursory way.
A few main themes will emerge repeatedly in different contexts; I invite the reader to consider these as something a de facto thesis for this essay. Terefenko, on the other hand, offers a gentle entreaty against separating harmony from other factors Terefenko, The theoretical thrust of the book extends from four fundamental concepts: One unusual feature of its presentation is the introduction of secondary dominants long before any notion of tonicization has been established—long before the reader has a conception of what an applied dominant—to—tonic relation means.
They justify their methodology by introducing secondary dominants not as tonicizing intensifications that prolong their target chords, but as chromatic intensifications of diatonic functions.
That is, an A7 chord moving to D minor in the key of C is considered initially not as tonicizing ii, but as a chromatic alteration of vi, intensifying the move to its target chord without embuing the latter with any local tonic identity.
This is a valuable way to think of chromaticism in monotonal contexts; after all, when we arrive on that ii chord, it is still ii by most metrics, not a digression to a subordinate key of D minor, however brief. Mulholland and Hojnacki suggest as much: It is a pity that they do not develop these concepts further, as their way of describing these actions is elegant and compelling. A curved arrow shows the drive of the applied dominant to its target tonic pp. The implications of thinking of ii—V as a single syntactic object have not yet been adequately theorized in jazz, and are contradicted in some important ways by chord—scale narratives.
Harmonic rhythm is often overlooked in introductory texts, and is an aspect of jazz composition and reharmonization that is often incompletely understood by students. One of the most important points that Mulholland and Hojnacki make has to do with the metric implications of the ii—V syntactic unit.
I will suggest below that ii should be considered as the base-level pre-dominant chord in tonal jazz, with IV as common substitution.
See Strunk , 6 for a similar rationale regarding clarity of graphic notation v. Figure 1. The Gmin7 chord in m. What is important here is that it is not ii or iv, it is both, and essentially so; its dual identity is part of the particular temporal and harmonic narrative that plays out as the song unfolds.
For another example, consider the well-known string of ii—Vs beginning in m. The diatonic reading models our temporal experience of hearing the progression, while the latter models its compositional derivation. The Dmin7 in m. When we arrive at the Cmin7 chord in m. Somewhere around this point, then, we can retroactively consider the entire sequential passage starting in m. Figure 3. There is a great deal of valuable information for improvising musicians encoded in the adjectives I have chosen to describe these motions.
This transcends chord—scale considerations to take into account ebbs and flows of affective forces, and points toward a way of reading improvisation in tonal jazz that takes into account the countless examples of personalized improvisational syntax that chord—scale theory does not adequately explain. Another important theme that Mulholland and Hojnacki take on is the role that modes play in contemporary jazz. The first is the mode as a constituent part of a chord—scale, more or less irreducible from an extended chord.
Their third explication of modal practice is an entry into purely modal spaces, following certain strands of jazz practice since the mids. I will return to chord—scale considerations below. I find this puzzling; while dominant-function viio7 chords may be comparatively rare but not unheard-of in the fakebook versions of jazz tunes, they abound in the original versions of many of those tunes, and an inclusive theory of jazz harmony should not foreclose their possible use from the perspectives of composition, improvisation, or reharmonization.
This strikes me as somewhat capricious: Claims are also made about characteristic voicings with no indication of their provenance c. Or assertions about usable or unusable chords in different modal spaces; e.
Associated according to whom? The point here is not to indict any of these accounts, but to reinforce the fact that modal jazz remains virtually untheorized, despite a few preliminary steps toward some kind of rigorous conceptualization. Or in positive terms: For example, Mulholland and Hojnacki ask why, in modal spaces, we do not consider a rich array of substitute functions, chromatic inflections, and so on like we do in tonal spaces, to which they offer: This is a disappointing response, and implies that perhaps tonality is not intrinsically satisfying if it needs all of those variations and extrapolations.
We should also note that simple diatonic tonal function is alive and well, and many young jazz musicians are becoming increasingly attracted to the possibilities afforded by diatonic harmony, triadic structures, chord inversions, and more open textures. Their systematic approach greatly simplifies an endlessly complex and creative syntactic terrain while occasionally foreclosing some creative possibilities , but it also leaves enough doors open for the student to pursue other lines of flight and to imagine new syntactic spaces.
That is, the fourth circle does not depend on the third circle for its functional derivation, nor does the fifth depend on the fourth.
The model could more accurately have been drawn as a central node with radiating branches that are also themselves linked; a semi-rhizomatic model or a rhizomatic model with a single arborescent bundle that generates a multiplicity of possible connections. A graphic illustration of the five circles is given on p.
The idea of moving through these circles, and in doing so relating increasingly distant harmonic objects to basic functions via easily traceable transformational paths is highly compelling. The critique that follows will not focus on the transformational or generative soundness of the model, but will instead focus on a few analytic claims or, more accurately, claims of analytic provenance that result from how certain terms are defined in the model, and how the model occasionally forces the reader into a particular way of engaging a harmonic action that is not necessarily in line either with how that action locates in its larger harmonic context or with how it is experienced.
By focusing on the ii of a ii—V as a pre-dominant entity and, as we have started to consider above, as a constituent part of a larger syntactic object , we can save the subdominant function to describe the many situations where IV moves to I or otherwise prolongs tonic.
Mulholland and Hojnacki touch on this briefly in their roster of cadence types p. An argument for ii as the pre-dominant prototype in jazz might begin with its role as instigator of circle-of-fifth motion keeping in mind that that motion is actually generated by the end-directedness of I and with the guide-tone motion that abets its dependent relation to V. The centuries of arguments in Western theoretical literature about the relationship between ii7 and IV add6 does not seem particularly relevant here, since the latter so rarely appears in jazz syntax, although we should make clear that this means jazz syntax as practiced by jazz musicians, not as the harmonic syntax of the Great American Songbook from which so many jazz tunes derive.
See, for instance, their Figure 2. Similarly, in Figure 4. The outer circles, however, pose a few problems. Most significantly, his passing chords do not pass—they act as upper or lower neighbors to their target chords usually , as diatonic or chromatic embellishments.
This is more than a trival taxonomic concern. Berkman, likewise, is not describing other-than-passing configurations as such, but as curious attributions of passing-character to other kinds of gestures. Person I Knew. Aeolian impinging on tonal minor, or Lydian coloring a tonal major, for example. See, for instance, their Figure 3. This seems to me to be bending reality to fit a theoretical a priori: Countless tunes use a variant of the progression shown in Figure 5, where an arrival on IV gives way through simple modal interchange or mode mixture to iv, which is then reinterpreted as the ii of a ii—V, which then resolves up by step to the original tonic.
Figure 5. Martin , but these are not considered by either Berkman or Mulholland and Hojnacki. This starts to suggest that we can think of just about any chromatic chords as modal interchange chords.
If this is true then the value of thinking in terms of modal interchange—of the very particular expressive shift that happen when we strangely change from major to minor—loses much of its expressive potential. Berkman offers valuable suggestions for how to incorporate variations on tritone substitution based on cues from the structure of the music. He also does a fine job of bringing different variants of tritone substitutions together with earlier reharmonization concepts like secondary dominants and modal interchange.
My caveats above notwithstanding, the concentric-circle model is pedagogically intriguing, and seems like a highly practicable entry into harmonic substitution.
Berkman is at his best when he is proselytizing for a rigorous approach to deep learning see p. It quickly becomes a distraction, however, and detracts from a serious engagement with the subject matter.
These manifest as insinuations that students are not willing to invest the time to deeply engage their subject matter c. More important, though, there are some conceptual errors and incorrectly- or at least highly idiosyncratically- defined terms: I am often reminded of the time I had a rather stubborn student bring in a tune with the chord changes: I asked him if he REALLY needed that chord to be a C-6, or might it actually be better and simpler as a C-7 since the C-6 in this context, to my ears anyway, was a weaker choice than C-7, harder to voice and minimizing the effect of the dominant that came in the next bar.
It has to be that. In general, especially in the world of non-functionality…you have to want that particular chord and not another. Intention matters. Yes, intention matters, and intentionality is exactly what the student was demonstrating.
Berkman tries to backpedal from his implicit value judgment, but the proscriptive damage is done—reharmonization emerges as the only means to create a personal connection with the tune.
This is consistent with most accounts of leading-tone harmony. V, emphasizing that it is at the point of resolution that the identification of the target is revealed as a new dominant, and therefore that through the temporal life of some particular chord it still points to its expected in this case diatonic target.
Berkman offers a strangely flippant and cursory introduction of minor keys, asserting outright that minor-key tunes are not as interesting as those in major keys Chapter 8 on the minor mode—in my opinion the least successful thread in the book. In other words, why should the reader care if an author prefers one chord over another if neither of them is the actual chord that the composer intended? From Basic to Advanced Study signals an admirable attempt at a comprehensive, integrated introduction to the elements of jazz practice, including harmony, melody, form, notions of variation, prolongation, and diminution, and at least some conceptual aspects that inform the act of improvising.
It is intended as a textbook for a four-semester course on jazz theory.
As such, it is considerably longer than the volumes described above, and is more immediately pedagogically-oriented, with an extensive online workbook with exercises and examples, and with considerable attention given to introductory concepts that are assumed by Mulholland and Hojnacki and Berkman notes and intervals, rhythm and meter, chord inversions, and so on.
It also takes analysis seriously, to which I will return below. For these reasons it is somewhat unfair to compare with the previous volumes, since its aspirations diverge wildly. Both Mulholland and Hojnacki and Berkman do consider other aspects, but in a cursory way.
Again, this is by design: We should ask: What values emerge from synthesizing them? One area where the compartmentalized approach falls short is in the relationship between voice leading and harmonic motion.
Further support for an integrated approach is in the irreducible connection between harmony and meter and rhythm. While Terefenko does not engage metric concerns to such a detailed degree, he does offer much useful advice, such as in an aside on chromaticism: The effective use of chromaticism depends on a solid sense of time and good voice-leading skills. Chromatic notes that are foreign to the diatonic framework require correct preparation and resolution.
Since the preparation and resolution of chromatic notes are inherently rhythmic, the voice-leading forces that control them have important rhythmic as well as melodic implications. This is a crucial point, and while it presents a pedagogical challenge, it should be incumbent on the teacher to be thinking in terms of the irreducible interrelationships between these musical strata even in the early stages of teaching jazz theory. The first part covers fundamentals and extensive information about chords, scales, voicings, chord progressions, modal relations, and blues.
The second section extends all of these into various idiomatic territories; several lengthy excursions into bebop form the central focus here. The advanced section introduces pentatonic and hexatonic structures, and also develops a rigorous approach to thinking about phrase structure and song forms. Terefenko concludes with an introduction to post-tonal procedures, about which more below. The role that this rhythm plays could be developed even further: Agawu challenges A.
One small complaint is that Terefenko appears to have copied and pasted the Charleston rhythm in Finale in some of his musical examples, which results in some ambiguous rhythmic notation. He provides an account of their triadic basis that also acknowledges the syntactic privilege that seventh chords hold, an opinion that is shared by all of the authors being considered in this study, as well as by most contemporary jazz theorists.
He clearly demonstrates how the tonic—pre-dominant—dominant—tonic T—P—D—T model for harmonic progression plays out in jazz practice 26—28; 43—44 , he explains the role that cadences play as phrase boundary markers and goals of harmonic motion; 31 , he engages the co-constitutive roles that counterpoint and voice leading and harmony have on one another 33—34 , and he introduces the reader early on to the important concept of prolongation, which becomes an underlying theme through much of his narrative and assumes a central position when Terefenko starts to outline the different kinds of phrase models that comprise tonal jazz practice Chapter Because Terefenko is carefully guiding the reader toward thinking in terms of T—P—D—T as the fundamental design that describes most harmonic motions, he brackets a few other types of harmonic actions IV to I, for instance, or the stepwise harmonic motions that Mulholland and Hojnacki account for in their narrative ; a tacet assumption is that these motions are better explained as prolongational actions, which with the exception of the blues-derived IV to I I tend to agree with.
The density of information in this exposition is impressive but perhaps a bit daunting, and feels at times like something of a grab-bag as essential and comparatively rare harmonic objects are presented all at once. Mulholland and Hojnacki are careful to describe harmonic moves that are common in mainstream jazz practice.
Terefenko, on the other hand, offers all diatonic possibilities as if equally valid and equally unproblematic. In minor keys which Terefenko, as do the previous authors, rightly casts as the union of natural, harmonic, and melodic minor , there are a few chords that we might question: More important, the ii7 suggests that Terefenko is, if briefly, falling into the trap of chord—scale isomorphism where the chord—scale either Dorian or melodic minor in this case is presented as an uninterpreted smooth space, prior to striation by voice- leading concerns or diatonic trajectories.
Fortunately this is a small matter, and for the most part Terefenko adeptly avoids these kinds of mischaracterizations of tonal behaviors. Terefenko does an admirable job of contextualizing harmony within a more holistic core curriculum model. Because of this turn to holism, along with the limitations of print media no one wants an page textbook! The result is that some topics lack depth or immediately apparent connection to the rest of the book.
I would point out rhythm especially harmonic rhythm , how non-chord tones behave and how they can be used expressively, and the improvisational possibilities of these materials as a few areas that could be developed and integrated further. But still, there is a great deal to admire, and even in the areas that fall somewhat short there are still valuable passages. For instance, the brief chapter on improvisation Chapter 10 is loaded with useful conceptual information—riffs and repetition, using guide tones to shape more elaborate gestures, and motivic development—and packs in a number of valuable examples for practice and inspiration.
The examples on pp. The first is his introduction of post- tonal resources to harmonically-based jazz practice, which he accomplishes by extrapolating from the concept of upper-structure triads to encompass all trichord types — He also provides a clear introduction to set-class terminology, including integer notation, inversional equivalence, interval vectors, and more, and makes a strong case for the value of thinking in those terms for the improvising musician.
Block and , the way that Terefenko incorporates them into tonal jazz contexts amounts to a new way to consider thinking about extending chromatic resources. He does this first by probing deeper into the nature of the co- constitution of melody, harmony, voice leading, and phrase structure.
He then describes, in compelling detail, the three main parts that constitute a phrase phrase identifier, harmonic departure, and cadential confirmation; p. His phrase models, which derive in part from earlier scholarship by Strunk and Martin, invite the reader to begin to understand the large-scale unfoldings of song forms, stepping back from a focus on local harmonic motions which is what most jazz texts limit themselves to , to consider increasingly long prolongational actions.
All told, Terefenko offers thirteen basic phrase models and provides lists of jazz standards that incorporate them. From phrase models Terefenko takes us to song forms, again offering logical categories and good examples. This includes an excellent list of tunes organized by the keys of their respective bridges — There is much value in considering various tunes comparatively in this way; a great deal is revealed about compositional design and improvisational potential.
These range from harmonic analyses of tunes c. He goes on to enumerate some important parallels between variation technique and reharmonization that open up compelling avenues for further comparative research. A comparative look at the relative weight that Terefenko and Berkman give to reharmonization invites some real ontological questions about the status of various objects and processes in jazz, and what kinds of essential features are revealed by particular epistemological orientations.
For Terefenko, reharmonization is something you do after careful engagement with the original tune and with exemplary recordings, and through close scrutiny of harmonic functions, teleological processes, and voice-leading actions.
For Berkman, reharmonization is always already part of the act of learning a tune: This is true even in the most basic diatonic settings. Of course many conventional chord— scale narratives attempt to recast this fluid tonal space by reorienting the major scale through three different modal configurations Dorian, Mixolydian, and Ionian respectively , but by doing so they greatly overdetermine the role that modes play in tonal contexts.
This is a sensible view. Again, chords do not have scales; they may be associated with scales if so desired. Terefenko does the best job I have seen of carefully avoiding causal language, even if it occasionally results in some complicated linguistic constructions viz. The danger, as Ake, Rawlins, and others have pointed out, is that it forecloses the most important actions and establishes a cognitive barrier to thinking in terms of voice leading and harmonic progression by focusing overly on the behaviors of single chords or chord-scales.
So in the space of eight beats do we have something like Figure 6 describes? Cheers for this. I had wondered what some of the berklee material was like.
Do you have access to any of the other modules? Berklee College of Music? What an unbelievable waste of money. Boston was fairly interesting but utterly destroyed my health. Sometimes it just seems like I dreamt the whole thing.
I hardly remember course material and such things. I just remember constantly playing with various ensembles and trying to teach myself essentially. My ear training instructor spent a good portion of class time bragging about what a big producer he was in order to better hit on the female singers in his class.
Berklee is now the same price as fucking Harvard! I can't wrap my head around this. When you graduate from Harvard at least you have a good chance of getting a well paying job, or at least you used to. Anyone still there? Even though this post is 10 years old wow , I'll take a shot at it. I've been thinking of going to Berklee for some time now, thought the most important things I would learn would be from the experience of being there and being surrounded by astounding musicians and what I thought to be at least till I read these comments - if they're right an active musical scene around Boston.
If it wasn't enough that the cost of a year is roughly 60k dollars, I'm from Brazil, so in local currency I would pay much more, plus I would have all the costs of moving to another country. Anyway I thought it would be worth it for the experience and because moving to the US would mean getting into a more professional scene when it comes to business. Music business is not taken much seriously here.
Would I be mistaken to spend that much cash? I would probably be able to skip some classes due to knowledge I got prior to entering and would only go if I got a good scholarship in the audition. Please hit me if I'm making a mistake. Thanks, cheers. Unless you get a Presidential scholarship or your parents are wealthy it's definitely not worth the money. For a good Jazz education at a fraction of the cost look into European conservatories.
Berklee is outrageous now. Post a Comment. Serious Resources for Serious Players View my complete profile. Donate to Casa Valdez!! Follow by Email. Subscribe Posts Atom.
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