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Sentence Correction GMAT Preparation Guide, 4th Edition (Manhattan GMAT Preparation Guides) (8 Guide Instructional Series). Read more. 2, times, A hundred %2B SC soundofheaven.info - KiB, Post: 3, times, Sentence Correction Notes soundofheaven.info - KiB, Post: As. required to do well on GMAT Sentence Correction is not nearly as vast as it seems. for the GMAT and help prepare you for the full sentence correction lesson.


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Turbocharge Your GMAT. Sentence Correction Study Guide. 4th Edition ( December 16th, ). □ GMAT Idiom List. □ Grammar Errors to. soundofheaven.info for downloading it from there; the download is very cheap Biology Quest GMAT Ultimate Grammar - GMAT Club . GMAT® is a recognized trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council, arrive at your first Sentence Correction, you will have completed both the.

What is the independent clause complete sentence? Use these problems to test yourself on specific topics or to create larger sets of mixed questions. She slipped on the ice, breaking her ankle. A sentence can be grammatically correct and yet illogical or ambiguous: What is the dependent clause? Give yourself a few seconds no more than five! Lotte Jacobi.

Moreover, the subject and the verb must agree in number: How does the GMAT make things more complicated? Subject and Verb Must Both Exist If a sentence is missing the subject or the verb, the sentence is a fragment; in other words, it is not a complete sentence!

On the GMAT, the correct answer must be a complete sentence, or independent clause. The GMAT might disguise the error by dropping the verb: The cat sitting by the stairs.

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Wait a minute, what about sitting? Sitting certainly looks like a verb. It is not, however, a working verb, a verb that can run a sentence by itself. Here's an example of a working verb: In this sentence, the word watched is a working verb. Here's another example of a working verb: In this sentence, the words was sitting make up the full verb form. For now, just remember that an -ing word by itself is never a working verb: The cat sitting by the stairs is not a sentence.

These are also not complete sentences: WHICH will be approved tomorrow. Because and which are connecting words. They add extra information to a sentence, but they are not sentences by themselves.

They're examples of modifiers, which you will learn about in the next chapter. The correct answer must contain at least one independent clause; if an answer choice does not, eliminate it!

The dog runs out of the house. A plural subject requires a plural verb form: The dogs run out of the house. You already know this; you would never write the dog run out or the dogs runs out. The GMAT, therefore, has to try to obscure these errors so that some people will fall into a trap. The GMAT might hide the subject, so that you are unsure whether the subject is singular or plural.

If you do not know the number of the subject, then you will not be able to select the verb form that agrees with it. What is the subject, discovery or new medicines? It makes as much sense to say the discovery was vital as it does to say the new medicines were vital.

In this case, The discovery…was is the correct subject—verb pair because the noun medicines is part of the prepositional phrase of new medicines. A noun in a prepositional phrase cannot be the subject of the sentence. Are these sentences both correct? Lin and Guy drive to work. Lin, as well as Guy, drive to work every day. The first sentence is a correct example of a compound subject: Lin and Guy together function as the subject of the sentence.

Compound subjects are always plural because at least two nouns function as the subject. A compound subject must be connected by the word and, but the second sentence uses the modifier as well as Guy. Only Lin qualifies as the subject, so the sentence is incorrect. LIN, as well as Guy, drives to work every day. Subject Modifier Verb A sentence can also contain a compound verb two or more verbs that all point to the same subject. That last sentence contains both a compound subject and a compound verb.

If the writer inserts enough distance between the two portions of a compound subject or verb, it could be easy to make a mistake.

Read on to learn how the GMAT does this. If you learn to ignore these words when looking for a subject, you'll be much less likely to pick the wrong noun as the subject. Further, the GMAT often puts a significant number of words in front of the subject you want. In these cases, you have to ignore the warmup that comes before the subject of the sentence. There are a few common types of middlemen and warmups.

Prepositional Phrases A prepositional phrase is a group of words headed by a preposition. A list of common prepositions is included in Appendix B. Prepositions are followed by nouns or pronouns, which complete the phrase. Prepositional phrases modify or describe other parts of the sentence. A noun in a prepositional phrase will never be the main subject of the sentence. In the example above, the subject is houses plural and the correct verb is are also plural.

Dependent Clauses Dependent clauses, which begin with connecting words such as who or because, cannot stand alone as sentences. Nor are they part of the main subject or main verb; rather, they are always attached to independent clauses.

Look at the first sentence in this paragraph: If a dependent clause is stripped out of a sentence, what remains is still a complete sentence. Try another example: Because she studied hard, she earned a good score on the test. What is the dependent clause? What is the independent clause complete sentence?

She earned a good score on the test. Other Modifiers Other words can also function as modifiers, which add extra information to the sentence. Modifiers will be covered in depth in Chapter 4. Use Structure to Decide Consider the following sentence: However, new lands is in a prepositional phrase modifying the noun conquest. Since a noun in a prepositional phrase cannot be the subject of the sentence with limited idiomatic exceptions that you'll learn about later , the subject must be conquest: Do not fall for tempting nouns, such as new lands, inserted to distract you!

Now consider this example: You have to match up two subject—verb pairs on this one. First, find the main subject and match it with the appropriate verb: Next, match up the subject and the verb in the dependent clause: Mid-Chapter Quiz: Test Your Skills Fix the following sentences.

The recent string of burglaries, in addition to poor building maintenance, have inspired the outspoken resident to call a tenants meeting. A new textbook focused on recent advances in artificial intelligence assigned by our instructor. The proliferation of computer games designed to involve many players at once were first developed before the widespread availability of high-speed internet connections. Answer Key: Test Your Skills Changes made to the original sentence are underlined. The recent string of burglaries, in addition to poor building maintenance, has inspired the outspoken resident to call a tenants meeting.

Omit the middlemen of burglaries and in addition to poor building maintenance. A simple fix is to add a form of the verb to be, such as was. Computer games designed to involve many players at once were first developed before the widespread availability of high-speed internet connections. The subject and verb have to make sense together, but the original sentence says that the proliferation… were first developed; this is illogical.

Rather, the computer games were developed. The corrected sentence is just one possible rewrite. Consider picking up this lesson again later today or tomorrow.

Attachments list

Building Complex Sentences How else can the test writers add complexity to sentences? Take a look at this example: Despite some initial concerns, the teacher is confident that her students mastered the lesson. The core structure of the sentence is this: In the real world, people will often drop the word that from the sentence structure: Wrong on the The teacher is confident her students mastered the lesson.

This is acceptable in the real world, but it doesn't follow the strictest grammar conventions. Technically, the missing that can make the sentence ambiguous; consider this example: I know Meryl Streep is an actor.

Do you actually know Meryl Streep herself? Or do you know something about Meryl Streep? I know that Meryl Streep is an actor. When a sentence is trying to convey something more complex, the word that signals to the reader that more information is coming. The teacher isn't just confident in her students in general. She is confident that they mastered the lesson. Two Independent Clauses Two complete sentences can be connected into one long sentence.

Lin drove to work is a complete sentence. So is Guy rode his bike. Two complete sentences can be connected using a comma plus a conjunction such as but to create a compound sentence.

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For And Nor But Or Yet So The English language contains many conjunctions; these seven are special because they are very common in the English language and because they can also be used to connect two independent clauses into one complex sentence.

It is not acceptable, however, to connect two sentences using only a comma: Any GMAT answer choice that connects two independent clauses via only a comma is incorrect. Pop quiz! Can you spot the error in the sentence below? The latest statistics released by the Labor Department indicate that producer prices rose rapidly last month, despite a generally weakening economy, some analysts contend that the economic Wrong: The sentence above is a run-on.

The example below strips the sentence to its core subject and verb components and adds the necessary conjunction: Here's another type of error the GMAT might throw at you: What's the problem with that sentence? It may look fine because it correctly contains a comma along with the conjunction and. Unfortunately, the first half is not a complete sentence.

Try to make it stand alone: You could fix the sentence by turning the first part into an independent clause: Cross off any answers that connect two independent clauses using only a comma.

Semicolon You can also connect two independent clauses using a semicolon. The semicolon ; connects two closely related statements. Each statement must be able to stand alone as an independent sentence. For instance: Earl walked to school; he later ate his lunch. Andrew and Lisa are inseparable; doing everything together. The second part of this sentence cannot stand on its own. Therefore, the two parts may not be connected by a semicolon.

Andrew and Lisa are inseparable; they do everything together. In the corrected example above, the two sentence parts can each stand alone. Therefore, they may be connected by a semicolon. The semicolon is often followed by a transition expression, such as however, therefore, or in addition.

In this way, the writer can modify the equal relationship that a bare semicolon implies. Note that these transitional elements are not true conjunctions like and. As a result, you must use semicolons, not commas, to join the sentences: A rare but correct use of the semicolon is to separate items that themselves contain commas: Adding Modifiers Quick quiz: You first learned about them earlier in this chapter, in the Eliminate the Middlemen section.

Glance back through that section if your brain is swimming in all of these new grammar terms. Dependent clauses are modifiers; they add extra information to the sentence. In addition to independent clauses, GMAT SC sentences will also contain dependent clauses in order to make these sentences as complex and annoying!

You'll learn all about these modifiers in the next chapter. For now, concentrate on learning the core sentence structures discussed in this chapter so that you are fully prepared to add even more complexity when you move to Chapter 4. Then c determine whether the subject and the verb make sense together and d determine whether the subject agrees in number with the verb.

If the subject is singular, the verb form must be singular. If the subject is plural, the verb form must be plural. If the sentence is a fragment, or if the subject and verb do not make sense together, or if the subject and verb do not agree, e rewrite the sentence correcting the mistake.

A venomous snake designated the emblem of the rebellion by the insurgency. A number of players on the team have improved since last season.

Jack, along with some of his closest friends, is sharing a limo to the prom. There is, according to my doctor, many courses of treatment available to me. After all the gardening we did, the sun shining on the flowerbeds make a beautiful sight. The decision to place the beautiful artifacts in out-of-the-way nooks around the mansion's various rooms was inspiring. Just around the corner is a fantastic bakery and a small supermarket. Fix the following sentences if necessary. Look for issues outlined in this chapter, including connecting words and connecting punctuation.

The music company was afraid of the accelerating decline of sales of compact disks would not be compensated by increased internet revenue. The petroleum distillates were so viscous, the engineers had to heat the pipe by nearly 30 degrees. The municipality's back-to-work program has had notable success, nevertheless, it is not suitable for a state-wide rollout for several reasons.

Historically, the Isle of Man had an economy based primarily on agriculture and fishing; now, one based on banking, tourism, and film production. A venomous snake the emblem of the rebellion by the insurgency. A number of players on the team since last season. Jack, along with some of his closest friends, a limo to the prom. There , according to my doctor, many courses of treatment available to me. After all the gardening we did, the sun shining on the flowerbeds a beautiful sight.

The decision to place the beautiful artifacts in out-of-the-way nooks around the mansion's various rooms inspiring. Just around the corner a fantastic bakery AND a small supermarket. The word and makes a compound subject, which is plural. The music company was afraid THAT the accelerating decline of sales of compact disks would not be compensated by increased internet revenue. The original sentence has an independent clause The music company was afraid of the accelerating decline of sales of compact disks with another verb phrase—would not be compensated by increased internet revenue— inappropriately tacked on.

One way to fix the sentence is to replace the preposition of with that. The petroleum distillates were so viscous THAT the engineers had to heat the pipe by nearly 30 degrees. The original sentence is a run-on sentence. The municipality's back-to-work program has had notable success; nevertheless, it is not suitable for a state-wide rollout for several reasons.

As a result, you need to use a semicolon, not a comma, before nevertheless. Historically, the Isle of Man had an economy based primarily on agriculture and fishing; now, IT HAS one based on banking, tourism, and film production.

Just like the words that come before a semicolon, the words that come after a semicolon must constitute a complete sentence. In the original sentence, the second part of the sentence does not form a valid independent clause. The Bentley trench, situated more than a mile and a half below sea level and completely covered by Antarctic glaciers, IS the lowest point on the planet not under the oceans. The original sentence has an independent clause linked to a sentence fragment by the use of and.

In the corrected version, one main clause combines all of the information given. Relative Pronouns Noun Modifier Markers: Prepositions and Participles Adverbial Modifiers Which vs. Although modifiers can be as simple as a single word an adjective or an adverb , GMAT sentences often contain several complex modifiers. The modifier Tired out from playing basketball describes the noun Charles. It provides additional context as to why Charles decided to take a nap.

Many modifiers answer the questions who, what, when, where, or why. Incorrectly used modifiers can lead to ambiguity or illogical meaning. Adjectives and Adverbs Adjectives and adverbs are one-word modifiers. An adjective modifies only a noun or a pronoun, whereas an adverb modifies almost anything but a noun or a pronoun.

These two types of modifiers illustrate the two broad categories of modifiers. Noun modifiers, such as adjectives, modify only a noun or a pronoun.

Adverbial modifiers, such as adverbs, can modify verbs, adjectives, prepositional phrases, even entire clauses, but they do not modify plain nouns. Here the adjective smart modifies the noun student, while the adverb quickly modifies the verb works. Many adverbs are formed by adding -ly to the adjective.

The GMAT will sometimes offer answers that use an adjective where an adverb is grammatically required and vice versa. All of the following examples are correct, although they differ in meaning: Good is an adjective that modifies the noun person. Well is an adjective that modifies the noun Amy.

Well is an adverb that modifies the verb writes. On harder questions, the GMAT could provide two grammatically correct phrasings. For instance, which of these sentences is more logical? Max's grandmother is his supposed Irish ancestor. Max's grandmother is his supposedly Irish ancestor. In the first option, the adjective supposed points to the noun ancestor, implying that Max's grandmother is not actually his ancestor.

In the second option, the adverb supposedly points to the adjective Irish, implying that Max's grandmother is not actually Irish. Logically, Max's grandmother has to be his ancestor; if she weren't, the sentence would call her his supposed grandmother.

Only the second option, then, has a sensible meaning: Max's grandmother is supposedly Irish but she may not be after all. Adjectives that have been observed alternating with their corresponding adverbs in released GMAT problems include corresponding, frequent, independent, rare, recent, seeming, separate, significant, supposed, and usual.

If you spot an answer switching back and forth between the adjective and adverb forms of the same word, ask yourself what the word is modifying. If it's modifying a noun by itself, use the adjective form.

If it's modifying anything other than a noun or pronoun , use the adverbial form. Noun Modifiers Adjectives are the most simple noun modifiers. Other types of noun modifiers act like long adjectives. Consider these examples you don't need to memorize the grammar terms: When you can ask a who, what, which, or where question about a noun, and the answer points to the modifier, you have a noun modifier.

Think about the circumstances in which you would use each of the two sentences below: The cat, which lives next door, is very noisy. The cat that lives next door is very noisy. In the first example, you would already have to know which cat the speaker is talking about. Just thought I'd mention it.

If three cats are playing in front of you, the speaker would specify the cat that lives next door, not the other two cats. If you take a nonessential modifier out of the sentence, you still retain the full meaning of the main part of the sentence: Nonessential modifiers are usually separated out from the rest of the sentence by commas. The second sentence includes an example of an essential modifier. If you remove it from the sentence, then the meaning may be compromised.

Essential modifiers are not usually separated out by commas. Position of Noun Modifiers The placement of modifiers is really a function of meaning. Place the modifier incorrectly and the sentence may have an illogical or ambiguous meaning.

Sentence pdf gmat correction

There are typically many nouns in a long sentence, so a noun modifier has to be placed in such a way that the reader knows exactly which noun is being modified. The practical result is that nouns and noun modifiers must be placed either right next to each other or very close together.

Remember this rule: Here's what can happen when a noun and its modifier break this rule: A hard worker and loyal team player, the new project was managed by Sue. The sentence begins with an opening modifier set off from the rest of the sentence by a comma. Who is a hard worker and loyal team player?

Not the project! That's illogical. Instead, move the appropriate noun closer to the modifier: A hard worker and loyal team player, Sue managed the new project.

The majority of the time, a noun and its modifier will be placed right next to each other, with no other words intervening. In certain circumstances, though, a noun and its modifier may be separated by another modifier. The box of nails, which is nearly full, belongs to Jean. The noun box has two modifiers: They can't both be placed right after the noun; one has to come first. An essential modifier trumps a nonessential modifier.

Of nails is an essential modifier which box? In this case, the which modifier refers to the closest preceding main noun, box. Which of the options below is better? Jim biked along an old dirt road to get to his house, which cut through the woods.

To get to his house, Jim biked along an old dirt road, which cut through the woods. What cut through the woods? The road. Modifiers should be as close as possible to the nouns they modify, so the second option is preferable. To get to his house refers to the verb biked: He biked. Possessive Nouns Are Not Nouns!

Happy about his raise, Bill's celebration included taking his friends out to dinner. Logically, the modifier happy about his raise should describe Bill. However, possessive nouns are actually adjectives, not nouns, and a noun modifier has to point to a noun. As it stands, the sentence technically and illogically says that Bill's celebration is happy about his raise.

Here is a corrected sentence: Happy about his raise, Bill celebrated by taking his friends to dinner. Noun Modifier Markers: Relative Pronouns Noun modifiers are often introduced by relative pronouns such as the following: Which That Who Whose Whom Where When The words above always signal noun modifiers with the exception of the word that, which can sometimes signal other structures. A noun followed immediately by the word that signals a noun modifier.

A verb followed immediately by the word that signals the more complex sentence structure subject—verb—THAT— subject—verb—object see Chapter 3 for more. The pronouns who and whom must modify people. On the other hand, the pronoun which cannot modify people.

Pdf gmat sentence correction

Perhaps surprisingly, the pronoun whose can modify either people or things: Which or whom sometimes follow prepositions: In these cases, use in which rather than where. The pronoun when can be used to modify a noun event or time, such as period, age, , or decade.

In these circumstances, you can also use in which instead of when. Prepositions and Participles Both prepositional phrases and participle modifiers can be noun modifiers or adverbial modifiers, but they do follow some specific rules. In general, if a preposition immediately follows a noun, then the prepositional phrase modifies that noun.

Can you spot the noun modifiers in the following sentence? Researchers discovered that the most common risk factor resulting in cholera epidemics is the lack of a clean water supply.

The adjective common describes the risk factor. The adverb most refers to common. What about the more complex noun modifiers? The word resulting is a participle. Note that it is not separated out from the rest of the sentence by a comma.

Therefore, resulting in cholera epidemics signals a noun modifier; it refers to the risk factor. The prepositional phrase of a clean water supply modifies the noun lack.

Participles can be present or past: Past participles most commonly end in —ed, but there are a number of irregular verb forms. These participles can function as verbs, nouns, or various types of modifiers. She is playing soccer. Any —ing word functioning as part of the verb form will have another verb immediately before it, as in the is playing example.

If no prior verb exists, then the —ing word is not acting as a verb. Any -ing words that are not verbs and not separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma will either be a noun, as in Playing soccer is fun, or modify another noun, as in The girl playing soccer is my sister.

Past participles, or —ed words, are not tested as frequently as —ing words, but follow the same general rules, except that a past participle can be a verb all by itself but it cannot function as a noun. She played the lottery yesterday.

Who was exhausted? She was. However, the context of the rest of the sentence matters. A sentence such as exhausted from her job, she has red hair would not be acceptable on the GMAT.

As a result, it is better to think of this modifier as applicable to the whole main clause. Because she was exhausted, she bought a lottery ticket? They can also modify adjectives, prepositional phrases, clauses…anything that isn't just a plain noun.

These modifiers also answer questions, such as how, when, where, or why an action occurred, but this time, the answer will point to something other than a plain noun. Here are a few examples: Adverbial modifiers do not have the same placement constraints as noun modifiers.

A sentence typically contains only one or two main clauses, so adverbial modifiers can be placed more freely without creating meaning issues in the sentence. As long as the adverbial modifier clearly points to one particular verb or clause, the placement is acceptable. In fact, only the first example in the list above places the modifier right next to the verb, and even that was not required. It is possible to place adverbial modifiers poorly, though. What's wrong with this sentence?

He walked and caught up with his sister more rapidly. The placement of the modifier rapidly indicates that he caught up with his sister more rapidly…than what? Try a harder one: The CEO declared that everyone had to work every day through the holidays to make the production deadline, but in calling for such an extreme measure, the company's employees were upset to the point of mutiny.

Such modifiers refer to the entire clause to which they are attached. Which clause is that? The sentence has two: Logically, the CEO called for this extreme measure, not the employees.

However, because the —ing modifier falls after the conjunction connecting the two clauses, the modifier refers to the employees, not to the CEO.

Sentence Correction GMAT Preparation Guide

The sentence could be fixed in multiple ways: In an extreme measure, the CEO declared that everyone had to work every day through the holidays to make the production deadline; her employees were upset to the point of mutiny. The CEO declared that everyone had to work every day through the holidays to make the production deadline, but in calling for such an extreme measure, she upset her employees to the point of mutiny.

Both of the correct sentences properly attribute the extreme move to the CEO, not to the employees. In short, an adverbial modifier points to the right verb or clause as long as it is not structurally closer to some other verb or clause. An adverbial modifier does not necessarily have to be placed as close as possible to what it modifies.

Because the engineer fixed the problem, he earned a promotion. Fixing the problem resulted in earning the promotion. Because the team was exhilarated, it celebrated. The exhilaration led to the celebration. Whichever statement comes first in the sentence, whether modifier or main clause, is the instigating action, and whichever comes second, is the effect or result. Picture a woman ice skating. She loses her balance, crashes to the ice, and then clutches her ankle in pain.

Which of these three sentences correctly describes this scenario? Slipping on the ice, she broke her ankle. Breaking her ankle, she slipped on the ice. She slipped on the ice, breaking her ankle. Although they have different structures, the first and third sentences both correctly describe what happened: The middle sentence is illogical because it implies that she broke her ankle first, then slipped on the ice. Subordinators Take a look at this sentence: It is almost exactly like a complete sentence, but it has a subordinator although at the beginning.

Subordinate clauses are not complete sentences: Although the economy is strong. Subordinate clauses modify the main clause to which they are attached. In the correct example presented first in this section, the subordinate clause provides additional information about the main clause: Common subordinator markers include: Pay attention to the meaning of the chosen word.

If the word indicates a contrast, for example, then make sure the sentence actually conveys a contrast: Although the economy is strong, the retail industry is doing well.

The GMAT will test you to make sure that you are paying attention to this kind of meaning! I need to relax, YET I have so many things to do!

Make sure that clauses are connected by a sensible connecting word: In the example above, the connecting word and is not sensible, because the two sentence parts are in opposition to each other.

This meaning error can be corrected by choosing a different connecting word: Finally, be on the lookout for sentences that join a main clause to something that should be a clause but is not actually a clause: Citizens of many countries are expressing concern about the environmental damage caused by the widespread release of greenhouse gases may be impossible to reverse. The main clause in this sentence is Citizens of many countries are expressing concern about the environmental damage caused by the widespread release of greenhouse gases.

There is nothing wrong with this main clause. What about the rest of the sentence, which consists of the verb phrase may be impossible to reverse?

This verb phrase has no subject. The GMAT wants you to think that environmental damage is the subject of may be impossible to reverse, but environmental damage is part of a prepositional phrase about the environmental damage. Nouns in prepositional phrases cannot also be subjects. One way to fix the sentence is to change the preposition about to the subordinator that: Citizens of many countries are expressing concern THAT the environmental damage caused by the widespread release of greenhouse gases may be impossible to reverse.

In this correct version, the main clause is Citizens…are expressing concern. The subordinate clause begins with the word that and extends to the end of the sentence. Within that subordinate clause, environmental damage is the subject of may be. Another way to fix the sentence is to put may be impossible to reverse inside a modifier: In this correct version, the main clause ends right before the comma.

Which vs. The recent decrease in crime has led to a rise in property values, but decreased is a verb in the sentence. Whenever you use which, you must be referring to a noun. Here, the neighborhood has not led to anything, nor has crime by itself.

Remember the rule: One way to correct the sentence is to turn the first thought into a noun phrase and make this phrase the subject of the verb in the which clause, eliminating which altogether: The recent decrease in crime in our neighborhood has led to a rise in property values.

Another way to correct the sentence is to use an adverbial modifier to refer to the whole clause: Crime has recently decreased in our neighborhood, leading to a rise in property values. Again, in speech, people often break these rules, incorrectly using which to refer to a previous thought that is not a noun.

Do not use your ear for this one. Always test which clauses to make sure that the which refers to the closest preceding main noun and not the whole clause. Modifier vs. George Carlin, both shocking and entertaining audiences across the nation, who also struggled publicly with drug abuse, influenced and inspired a generation of comedians. Here's a better way to convey the same information: Both shocking and entertaining audiences across the nation, George Carlin, who also struggled publicly with drug abuse, influenced and inspired a generation of comedians.

In this better sentence, one nonessential modifier is placed before the noun and the other is placed after. On harder questions, GMAT answers are more likely to rephrase the sentence so that one of the modifiers becomes part of the core of the sentence; that is, it is no longer a modifier. Both shocking and entertaining audiences across the nation, George Carlin influenced and inspired a generation of comedians yet struggled publicly with drug abuse.

Here's the core sentence: Carlin influenced and inspired yet struggled. Two FANBOYS conjunctions connect the three verbs influenced, inspired, struggled , so that final portion is now part of the core sentence, not a modifier. If your first glance reveals a long underline, expect portions of the sentence to move around or even change roles completely in the answers. Here are some examples of correct sentences in which the core and modifier portions change: Employing the new lab equipment, the engineer identified the problem quickly.

The engineer employed the new lab equipment, identifying the problem within minutes. Neither one is better than the other; both would be acceptable on the GMAT. Both of these sentences are acceptable as long as the meaning is logical and unambiguous. Quantity In the English language, words and expressions of quantity are subject to strict grammatical rules.

Rule 1: Words Used for Countable Things vs. Other nouns are uncountable, such as patience, water, and furniture. If you are unsure as to whether a particular word is countable, try to count it out: For hat: One hat, two hats, three hats.

This works. Hat is countable. For One patience? This does not patience: Patience is not countable. Here are some examples of words and expressions that modify countable things and those that modify uncountable things: Do not use the word less with countable items. This error has become common in speech, and in the signs above express lines in grocery stores: Since the noun item is countable, the sign should read 10 items or fewer.

Be careful with unit nouns, such as dollars or gallons. By their nature, unit nouns are countable: Thus, they work with most of the countable modifiers. However, unit nouns represent uncountable quantities: You can count money, of course, but you cannot count the noun money: As a result, use less with unit nouns, when you really want to indicate something about the underlying quantity: You would probably say fewer than twenty dollar bills to make the point even clearer.

Rule 2: Words Used to Relate Two Things vs. Words Used to Relate Three or More Things To relate two things, use comparative forms of adjectives and adverbs better, worse, more, less.

For example, the rabbit is faster than the toad. Use superlative forms best, worst, most, least to compare three or more things or people. For example, the rabbit is the fastest of all of the animals at the farm. In addition, use between only with two things or people. When you are talking about three or more things or people, use among: Rule 3: The Word Numbers If you wish to make a comparison using the word numbers, use greater than, not more than which might imply that the quantity of numbers is larger, not the numbers themselves: Rule 4: Increase and Decrease vs.

Greater and Less The words increase and decrease are not the same as the words greater and less. Increase and decrease express the change of one thing over time. Greater and less signal a comparison between two things. Watch out for redundancy in sentences with the words increase and decrease: Decrease already includes the notion of falling or lowering, so fell is redundant. Similarly, increase includes the notion of rising or growing, so rise or growth would be redundant as well.

For each of these modifiers, a identify the word or words, if any, that it modifies, and b indicate whether the modifier is correct. If the modifier is incorrect, suggest a way to correct the error.

Upon setting foot in the Gothic cathedral, the spectacularly stained-glass windows amazed the camera-wielding tourists. A recent formed militia, consisting of lightly armed peasants and a few retired army officers, is fighting a bitterly civil war against government forces. Mary buys cookies made with SugarFree, an artificial sweetener, which tastes as sweet as the corn syrup that her brother loves but having fewer calories than in an equivalent amount of corn syrup. People that are well-informed know that Bordeaux is a French region whose most famous export is the wine which bears its name.

People, who talk loudly on their cell phones in crowded trains, show little respect for other passengers. Of all the earthquakes in European history, the earthquake, which destroyed Lisbon in , is perhaps the most famous. Unaccustomed to the rigors of college life, James's grades dropped. Regina returned the dress to the store, which was torn at one of the seams.

Last night our air conditioner broke, which caused great consternation. The following four sentences contain circled sections. Use the rules in this chapter to correct any errors that you can find in the circled sections.

The negotiations the company, the union, and the city government were initially contentious but amicable. Jim is trying to reduce the of soda that he drinks at last night's party, however, his resolve to drink soda was sorely tested he found himself quaffing of sodas.

Most legislators—including in the governor's own party—realize that the governor's budget would imperil the state's finances the budget is likely to be approved few legislators want to anger voters by cutting spending or raising taxes. Upon setting foot in the Gothic cathedral: Upon is a preposition.

The phrase Upon setting foot in the Gothic cathedral contains the gerund setting. Who or what set foot in the cathedral? Logically, it must be the tourists, not the windows.

However, the noun windows is the subject of the sentence, and so windows seems to be the subject of setting. An adverb such as spectacularly can modify many parts of speech, but not a noun. The phrase spectacularly stained-glass windows seems to imply that the windows were spectacularly stained—that is, spectacularly seems to modify stained.

However, stained-glass is a material. The author intended to say that either the stained glass itself or the windows were spectacular. The adverb should be replaced with the adjective spectacular.

This participle modifies tourists. Upon entering the Gothic cathedral, the camera-wielding tourists were amazed by the spectacular stained-glass windows. The adjective recent modifies militia, whereas logic calls for an adverb, recently, to modify formed.

The adverb lightly modifies the past participle armed, which is being used as an adjective armed modifies the noun peasants. Retired is an adjective that modifies army officers. You can also argue that retired is a past participle being used as an adjective. The adverb bitterly modifies civil, but the writer surely meant to use an adjective bitter to modify the noun phrase civil war. Which was ravaged…from Portugal: This relative clause modifies the noun Angola. This relative clause illogically modifies Portugal which is in Europe.

A relative clause that begins with where must modify a noun that names a physical place, so this clause cannot modify year. The clause is too far away from Angola, however, to perform its intended role of modifying Angola. Repairing this deeply flawed sentence involves rearranging its components and incorporating some of the modifiers into main clauses: Ravaged by civil war for many years after it gained independence from Portugal, Angola is now one of Africa's success stories: This appositive noun phrase modifies SugarFree, though it should be moved so that the which modifier is closer.

Now that artificial sweetener has been moved, this modifier clearly modifies the artificial sweetener SugarFree. The -ing modifier having…corn syrup is meant to be parallel to the relative clause which tastes…brother loves. When relative clauses are parallel, they should start with the same relative pronoun. This clause uses the relative pronoun that to refer to people.

Who must refer to human beings. Another problem with that are well-informed is that it is wordy. Avoid relative clauses whose only verb is a form of to be, because they can generally be expressed more succinctly. This clause modifies region. Notice that whose, unlike who and whom, can correctly modify non- human entities.

The context of this sentence calls for an essential clause to modify the wine, since the point of the clause is to identify the wine. If the sentence ended with the wine, it would be incomplete. The clause should therefore begin with that rather than which.

Well-informed people know that Bordeaux is a French region whose most famous export is the wine that bears its name. This clause is wrong because the commas that enclose it make it a nonessential clause.

The logic of the sentence calls for an essential clause, because the rest of the sentence would change its meaning without the information in the relative clause. The sentence People show little respect for other passengers makes a sweeping claim about every human being. To correct this error, remove the commas.

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