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Library Download Book (PDF and DOC). History Of Architecture By George Salvan. History Of Architecture By George Salvan click here to access This Book. In Northern Europe, remote from Rome, development depended largely upon a common concern with sea and river routes. The geographical similarities of. You can find it here Scribd - Read books, audiobooks, and more.


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The ele- ment of contrast is too strong. Similarly, when regular forms have frag- ments missing from their volumes, they can retain their formal identities if we perceive them as if they were whole and complete. The volumes of the balancing units may corres- pond, but there may exist a difference in their shapes and surface treatments. Formal There is another type of balance which approaches absolute symmetry but which lacks some of the essentials of this kind of composition. First aid 4. There is nothing except texture to arrest the attention; nothing to be seen beyond the shape and contour of the surface. The Interior looks like the tv series Star Trek.

HOUSE - in the past, houses were small and compact, the hall was used as a workroom and dining room. When the scene changed from the farm to the city, wealth and servants, and large houses were easily maintained.

This was the age of pretense and show. Plans were complicated and of various sizes, shapes, disorganized and unrelated to human needs. This was the Victorian House The Contemporary house-is called a functional type and one of comfort, There is a desire to take full advantage of sunlight. The walls are opened as much as possible, and the interior is related to the exterior terraces and gardens in a pleasing manner. Thus, the principle of comfort prevails In the 20th Century designs.

FACTORY -in the early days, man often worked at home, it was the age of craftsmanship, the period of individual effort. Those who created products required by their fellow men took pride in each article. Business was personal rather than impersonaL When the industrial period arrived, with the last lialf of the 19 century, the small shops grew into factories, and little thought was given to efficient ar- rangements or pleasant working conditions.

Labor was unorganized with few windows, light and air was insufficient and the result was gloom and in- effeciency. The present century-an age of competition and mass production. There must be efficient operation in order to compare favorably in price and quality.

Proper working conditions have been outgrowth of this kind of business life, and as a result, well-planned factories and pleasant surroundings are often typical of portions of our industrial cities. The exterior then received more attention.

Then the chris- tian religion built churches to hold congregation to participate in the wor- shipping of God. For that reason the interior is in many respects more impor- tant than the exterior. The medieaval churches was not only a place for worship but also a center of education for the masses who could not read or write.

The carvings and sculpture of the exterior and interior furnished a chronology of biblical events. When the people learned socially to read and write, especially with the inven- tion of the printing press,-sculpture became, instead of the pictorial, a stressed decorative quality.

The preaching type of church was developed, causing an auditorium, to be included. This was a participation of mental rather than a physical one. Modern churches now are designed to provide mental, physical, as well as spiritual relaxation. The modem church has now classrooms for educational work, halls and parlors for social gatherings and a gymnasium for the exer- cise of the body. Old standards of thought and living have been modified or abandoned.

New activities have called for struc- tures to house them, and new materials and types of construction have made these build- ings possible. The automobile has made necessary the garages, filling stations, and bus terminals.

It has rendered almost obsolete our narrow streets designed for the horse and buggy. The airplane has brought about the develop- ment of airports, while new types of steamships with increased tonnage have given added importance to docks and warehouse. The expansion of the railroads has created the magnificent passenger and freight terminals and has made possible our large in.

The newspaper is also a powerful agency in the attempt to keep people inform- ed upon the current affairs of the nations, and libraries and museums offer unlimited facilities to those who would read and study.

In the past, museums were designed to resemble palaces with little thought to the education and comfort of the public. The modern museum is designed to display the art of the past and the present in order that it may be studied and ap- plied to contemporary needs. Simplicity of arrangement, satisfactory lighting, and ease of ci rculation are primary requirements. There is a universal interest in sports and entertain- ment, both by spectators and participants.

As a result, we have theatres and dance halls, arenas, ballparks, golf and city clubs. The social life of a nation and the resulting architecture are linked closely with the economic conditions under which people live.

The nature of trade, commerce, industry and agriculture determines to a large extent the occupations and standards of living within a particular coun- try. These factors influence the types of buildings erected and the materials used. As nations modify their basic economic institutions through changes in manufacture, trans- portation, and communication, new modes of living come into existence, and new architec- ture must be developed to conform to these customs.

We are interested, therefore, in the economic status of individuals as they constitute a nation, and not in their private finances. We are also interested in economy in architecture. Buildings may be so designed that thete is economy of space, of movement, and of materials. These factors control to a large extent the cost of an architectural project.

During the present century the concentration of wealth in our cities has been responsible for our attitude toward certain types of architecture. Investments rule our lives, and the process of building must lend an attentive ear to the caprices of finance. We erect structures many stories in height, but mechanical devices render them obsolete in a few years and they must make way for those with later developments.

True economy in architecture is not using inte- rior materials but the omission of useless decoration and the inclusion of sensible planning. Man's economic system remained unchanged for centuries-until the present industrial age. Previous to this age of machinery, power and energy were supplied by the hands of man or the backs to animals. Production was relatively slow, and the hours of labor were long.

Now electrical or steam power is furnished in almost unlimited quantities, releasing man from the machine and creating new economic and social problems. Man can now work less and pro- duce more. The future promises shorter hours of labor and longer hours of leisure. This increase in lei- sure suggests a changed mode of living, It will promote the erection of those buildings which have to do with recreation. More time will be devoted to the reha- bilitation of the mind and body.

This possible change in our economic structure may thus, have a profound effect upon our social life and our architecture. Man has developed computers to solve in an instant what has been solved in the past for hours, days or even months. New an.

Architectural Theories of Design - George Salvan

Thereby making the designs of our building more comfortable, and now comes skyscrapers that are built higher and higher. In the initial stages of the computers, man feeds information based from the clients needs, and a schematic sketch comes out of the computer. This can then be fed back to form a massing or a perspective. It can even be manipulated to show the shades and shadows at selected different times of the day.

In another proble! T', for a subdivision planning, showing the contours of the lot, the computer can show the. Other func- tions which it can do are showing the weak spots in a design for structural parts. The computer can also store with its software all data on materials, specifications, management, schedulings and so many other information that can aid the designer to produce a better, faster and more accurate solutions to designs.

The white, two storey, stucco, suburban Dallas home, will be an electronic showcase, but with spiral staircase, hot tub, art gallery and style. A quick call to-or from-a computer ensures that her hot tub will be warm when she arrives or informs her when her teenaged children have got- ten home from school.

If a business meeting keeps her from getting home in time for her husband's birthday, a computer controlled scenario, complete with loving messages, ro- mantic lighting, favorite music and appropriate videos, will let him know he hasn't been for- gotten.

Answering the door is obsolete. A camera shows who it is by sending a close-up view of newcomers to wherever Isaacson is in the house. Then she can open the door remotely. Can't find the keys or the husband?

Vi a video cameras she can scan shelftops and table sur- faces. Motion censors track each person's room-to-room movements. It will take 13 computers, 14 telephones, 26 tv monitors, 8 miles 13 kml of wiring, several video casette recorders for this fut ure home.

Isaacson has robots for pets, a sculpture of stereo and video components that seem to float in space, futuristic plant stands that are real- ly computer terminals, and a media " command center", that includes four 4 inch 60 em. At futurehome, a master computer is in charge. It receives data from the rest of the house and sends out commands, dimming lights, changing thermostat setting, and switching tv channels and volumes.

Using a text-to-speech converter, the computer can answer and make telephone calls. When someone- a housekeeper or tardy teenager, for instance pun- ches in their individualized codes to get into the front door, the computer can be cued to let Isaacson know, either where she is in the home or at work. It can tell the condition of the house, not only can lights or favorite music be turned on as a person enters a room, a synthesized voice can welcome guests, remind a son to keep his feet off furniture or wake a husband in time for dinner.

Heating and airconditioning are regul ated electronically, and the computer tracks tempera- tures in each room so that the new occupants can assess airflow throughout the house. Once computerized, the entire house can be run from any one of 10 personal computers by pointing with.

Or "scripts" can be written that coordinate activities for emergencies, normal household maintenance, even family tends to take care of intruders, a security script: If a security sen- sor detects a break-in, the computer could be programmed to flash all the lights, blast the stereos, wake up and tell the residents where the stranger is lurking, perhaps even inform the burglars that they are being filmed.

The Interior looks like the tv series Star Trek. Instead of a wall-sized painting, an elec- tronic sculpture welcome visitors. THe black components of an audio ahd video systems are set into a glosSy, black metal wall on shelves not visible to viewers. Recessed lighting along the wall edges adds to the effect.

These have been built to house the activities of man, and to these structures has been given the name of architecture. Architecture may be a group of buildings or a profession. The term "architecture" is an in elusive one. It may also be regarded as the procedure assisted with the conception of an idea and its realiza- tion in terms of building materials. Architecture is represented by a building which meets in a satisfactory manner the require ments of logical function, sound construction.

It is only when all of these qualities are present that good architecture can be said to exist. In its broader aspects, architecture is shelter, not only for man during the various hours of his daily exist- ence-work, recreation and sleep-but also to protect all the activities of human race. Man begins to create shelter by surrounding space with the materials provided by nature and made usable by the ingenuity of civilized peopl es.

Space, in itself is indefinable and intangi- ble and has no limits. Yet when it is enclosed with stone and steel according to accepted rules of composition. In providing shelter it is to be observed that buildings have walls and roofs, doors and wind- ows, and that these elements are assembled in a simple or complex manner.

Whatever the type or character of the building, parts of it are more evident to the observer than others- the exterior is more readily seen and understood than is the arrangement of the rooms, which is called the plan.

Thus, there exist the invisible and visible structures, or the plan pat- tern and the apparent volume. It is the foundation upon which the scheme of the structure rests.

It relates the various units to each other. It is the most important element of volume and should receive early consideration. If this space has. If the surfaces of these vol umes and the enclosed interiors are treated so that the forms are related to human needs, then they may be regarded as architecture. Visible structure is com- posed of form and surface as follows: SURFACE AREA - surface with two dimensions as in a facade of a building texture- surface treatment identified with materials whether rough or smooth tone - light and shade caused by openings, projections color - inherent or applied color caused by spectrum hues FORM In an architectural discussion the accepted definition of form deals with shape and when the figure is three dimensional, it becomes mass.

In architectural composition, mass is more important than surface. In the design of a build- ing, "we should proceed from the general to the particular".

The approach to design should not be through the details of a style but rather through a consi- deration of the mass of the building whi ch grows out of the function for which it is planned. If it is correctly composed in an arresting manner, mass alone will arouse a de- finite emotional reaction.

It will stimulate the observer with the sense of its completeness. Ornament should simply enhance a building. It should be either'horizontal or vertical. ThiS t? Jined with a dominant ver-tical Major and mittor ve Con- ceptually, a volume has three dimensions: All volumes can be ana- lyzed and understood to consist of: The principal identifying characteristic of form; shape results from the specific configuration of a form's surfaces and edges.

The real dimensions of form, its length, width and depth; while these dimensions determine the proportions of a form, its scale is determined by its size relative to other forms in its context. The hue, intensity, and total value of a form's surface; color is the attribute that most clearly distinguishes a form from its environ- ment.

It also affects the visual weight of a form. The surface characteristic of a form; texture affects both tattile and light-reflective qualities of a form's surfaces. A form's location relative to its environment or visual field. Back of a warehouse. The cardinal points NESW have since remote times been given prime importance among the factors determining the structure of the world. The word orientation comes from "orient" the direction of sunrise.

Christian churches were always oriented by the altar to- wards the East. The East as the origin of light is also the source of life. The west as the place Qf the setting sun is filled with all the ter- rors of the earth.

FRONT t.. Visual Inertia: The degree of concentration and stability of a form; the visual iner- tia of a form depends on its geometry as well as its orientation rela- tive to the ground plane and our l ine of sight.

If refers to the edge contour of a plane or the silhouette of a volume. It is the primary means by whi ch we recognize and identity the form of an object. Since it is seen as the line that separates a form from its background, our perception of a form's shape will depend on the degree of visual contrast between the form and its background. When tipped.

It is a static and neutral figure having no preferred direction. All other rectangles can be considered varia- tions of the square, deviations from the norm by the addition of height or width. Like the triangle, the square is stable when resting on one of its sides, and dynamic when standing on one of its corners.

These forms are referred to as the platonic solids. Circles generate spheres and cylinders; triangles generate cones and pyramids; squares generate cubes. It is, like the circle from which is generated, self-centering and normally stable in its environment. It can be inclined toward a rotary motion when placed on a sloping plane. From any viewpoint, it retains its circular shape.

Architectural Theories of Design - George Salvan

IedouX chapel: Institute of 'rJy: It can be extended easily along this axis. The cyl inder is a stable form, if it rests on one of its circular f aces; it becomes unstable when its central axis is inclined.

Like the cy- linder, the cone is a highly stable form when resting on its circular base, and unstable when its vertical axis is tipped or overturned. It can also be stood on its apex in a precarious state of balance. UI1Stabfe coHical ce11otaph by: Because all of its surfaces are flat planes, however, the pyramid can rest in a stable manner on any of its faces.

While the cone is a soft form, the pyramid is relatively hard and angular. Because of the equality of its dimensions, the cube is a static form that lacks apparent movement on direction. It is a stable form except when it stands on one of its edges or corners.

Even through its angular profile is affected by our viewpoint, the cube re- mains a highly recognizable form. They are generally. The platonic soli"s are prime examples of regular forms OLD Forms can retain their regularity even when transformed dimensionally, or by and the addi- tion or subtraction of elements. They are generally asymmetrical and more dynamic than regular forms. They can be regular forms from which irregular elements have been subtracted or an irregular composition of regular forms.

Similarly, irregular forms can be enclosed by regular forms. A form can be transformed by altering one or more of its dimensions and still retain its family identity. A cube for example, can be transformed into other prismatic forms by altering its height, width, or length. It can be compressed into a planar form, or stretched Into a linear one.

A pyramidal form can be transformed by altering the dimensions of its base, modifying the height of its apex, or by moving the apex off of its normal vertical axis. Depending on the extent of the subtractive process, the form can retain its initial identity, or be transformed into a form of another family. For example, a cube can retain its identity as a cube even though a portion of it is removed, or be transformed slowly into a polyhedron approx- imating a sphere.

We search for regularity and continuity in the forms we see within our field of vision. If a platonic solid is partially hidden from our view, we tend to complete its form in a regu- lar manner, and visualize it as if it were whole. Similarly, when regular forms have frag- ments missing from their volumes, they can retain their formal identities if we perceive them as if they were whole and complete.

We refer to these mutilated forms as sub- tractive forms. These forms will retain their formal identities if portions of their volumes are removed without deteriorating their edges, corners and overall profile.

Ambiguity regarding a form's original identity will result if the portion removed from its volume erodes its edges and drastically alters its profile. In the series of figures below, at what point does the square figure with a corner portion removed become an "l" configuration of two rectangular planes..

A form can be transformed by the additi on of elements to its volume. The nature of the additive process will determine whether the identity of the initial form is retained or altered. While a subtractive form results from the removal of a portion of its original volume, an additive form is produced by the addition of another form of its volume. These forms need not share any visual traits. For us to perceive additive groupings as unified compositions of form, as figures in our visual field, the com- ponent forms must be.

In order to categorize additive forms according to the nature of the relationship that exist among the component forms as well as their overall configurations. I Consist of a number of secondary forms clustered about dominant, central, parent forms.

Because of their centrality, these forms share the self centering properties of the point and ci r. They are ideal as freestanding structures, isolated within their context, dominat- ing a point in space, or occupying.

They can embody sacred or honorific places, or commemorate significant persons or events. A linear form can result from a proportional change in a form's dimensions, or the arrangement of a series of forms along a line.

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In the latter case, the series of forms may be repetitive, or they may be dissimilar in nature and organized by a separate and distinct element such as a wall or path. A linear form can be manipulated to enclose space. A linear form can act as an organizing element to which a vari ety of f orms can be attached.

It combines the aspects of centrality and linearity into a single composition. The core is either the symbolic or functional of the organization. Its central position can be articulated with a visually dominant form, or it can merge with and become subservent to the radiating arms. The radiating arms, having properties similar to those of linear forms, give a radial form its extroverted nature.

They can reach-out and relate or attach them- selves to specific features of their site. They can expose thei r long surfaces to desirable conditions of sun, wind, view, or space. Radial forms can grow into a network where several centers are linked by linear forms. The organization of a radial form can best be seen and understood from an aeiral view. When it is viewed from ground level, its central core element may not be clearly visible, and the radiating of its linear arms may be obscured or distorted through perspective.

Lacking the introverted nature and geo- metrical regularity of centralized forms, a clustered organization is flexible enough to incorporate forms of various shapes, sizes, and orientations into its structure. Considering the flexibility of clustered organizations, their forms may be or- ganized in the following ways: They can be attached as appendages to a larger parent form or space.

They can be related by proximity alone to articulate and express their volumes as individual entities. They can interlock their volumes and merge into a single form that has a variety of faces. A grid may be defined as two or more intersecting sets of regularly spaced parallel lines. It generates a geometric pattern of regularly spaced points where the grid line intersect and regularly shaped fields. The most common grid is based on the geometry of the square.

Because of the equality of its dimensions e: It can be used to break the scale of a surface down into measurable units and give it an even texture. It can be used to wrap several surfaces of a form and unify them with its repetitive and per- vasive geometry. The square grid, when projected into the third dimension, generates a spatial network of reference points and lines, within this modular frame work, any num- ber of forms and spaces can be visually organized.

An articulated form clearly reveals the edges of its surfaces and the cor- ners at which they meet. Its surfaces appear as planes with distinct shapes; their overall con- figuration is legible and easily perceived.

Similarly, an articulated gmup of forms accen- tuates the joints between its constituent forms to visually express their individuality.

A form and its surface planes can be articulated by: In contrast to the above, the corners of a form can be rounded and smoothed over to em- phasize the continuity of its surfaces or a material , color, texture or pattern can be carried across a corner and the adjoining surfaces to de-emphasize the individuality of the surface planes and emphasize instead the volume of a form.

We search for regularity and continuity in the forms within our visual field, and we will tend, therefore, to regularize or smooth out slight ir- regularities in the forms we see. For example, a wall plane that is bent only slightly will ap- pear to be a single, f lat plane, perhaps with a surface imperfection.

A corner could not be perceived. A right angle? LLL a segmented line If the two planes sil' lply touch, and the corner remains unadorned, the appearance of the corner will depend on the visual treatment of the adjoining surfaces. This corner condition emphasizes the volume of a form. This element articulates the corner as a linear condition, defines the edges of the adjoining planes, and becomes a positive feature of the form. This opening de-emphasizes the corner, weakens the definition of the volume within the form, and emphasizes the planar qualities of the surfaces.

This corner condition deteriorates the form's volume, allows the in- terior space to leak outward and clearly reveals the surfaces as planes In space. Rounding off the corner emphasizes the continuity of a form's surfaces, the com- pactness of its volume, and softness of its contour.

The scale of the radius is impor- tant. If too small , it becomes usually insignificant; if large, it affects the interior space it encloses and the exterior form it describes. L-configurations of planes are stable and self-sup- porting, and can stand alone in space.

Because they are open-ended, they are flexible space-defining ele- ments. They can be used in combination with one another or with other elements of form to define a rich variety of spaces. Typically, one wing contains the group living spaces while the other contains private, indivi - dual spaces.

Usually occupy a corner position, or is string along the backside of one of the wings. The advantage of this type of layout is its provision of a private outdoor space, sheltered by the building form, and to which interior spaces can be di- rectly related. To visually reinf orce the spatial field, along the open ends of the configura- tion, the base plane is manipulated or overhead elements are added to the composition.

The spatial field can be visually expanded by ex- tending the base plane beyond the open ends of the configuration. Openings in one or both of the planes will also in- troduce secondary axes to the field and modulate the directional quality of the space. U-shaped configuration defines a field of space that has an in- ward focus as well as an outward orientation. Secondary zones are created when openings are introduced.

The corners can be articulated as independent elements. This U -configuration can be used iri building forms and organizations. Openings provide continuity with adjacent space, they can begin to weaken the enclosure of the space, depending on t heir size, number and location.

To achieve visual dominance within the space, or become its primary face, one of the en- cl osing planes can be differentiated f rom the others by its size, form, surface, articulation, or the nature of the openings within it.

Architectural surface are Areas of materials which enclose a building and are of secondary importance to the masses which they create. But in order that a building may be wholly sa- tisfactory in its appeal, the necessary attention must be given to the Treatment and articula- tion of the exterior.

The surfaces of a structure must have texture, tone, and color. Texture is usually associated with materials. Lime- stone may be polished and reflect light in sparkling manner, folished black graHite a5. Stucco, with its various texture Of treatments to catch the sunlight, has played an important part in the design of homes which are mediterranean in character. Thus, texture depends largely upon the choice and use of materials. The selection of a definite material fixes, to some extent, the character of the f inal effect , but the treatment which is given to that material often produces startling results.

There should be a consistency in the selection of the texture of materials-a harmonious re- lationship between the various surfaces. Contrast and the variety must be present but the character and the quality of different textures should agree. Simplicit-y of arcf1i1ecture tone. Restricted ro sfladowg of c: The character of each particular type of room or building calls for a corresponding type of texture.

Texture can be used to destroy a form perception. The figure below showing the different texture on different sides of the cube cause the experience of form to be disturbed. We do not perceive a unit from here, but a fragment of a larger now destroyed form. The percep- tion of a room can also be destroyed in the same way. Two ways in which the attributes of a sensation of grain may vary hard-soft, smooth- rough.

Material examples of four extreme is shown in the figure below: The texture of a plane's surface, together with its color, will affect its visual weight.

D simple surface of opening articulated surface and opening B. TONE Is a variety in the use of the gradations from black to white.

Tone comes from the change of impressions carried to the eye as a result of the juxtaposition of dark and light areas. Tone, or the creation of light and shade, may be secured by the use of doors and windows, or by shadows cast by projecting parts of the building, or by mouldings. Tone gives interest to an exterior and if the results are to be entil"ely satisfactory, requires the same careful study that was devoted to the general massing.

Poor arrangement of windows, plasters, and cornices can mar a powerful composition. It may be in- herent as in marble which is colored by nature, black or gray stones, white or cream stone, red clay bricks. It may use colored tiles or metals. It may also apply colored wallpapers. Or it may apply or rather be applied, as in the case of surfaces which are painted or decor- ated by man. The color scheme. Simple conventionalized ar- rangements in subdued tones are preferable to garish and bizarre effects.

The relationship between color and the character of a building results from the combining of warm and cool colors in the proper amounts.

The visual weight of a plane can be increased or decreased by manipulating the tonal blue of its surface color. It ref lects the spirit of the people who create it Color is definitely related to the lives of the individuals and the material things with which they are associated.

Spanish art which is gay and sparkling for example are pro- duced by a dashing, vibrant people. RED - tends to produce rage or passion; it is exciting and stimulates the brain. It has an aggressive quality and is frequently associ ated with violence and excitement. It is the most luminous color. Yellow also demands attention, and so it is used in dangerous locations, such as the edge of a subway plat- form to mark the hazard, while red used to be the color for firetrucks, yellow is now preferred.

The occupant of an orange office, for instance will become ill at ease after a short time and will leave it at every opportunity. BROWN - is restful and warming but should be combined with orange, yellow or gold because it could be depressing if used alone. GRAY - suggests cold and is also depressing unless combined with at least one livelier color.

It suggests a stately or melancholy atmos- phere. Cheerfulness or cowardice, cheapness. It reduces excitability and therefore helps one to concentrate. This psychological use of color has been related to architecture for centuries.

Theatres and circuses are gay and brilliant with banners, decorations and pageants. Bright colors stimulate the imagination and excite the senses to produce a feeling of joy and pleasure.

Pdf salvan history architecture of

While the funeral chapel is sombre in its color appeal. Garish hues would be an offense to those who come in a mood of respectful worship, whereas, subdued colors lend themselves to the spirit of the occasion. The color scheme of a restaurant for dining and dancing should be quite different from that of a library for reading and meditation. Color can be used functionally. We can make it maximize or minimize the size of objects. Color can be used to help express architectural forms - and -if carelessly used, it can destroy architectural form.

Color on walls, floor, and ceiling is modified by other colors pre- sent in the same area. For instance, if three walls of a room are a warm gray and the fourth wall is a shade of yellow, the yellow will be reflected in the gray walls and will modify their appearance.

Again, the pate green may look good in a room until a bright shade of green is used next to it. Suddenly the gray green looks gray and quite inadequate.

An enclosed room which is painted with warm colors makes those who work in it feel warm. Similarly, if a large, open, windowed space with a great deal of glass painted with coot col- ors, people who work in it. One is ' prepared' "for a room' s color if the entrance is painted a complimenta. Deep colors always seem to make the walls of a room seem heavy, while pale pastel colors seem to make the walls light. If a room is long and narrow, its appearance can be modified by painting the end walls with warm colors-red, yellow, orange.

Similarly in a small room, the walls can be made to recede by painting them with cool colors such as green and blue.

If members of a fami- ly have tastes which differ widely, they may be satisfied by sel ecting the colors of their own rooms. The plan of living of a household group should be studied before any color selections are made. Someone engaged in a business which uses a great deal of energy shl"luld have a retreat at home-a room with a quietly harmonious color scheme. A person whose day is spent in a monotonous business, on the other hand, will probably enjoy color contrasts and bright colors.

But all the colors in such an installation must relate to each other and to a central scheme. There are a number of reasons for such color the main one being that there is usually a certain amount of circulation of personnel ; and everyone may have different col - or opinions.

In most cases the walls of the lobby of a commercial building should be stimulating and exciting, and the corridors should be neutral, so that when the doors of the offices are open, harmony will be apparent. Individual offices may vary in color, texture and materials, but they must have a basic similarity. The main objectives in determining the color scheme of a commercial installation are to provide colors which are rich, definite, and harmonious which will be easyto live with, and which will contribute to the efficiency and well-being of all who tenant the building.

Colors should be subtle; for example, no brash greens or blues should be used unless compensating colors are used with them. Where offices are located upon an uninterest- ing interior court, the colors of such offices should be ''sunny" and brilliant.

It will depend, to a large extent, upon the type of operation performed. It is equally important that the proper kind of light be used to avoid shadows and glare. For ease of seeing, it is generally wise to keep the wall color darker than the machines or work benches. If the space is small, the walls can be warm in color yellow, orange, etc.

J , a, fV protectfo. Action" n- ll , ,, , ,.. Also an obligation to wear p8raonal rl. WiUl1 "marka such n and floor. First aid 4. The aim should be to provide an atmosphere that is friendly and inviting. Color and illumination are probably the most important of the visual elements. While pastel colors are most often emplo' ed in patient rooms, variety can be obtained by deep- ening the tone of the bed wall, painting the window wall plus an adjacent wall a deeper tone, or perhaps using a contrasting color on one or two of the other walls.

If the room is an odd shape, the judicious use of the two tones of color can help visually improve its proportions. A dado of wood or other material is an additional tool for providing color variation.

The use of pattern to provide visual relief should be taken Into consideration in the overall scheme of patient rooms as well on other areas. Reception areas, dining rooms, day rooms, libraries, and chapels can provide patients, staff and visitorS with welcome relief from the functional areas.

Colors, furnishings, and illumination can be varied to provide relaxing atmosphere. Laboratories and specific examination areas such as X-ray, operating and other treament rooms may be attractively designed with cheerful coJors. There is no reason why an X-ray or radiology room cannot be treated in a decorative manner, despite the seriousness of the activity therO quite abstract graphic design on a wall, complementary to the color scheme, may provide just the right balance to the awesome equipment to remind both the patient and professional that they are not isolated from the real world.

The use of colorful utility cabinets and other accessories can also be considered. Vinyl wall coverings should also be considered. As with any other group of spaces, there shouldbe a basic scheme to unify the whole, but the individual areas should each reflect their own personality.

Long corridors can be used as a tool to unify; the tack ot interest can be countered with art work and with colorful accents- unusual treatment of the ends of the corridors, of doors and frames, or periodical spaces, or of handrails, for examples. The flooring in corridors should also r. In most contemporary schools almost anything that can be colored is treated in a bright and brilliant way.

Corridor walls, for instance, are sometimes yellow; rooms facing cool north light are given warm tones, and those facing warm south light are given cool tones. The front wall of each classroom is often painted darker than the other walls of the room. Every effort should be made to select a color that will be of approximately the same value as the color of the chalkboard so as to minimize eye fatigue. It colors are pastels. Doors and trim are usually darker than the walls in which.

However, while a stimulating atmosphere is desirable in a teaching situation, care should be exercised to prevent overstimulation, which may produce restlessness, tension and fatigue. NOTE Establishments such as department stores and retail or specialty shops require special color treatments.

By careful observation, one can be able to formulate guidelines similar to those given above. Each type of building has its own needs, and these must be analyzed before any color scheme is designed for a specifi c proj ect.

When the room was finished, it was impossible to distinQuish any difference in colour bet- ween the walls painted c and e, and the same was true forthe walls painted q and i. In the corner where e and i met, however, a distinct difference in colour could be seen and this was also the case in the corner c, q. The explanations is that the two sides of a corner form part of a room. As a result of this pressure, we try to perceive a uniform colour and this is easier when the.

They are then perceived as the satne local colours in different il- lumination. This perception is impossible if the difference in lightness is too great, and then lhe two wall colours are perceived at different local colours.

One special result of the influence of form on col our is the "spread1ng effect". In this figure, divide into halves by a finger or pencil placed between the black and wh1te gnlles. Where the red meets the black parts of the grill, it becomes darker tllan where it meets the white, an ef- fect directly opposed to contrast induction.

This may be called the "area effect". It is well known to architects and interior decorat ors that a wall painted in accordance with a given colour sample has a much stronger colour than the sample itself. The colour on a figure may change at times according to the distance from which it is observed. The deep blue and pale yellow bands change to black, and nearly white when looked at from a distance.

Thjs is apparently caused by the diminution in size of the retinal image. Colours on a non-uniform background Such colours are subject to many unexpected changes. The blue areas in the pattern below are printed with exactly the same colour ink. Note their different appearance, a hightened ef- fect can be seen if the design is tilted or looked at from a distance. The blue areas in the pattern are printed with exactly the same Ink. Note that the left s1de blue seems darker than the blue at the right.

Now look at it from a distance, the effect is heightened. The effect of colour on form If the form are able to change the colour, then the colour is also able to change the form. THe figure sliows what is called al"! Fields of different colours whose breadth is geometrically equal may, at times, be perceived as having different breadths.

When blue band became bigger geometric ally, when seen fron afar, RWB seems to be all the same breadth. The iradiation effect-the white figure looks larger in size than the black one. They are geometrically equal. It deals with unity, balance, rhythm, and composition. It is organized around a central plot, as in a novel. It has design, as has a sonata. It can be rhythmic as the dance. A painting has contrast of color, and a fine piece of sculpture has beauty of form and line.

Good architecture attains pleasing composition through the relation of contrasting masses and tones. It is difficult to isolate a singl e quality and consider it alone. A synthesis of all the principles is necessary in order to insure a unified and satisfactory composition, but for the sake of study, it will be to analyze separately these qualities and their application to archi- tectural problems. Mere recognition of these principles does not, however, insure a success- ful design.

An individual may be a good critic but still be unable to write a poem, paint a landscape, or design a building. Creative ability, in addition to a knowledge of application of the elements of design, is neces- sary for the production of distinguished results. Ability to discern between what is fine and what is mediocre that quality which we call TASTE-must be developed. Good taste steers an individual through the seas of social adjustments and aesthetic decisions. It enables him to choose correctly in accordance with cultural or artistic standards.

Popular taste, however, is so often a matter concerned with group action and changes so with the times, that it is not a reliable guide. Taste must, therefore, be based upon a knowledge of the rules of proper conduct with respect to our actions and of the prin- ciples of good composition in regard to our artistic endeavors. Good taste and creative abili- ty together should produce buildings which merit the name architecture.

In each pair, one design is definitely more unified, better balanced or more interesting than the other. I A t;;:: On these pages are eight pairs of designs; they are not intended to depict or represent anything or look like any familiar object. Study each pair as long as you wish and check the one, A or B. If all selections correct - you should have faith in your taste or innate artistic sense, how- ever, there is a great difference between appreciati ng art and creating art.

In addition to appreciation, the creation of fine art requires talent, study, training and indefatigable effort. We can hear because of the contrast between silence and sound, because of the difference between the lengths of the sound We can feel because of the contrast between the quality of objects. The nerves in our finger tips tells us that some things are cold and smooth whereas others are warm and rough.

We can see a building because of the contrast in the shapes and textures of the surfaces which enclose space to make architecture. Not only is it possible for us to see a building through the element of contrast but also the building is given beauty and interest by t he difference between the types of treatment which are introduced.

It is essential that certain areas, directions, and colors vary or differ from others so that by contrast the qualities of each are emphasized. It is t hrough contrast that we secure proper scale, proportion, and unity and consequently, a satisfactory design.

Square and circular areas may create a diversified interest. If form is more properly conceived in three dimensions, the architectural result is mass If bulks are combined, it is possible that the resulting composttton may be rnterestmg and satisfying. It is possible to have a horizontal line op- posing a vertical or diagonal lines may form a composition.

It may be curved or straight, regular or irregular, broken, or continuous. In an architectural example, contrast of type of line gives an interesting contour or silhouette to a building. If this change in size is gradual and uniform, the result is called gradation.

The exterior of the building is given interest on account of the contrast between the dark roof and the light walls. This feeling is strenghtened by the introduction of the darks of the openings and by the shadows cast by the projecting wings of the build- ing.

Contrast of tone is secured in the examples below of abstract design, by the use of black and white, or gray and white, areas. An architectural composition is presented which illustrates in a combined way some of the various types ot contrast.

History of Architecture

There is, first of all, contrast of mass - not only with references to whether it is cylindrical or rectangular , but also wi th reference to the direction of the mass or volume. The entire composition is decidedly horizontal ; but variety is secured by the ver- tical direction of the tower, of the end wings, and the chi mneys. Contrast of shape is also present in the rectangular and arched openings of the building, and contrast of tone is secured by the darks and lights of the roots, walls, and windows.

If similarity exists to a marked degree, the ef- fect is monotony. The facade of a building may consist of a si mple, unadorned wall pierced with many uninteresting windows, and the effect may be very monotonous. On the other hand, it is--possible to go to the other extreme and to have contrast which is too violent. Pi - laster, belt courses, and decoration may be used too profusely. The resul t will.

It is thus, necessary that contrast be present in and just the correct amount: Here there is contrast of vertical and horizontal volumes giving a composition in abstract form which becomes capable of housing human interests through the introduction of windows, doors, and floor levels. A pleasing composi- tion is secured chiefly by the relationship which exists between the various block-like units of the buildings and by the disposition of the windows which give interest to the surfaces of the masses.

In this figure, attention should be called to the manner in which the eye is carried along to the tower by means of a series of minor vertical units which prepare one for the climax of the dominant element near the centre. Consideration should also be given to the horizontal treatment of the windows on the left, which emphasizes the direction of that portion of the building and opposes the vertical feeling of the forms near the main entrances.

It is well to remember that contrast is opposition. If verticals did not oppose horizon- tals, if openings did not differ from wall, and if accents did not successfully compete for the interest of the observer, contrast would not exist.

There is also here a transition in the relationship between masses. This situation is shown where the adjacent volumes prepare the observer for the dominant vertical near the centre of the composition. The termination of the tower gives additional emphasis and contrast to that part of the structure. There is also present in this connection contrast of tone, which is seen in the deco- rative treatment of the upper and lower portions of the tower.

Interest in other parts of the facade is secured by the contrast of the windows with the wall surfaces. In the wing at the right, the upper windows are pointed and are larger than the rectangular ones below, while at the left the arched openings with balconies are surrounded by large areas of wall space which again give variety and contrast.

The different elements must be wide or narrow. In addition, there should be a variation in the projections of the various parts of the plan, in order that the proper emphasis may be secured. The church must have ecclesiastical character and the parish house must harmonize with the former, but not to such an extent that it might be mistaken for a place of worship. This calls for a subtle balance of contrast and similarity- the con- trast of character.

Here the spire of the church which we associate with ecclesiasti cal buildings gives a suggestion of function, and the import ant entrance indicates the public character of the structure.

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The house has smaller windows than the church, their size being regu- lated by the interior which they are to light. Tt,e shutters and chimneys impart a touch of domesticity and intimacy which would not be desirabl e in the church and which is lacking therein. Contrast of direction is also present. The church is vertical, whereas the parish house is horizontal. Contrast of size is evident - the large church over the smaller dwelling.

Ac- cents are also obtained by the change in di- rection of the voussoirs of the lower arches. Interest is secured by changing the character of the treatment of the upper and lower portion of the facade.

The arch entrance also offers the quality of variety when used with the rectangular door and windows, while contrast or opposition is secured by the upward thrust of the columns against the inert weight of the entablature. In the roof, the lines of the tile oppose the horizon- tal direction of the roof itself. A satisfactory contrasting relation exists between the width of the windows and that of the piers. The piers are wider than the windows and provide for dissi- milarity of surface, or an interesting proportion of parts.

It is evident that contrast result from dissimilarity, or the association of unlike masses, areas or tones. Contrast is also opposition -opposition by which one element wages a successful battle against competing elements. One shape or color clearly dominates the others. This con- dition may also be called emphasis, but this emphasis must be present in just the proper amount.

If a doorway, a window, or a panel seems to detach itself from the wall or appears to be unrelated to the rest of the composition, it may be too emphatic in its appeal. The ele- ment of contrast is too strong. There is not a satisfactory transition between the surrounding wall surface and the dominant architectural motif. Therefore, although contrast is essential to a unified composition, transi- tion shoul d always tend to alleviate the burden imposed by excessive and sudden changes in treatment.

Mouldings and decorative details should have structural or circulatory elements, and belt courses, cornices, and quoins should help one surface to member gracefully wit h the next and assist in tying t he entire arrangement together in a pleasing and interesting manner.

It is evident by a comparison which the eye makes between the size, shape, and tone of various objects or parts of a composition. These are certain geometrical forms which have very definite proportions. These are the: Just as a circle is more evident and less intriguing than a freehand curve, so is a square less interesting t han a rectangle.

However a rectangle should very definitely take on the propor- tions of that particular shape. It should not approach a square in its dimensions, because a state of doubt will exist in the mind of the observer as to its classifi cation.

On the other hand of the roctangle becomes too long, it approaches the area of two squares, and there is an un- conscious tendency for the eye to divide it into two equal space. To get the most pleasing rectangular porportion.

It is static and stable. It's centre of gravity is low, and it tapers in a regular manner from the base of the composition. It goes so far in insuring good results that the privelege of using it has been abused, and it is regarded as the easiest way out of a difficult situation. A sense of harmony will be the results of use is made of a rythmic repetition of moti fs whi ch have a common geo met ric shape as a base.

See figure above. It will be noticed that the diagonals pass through important parts in the composition. One of the most important phases of proportion and one which should be considered in the development of a facade is the relat ion of the solids to the voids, of the wall surfaces to the openings. It is necessary that one clearly dominate the other that the element of a contrast will be present.

If there is a similarity between the width of the windc;,ws and the spaces bet- ween, indecision or competition will exist. In classical , Romanesque, and Renaissance buildings, where heavy stone constructi on pre- dominates.

The windows and doors usuall y occupy a minor portion of the facade and the wall surfaces are quite dominant. When the Gothic builders learned the art and science of transmitting t he thrust or weight of the vaults to isolated buttresses.

Large areas of stained glass took the place of these walls, and regularly spaced piers carried the load of the roof and vaul ts. In contemporary architecture, the cantil ever of concrete and steel f rees the designer from many restrictions of masonry and construction and there is a tendency to use openings free- ly.

This 15 a Thts IS a more. Natural Material Proportions All building materials in architecture have distinct properties of stiffness, hardness and durability. And they all have an ultimate strength beyond which they cannot ex- tend themselves without fracturing, breaking or coll apsing. Have you done the 10k year challenge? Advance through the ages of human history and into the future in this award-winning city building game. You dismissed this ad.

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