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Electrical India, oldest magazine on Power & Energy has an all India circulation. Monthly print and online digital magazines subscription is recognized by Power. Electrical India, oldest magazine on Power & Energy has an all India circulation. Monthly print and online digital magazines subscription is. Electrical India does not take responsibility for claims made by of the information in this magazine, opinions expressed and images are those.
This is owing to large underutilised capacities, muted demand, bunched capacity addition, soft merchant power prices, continued investments in renewable Salil Garg capacities, lack of power purchase agreements Director - Corporates PPAs and weak discoms. The LED modules are individually rated 42 watts. Today, most wireless power transmission occurs over very short distances, typically involving charging stands or pads. Ind-Ra expects acquirers to express interest PLF is currently stressed, with a debt of nearly of debt issued, has been successful on the financial only in lower asset valuations, with haircuts to be INR1. Nightlight Figure4:
Essar Power MP Ltd. The company has secured coal through a Government-conducted e-auction for the plant. It requires approximately 5. Suzuki Motor Corporation Suzuki , Toshiba Corporation Toshiba And Denso Corporation Denso have reached basic agreement on establishing a joint venture company for production of automotive lithium-ion battery packs in India, and signed the agreement.
In India, higher attention is being paid to environment, and new CO2 standards for automobiles Hitachi, Ltd. In July , Hitachi integrated its escala Eaton was selected by Irkut to support the design, development, qualification and certification of the hydraulic power generation system components for the MC, which completed its maiden fligh The Contract was signed on July 31, by Mr.
Seebaluck, Chairman of Metro Expre Commonwealth Edison Co. This system can stop this theft. This attracts more This system rings alarm when any unauthorized the LED driver circuit to control the intensity of customers and the value of the restaurants will person touches the jewel.
It means that the sales LED array. Future Innovations 1. Security door mat This is a security system installed in the doormats of the house of office. This door mats have alarms installed in it. Place this doormat at the door, switch on the supply at night now when any person or animal will try to enter the house, alarm will be activated and the house owner will be alerted.
This system cannot be detected because it is very unusual to install security system in doormat. Interactive Jewelry Display This system is a very innovative idea of jewellery display. This is a structure in which the top surface is supported by four hollow tubes on the bottom surface.
Sensors are installed in the bottom surface and high intensity LED lightings are installed on the top surface facing downwards. When any jewel is kept on the bottom surface it activates the light only on top of the jewel. Interactive Table Tops With Wireless Supply There were many table top electronic projects in the past but most of them did not Figure 2: Block diagram of the project.
This system reads an RFID tag on the wristband of when any special guest enters the hotel. Restaurants the sales person and stops the alarm.
So a person Party Plots People normally spend around an hour for without wristband cannot touch the jewels. In Indian wedding, decorations is very dining at a restaurant. People dont like to wait important, every other wedding has some for the food to be served. But if the dining table Commercial Use of Project innovation.
This lightning near the entrance or has interactive, they can spend time exploring it Clubs drinks counter can help immensely, this lightning and the wait for food is no more boring.
Now-a-days there is a considerable increase responds with the movement of the guests.
Jewelers Shops in the number of clubs in India. Clubs, Pubs, Discos are the places where innovative LED lights Interior Decorators Jewelers shops spend a lot of money in House is a thing in which people normally chandeliers and light decorations, the innovation are used to maximum, this type of lights can be contribute maximum money they have got.
The aspect of lightning decorations. If we place this light in the entrance like the false ceiling, decorative lamps etc. In such from the top can play a vital role in enhancing the lobby the lights follow the guest and this looks scenario, this octolively table kept in the hall can beauty of the jewels.
This counter people can spend time seeing the lights Conclusion and waiter get the time to serve the drink. Hotels using proximity detection. The system is In this competitive world, hotel owners are Commercial Offices developed to serve two purposes; one is keen to bring in any new innovation to attract Octolively tables can be a very good decorative system while the other is safety the customers. This can be an innovative idea decoration at the reception of the office.
People system. This system can be installed at almost all that can be exchanged with those costly and normally keep a fish tank to catch attraction. When this project is Octolively lights can easily replace fish tanks in requirement.
Such systems will be very common www. Here the security aspect form of decorations and safety in future. The plate and glass, this will look great. This type of of the system can also be used. Here the GSM future plan is to market it, manufacture in good concept attracts more customers. The project can modem can also be used to get the SMS alert for number and sell in a good number. Task-Oriented Luminaires Task oriented lighting systems are used when some task requires substantially more light than others do.
A Higher level of task illumination may be provided by asymmetrical luminaire layouts that concentrate luminaires at the task. Special purpose Luminaires are used for task-oriented illumination. They are also used to provide a higher level of luminance for difficult visual tasks T he luminaire is an electrical device used of luxury and status. Therefore, it became to create decorative light by use of an popular in homes of nobility, clergy, and electric lamp.
The term luminaire is merchants also. Similarly, to make Services, Aditya Birla Group 15th century onwards, Decorative the city beautiful, decorative luminaires are Chandeliers as luminaires became popular in being used in streetlights.
Various energy saving palaces, temples, mosque, cathedral, and Senate. Immobile Luminaires Under this category different immobile or fixed type or non-movable, indoor type, ceiling mounted luminaires are classified. As per design and mounting, Luminaires can be further categorized as Chandeliers, Pendants, Flush- mounted, Island, Track, Ceiling fan, and Recessed type. Some of the popular ceilings mounted indoor Luminaires are highlighted below: Chandeliers A Chandelier is the most popular as it is a distinct kind of pendant light having infinite varieties.
Chandeliers are often decorative and normally use incandescent light bulbs. However, Chart 1 in latest design fluorescent lamps or even LEDs are being used. Type of luminaires shown below. It is further categorized as candle type, Luminaires are categorized according to Balanced-arm lamp Crystal type, and Drum type Chandeliers. It is used Candle-style Chandelier type of source used with them. The candle-style chandelier is the most A common classification based is highlighted as mobile Streetlight.
It reflects the original in chart 1. Gooseneck lamp construction of light sources, framed around real Mobile Luminaires A gooseneck lamp is a portable lighting lit candles. The bulbs stand on cylinders gives the This category further can be classified as luminaire in which a lamp is attached to a original look of lit candles. Under this category, flexible, adjustable shaft. Gooseneck lamps are candles have been replaced by LEDs. Crystal Chandeliers table lamp luminaires, standard lamp luminaires, Nightlight Crystal chandeliers are available in a huge office task light luminaires, floor light luminaires A nightlight is a tiny luminaire, placed in the range of sizes and complexities.
It has more or Balanced-Arm lamp can be considered. Light pole with hydraulic Figure 2: Gooseneck Table Lamp Figure 3: Nightlight Figure4: Torchiere cylinder arm. Figure 5: Candle Style Chandelier Figure 6: Crystal chandeliers Figure 7: Drum Chandeliers. Twinkling, eye- luminaires hung from the ceiling. It is designed Mini Pendants catching light dances through the crystal. Crystal for a broad range of variety. Some specific styles It is smaller a model that is used in groups Chandeliers are set in hallways, living rooms, and are highlighted below: Recently these are getting Bowl Pendants popularity in bedrooms and bathrooms also.
Ceiling Dome Luminaires Bowl pendants are the suspended light In this type of lighting luminaires, frame and Drum Chandeliers source wrapped in a unique bowl-shaped shade.
It can be Drum chandeliers have a cylindrical shade Drum Pendants categorized as full flush mounted or Enclosed wrapping around the light source, giving them It is like a suspended cylindrical shade Ceiling Dome, and Semi-flush mounted or Open the Drum look. It is used in bedrooms and around the light source, applicable for the Ceiling Dome luminaires.
In full flush style dining rooms. It is popular in dining room and restaurants. Figure 8: Bowl Pendants Figure 9: Drum Pendants Figure Globe Figure Mini Pendants Pendant www. Figure Track Figure Recessed Figure High Mast Figure Yard Light Figure Street Light Figure Bollard Light Figure Track Lighting Pole Lighting Luminaires Special purpose Luminaires are used for task- It allows for an embedded frame in the Some of the important pole lighting oriented illumination.
They are also used to ceiling, from which any number of Drum, Bowl, Luminaires are illustrated below. Task oriented lighting systems are used structure, at varying heights. Normally used for landscape, roadways, and when task locations are widely spread within the Ceiling Fans parking lots.
A higher level of task luminaires are suspended below the ceiling fans.
It is an architectural type outdoor lighting illumination may be provided by asymmetrical Recessed Lighting luminaires.
Typically used to provide cutoff type luminaires layouts, which concentrate luminaires It is the delicate solutions for every home. It illumination for egress lighting. It is a short, at the task.
For special application, like inspection is the light sources hide within the ceiling upright ground-mounted unit in light steps and lighting requires grazing light or reflected glare structure, making for a fully clean shadow in any pathways or walkways. Therefore, room. In its design, a single bulb fits within each Street light luminaires specialized luminaires have to be placed at a circular or rectangular frame.
Metal halide or LED lamps used for street light. Special purpose luminaires are Latest generation luminaires are accompanied available over a wide range.
Some of the popular www. Some of the important types of outdoor types, Luminaires luminaires used for the special Yard light luminaires are highlighted below: It is a freestanding exterior lighting luminaire purpose are highlighted below.
Immobile outdoor type light fixtures are accompanied with gardens light. Typically used Accent Light Luminaires further categorized in outdoor landscape lighting for an outdoor path or driveway to provide Accent light luminaires are used to focus the or ground light and pole light. Luminaires Special Purpose Lights and Flood Light Luminaires These are used to illuminate walkways, Luminaires Floodlights are broad-beamed, high- parking lots, roadways, building exteriors and Luminaires used for general lighting system intensity artificial lights.
Produced by LED or architectural details, gardens, and parks. Accent Figure Flood Light Figure Safelight Figure Search light Figure They are often used to illuminate Customarily mounted below kitchen wall luminaires are shown below outdoor playing fields. Formally, all luminaires were used with an Safe light Showcase light incandescent lamp, HPMV lamp, metal halide A safelight usually consists of an ordinary Customarily installed in the showcase to lamp or CF lamp but now LEDs lights are replacing light bulb housed in luminaires having colored display merchandise, jewelry, grocery stores, and all types of sources.
Energy Efficient Use of Searchlight Emergency lighting or Exit sign It is an apparatus having an extremely It is connected to a battery backup or to an Luminaires luminous source with a parabolic mirror act as a The primary use of luminaire is to improve electric circuit that has emergency power, in case reflector to project a powerful beam of parallel decoration of the place and nearby area, where it the main power source fails.
It is used in is installed. Since these are very costly as Background light the military as well as in advertisements. Selection of ignored. However, now for the beautification of It is a device used to produce regular flashes theme for background light depends on subject houses, offices, shops, malls, showrooms, cities, of light, commonly called a strobe. Therefore, their power It is signaling devices positioned at road It is a lamp housed in flameproof luminaires consumption is now also considerable.
Although intersections, pedestrian crossings, and other that can be used for illumination in an area luminaire does not consume power, it can be locations to control flows of traffic. Christmas lights Security lighting To save energy, various energy saving It does not have any specific luminaires.
Usually, it is provided to increase the feeling measures are designed and applied. These energy However, Fairy lights or twinkle lights, of safety to take safety measures before starting saving measures make the luminaires energy incandescent or led mini lights, net lights, icicle the typical task. All first generation incandescent lamps are Sconce Light Both type luminaires are further classified as replaced by latest generation LED lamps.
Normally used in hallways as overhead lighting flameproof FLP luminaires and Non- flameproof To improve sensitivity and energy efficiency, to illuminate artwork and architectural details. NFLP luminaires. FLP Flood Figure FLP Well Figure NFLP Figure Use of LED with a frequency converter reduces power consumption. Frequency converter makes it more attractive for auto-generation of different colors in the same LED.
LED reduces luminaire weight and makes its transportation easy. In addition, its color scheme can be changed with the help of frequency converter. Use of LED and sound sensors in control circuits, Luminaires can sense the sound also. Therefore, they are more popular for indoor and outdoor Sound and Light programs.
They can also be controlled by Wi-Fi and Bluetooth technology. Electronic dimmers are applied to control illumination A digital control system controls smart professional dimmers.
It uses negligible power as compared to the controlled load. Widest Choice. Zero Downtime solutions for your toughest moving cables: With parallel tests on m2, 1. And with up to 7 motion quality classes, you nd just the right cable for your application - for less money. Calculate life online and order today with a 36 month guarantee. Check out more than 30 test reports here: Energy Chain for Extreme Dynamics with Low Noise For applications where an extremely low-noise running of the energy chain, very high dynamics or very low abrasion is required, the motion plastics specialist igus has developed the E6.
These chains are now available in new sizes with larger inner heights of up to 62 millimetres. Thanks to the narrower design compared to the E6, roughly 30 percent can be saved with the same inner dimensions. From now on, chains in four different dimensions are available from 29 millimetres up to 62 millimetres in height. An even larger version of the E6. Easy access for quick assembly For all installation sizes of the E6. The means that when the chain is already installed in the machine, additional cables or hoses can www.
Almost all of the crossbars are The series E6. In the size with inner height 29 millimetres, users also have the option to order the chain with. T he company igus has developed the E6. This means easier applications where very low-abrasion energy chains are required, for handling and therefore shorter installation times are possible.
The very example in the clean room in semiconductor manufacture. The very small pitch and contour of For more details, visit: Underground cables offer an affordable and justifiable solution for critical parts and in some cases the entire U nderground cables are employed for paper. A metallic sheath of lead or alloy or of transmission and distribution of electric aluminium is provided around the insulation to length of overhead high power where it becomes impracticable protect it against ingress of moisture.
The initial voltage power lines. With to make use of overhead construction. Such heavy cost is the only factor which discouraged appropriate technology used locations may be congested areas where right of the use of underground cables for the purpose of way cost would be excessive or local ordinances transmission and distribution of electric power. The minimised type of cables used will depend upon voltage location is determined by the mechanical and service requirement. Recent improvements considerations and the voltage at which it is required to operate.
According to voltage these www. This has made it possible to use voltage up to 1kv, high-voltage cables for underground cables for transmission of electric operating voltage up to 11KV, super tension power for short or moderate distances. The cable may also get damaged due to high. The cables vibration fatigue or overheating. Less subjected to damage from severe withstand the weather conditions mainly lightning, wind, stresses and the freezing.
Underground cables need a narrower temperature caused surrounding strip of about meters to by the maximum Construction of underground cable install up to 30 m for KV, whereas an short-circuit current overhead line requires a surrounding strip of produced by the employed, spacing between the cables, number about meters wide to be kept phase-to-phase of cores and the thermal conductivity of the soil.
Economic consideration and repair. An approximate 3. Underground cables pose no hazard to low The cables should also give minimum flying aircraft or to wildlife. Disadvantages conductor temperature of 80 C for 11KV cables 1. Undergrounding is more expensive. In highly and above. The ground ambient temperature of Mechanism of Breakdown urbanized areas the cost of underground 30 C applies to most places in India.
There are two ways in which breakdown of as overhead. One way is by a progressive 2. Underground cables locations are not always 2. Another way is by thermal instability 3. Underground cables are more subjected to 15cm 30cm 61cm which occurs due to rapid increase in power damage by ground movement. For 2 cables 0. A marked 6. For 3 cables 0. Maintenance cost of underground system is for a particular application, the factors to be thermal instability, however, no damage occurs very low in comparison with that of overhead considered are: System voltage reduced before breakdown the cables will not 2.
Underground system is free from interruption The type of operating system such as dc have suffered any permanent change. A very of service on account of thunderstorm, 2-wire or 3-wire or ac Single-phase, three- common occurrence is for coring to start and lightning and objects falling across the wires.
Current carrying capacity 4. Underground system cannot be operated The current rating is the most important Causes of Failure of above 66 KV because of insulation difficulties factor. Underground Cables but overhead system can be designed for 3. Permissible voltage drop 1. The most common point of failure is at the operation up to KV or higher even. The cable should be selected of such a size cable sealing box mostly due to poor that the voltage drop in the cable is within workmanship of the cable jointer when the Conclusion permissible limits.
Underground cables offer an affordable and 4. Short circuit ratings 2. Another most common cause is the justifiable solution for critical parts and in some For selection of low tension cables this factor mechanical puncturing of the lead sheathing cases the entire length, of overhead high voltage is not important but for high voltage cables, this of a cable, such as by a crowbar, especially in power lines. With appropriate technology used in factor is the most important. It is because in industrial installations where excavation and appropriate places, the environment impact of high-voltage systems the fault current phase- building operations are carried on in areas underground cables can be minimised.
E lectric power is transmitted and protection also traps heat generated from distributed either by overhead system or conductor losses so the protection needs to be by underground cables. Cables are mainly thin. Simmi Sharma designed as per requirement. An electrical cable At high frequencies current tends to run Ph. Electric cables connect two or coverings, assembly protection and protective more devices, thereby, allowing the transfer of coverings.
Electrical cables can be made more electrical signals and power from one device to flexible by stranding the wires. Electrical cables another. In this process, smaller individual wires are used for wiring in households for solving the are twisted to produce larger wires that are more purpose of lighting for power and control circuits flexible than solid wires of same size.
Bunching Cables are integral part of that are permanently installed. Cables are of these small wires before concentric stranding every technology and securely fastened and organized by using cable provides more flexibility. Tinning is used to engineering field.
Frequent trays, cable ties or cable lacing. In building provide lubrication between strands. Tinning construction, an electrical cable jacket material helps in removal of rubber insulation. Copper research and development is is a source of fuel for fires. To limit the spread of wires can be bare or they can be plated with a required to compete with fire along cable jacketing use of cable coating thin layer of another metal usually tin, gold, materials with jacketing having inherently fire silver as these are less prone to oxidation on than the fast growing retardant is used.
The plastic covering on metal copper, which lengthens ngthens life of wire and makes infrastructure of other clad cables is stripped off at installation to reduce soldering easier.
In fiber optics, these cables countries by improving the the fuel source for fires.
Inorganic coatings and contain one or more optical fibers in a boxes around cables also safeguard the protective jacket that supports the ratings and durability of nearby areas from the fire threat fibers.
These network cables so as to open neww associated with unprotected cables are bendable cable jacketing. This fire www. They are useful in wide area network WAN 4. Ribbon cable are required when many wires are to be used. This type of installations where long distance underground or outdoor cable runs are cable easily provides flex and it is designed to handle low-level required and also in office buildings that require a high volume of voltages.
Twin-lead is a flat two-wire line. It is also called a line because the Optical fibre is a cable with following advantages: It is used as a transmission line Light-weight between an antenna and a receiver like ones used in TV and radio. These Immune to noise cables are stranded to lower skin effects.
Low attenuation 6.
Hybrid optical and electrical cables are used in wireless outdoor fiber- Tolerates data rates on the order of Mbps to-the-antenna FTTA applications. The optical fibers carry information Bandwidth from tens of megahertz to several gigahertz. These cables Undersea cables are used for long distance communication. Power are placed in several environments example to serve antenna mounted cables are used for bulk transmission of alternating and direct current. Some other types of cables are: A current carrying conductor radiates an electromagnetic field and a Communications cable cable picks up energy from this existing electromagnetic field around it.
Direct-buried cable These effects are often undesirable in transmission of energy as it adversely Flexible cables affects nearby equipment and its parts.
This can be prevented by keeping Non-metallic sheathed cable. A cable can cause unwanted pickup of noise which can Multicore cable mask the desired signal carried by the cable.
The cable carrying power Portable cord Flexible cable for AC power in portable applications supply or control voltages even gets polluted to such an extent that it causes Shielded cable Used for sensitive electronic circuits or to provide malfunctioning of the equipment.
The preventive measure in regard is to protection in high-voltage applications. For this three principal design techniques are proposed: The cable is encased for its entire length in a wire mesh and wires running inside this shielding layer are decoupled from external electrical fields. Simple shielding of this type is not useful in low-frequency magnetic fields.
A grounded shield on cables operating at 2kV or more gathers leakage current and capacitive current thus protecting living beings from electric shock and equalizes stress on the cable insulation. Cable Designs 1. Twisted pair has two wires of a cable twisted around each other. It is demonstrated by putting one end of a pair of wires in a hand drill and turning while maintaining moderate tension on the line.
The interfering signal has a long wavelength compared to the pitch of the twisted pair. Alternate lengths of wires develop opposing voltages that cancel the interference effects. Coaxial design is used to reduce low-frequency magnetic transmission and pickup. In this design the foil or mesh shield has a circular cross section and the inner conductor is placed at its centre to provide the voltages induced by a magnetic field between the shield and the core conductor to form two nearly equal magnitudes cancelling each other.
They are used for radio frequency signals example in cable television distribution systems. Paired cable consists of two individually insulated conductors that are generally used in DC or low-frequency applications. PUR cable Durable and highly flexible Production lines, machine tool manufacturing, plant engineering.
PUR U cable Highly flexible Production lines, machine tool manufacturing, plant engineering, assembly lines. Single cable cables can be installed as permanent wiring within buildings, buried in the Submersible cable ground and run overhead or exposed. Flexible power cables are used for Twinax cable portable devices, mobile tools and machinery. These are designed and Serial and parallel cables: The use of Ethernet crossover cables was especially temperature and purpose of applications desired by customer.
For mining, common on older home networks years ago while connecting two PCs extra mechanical strength is provided to cable with double armouring. For directly together. The underground cables have several wires. However, these days much of electrical wiring is done with multi advantages such as less liable to damage through storms, lightning, low conductor cables because of their ease of use.
The purchase of wire is done maintenance cost, less chances of faults, smaller voltage drop and better by the foot or in spools that range from 50 to feet. The most common general appearance. Voltage drop is also an important factor of cable multiconductor cable is made from metal or plastic and contains a neutral design.
The neutral and hot wires are drop. The wires are color-coded to guard for protection against 1. Conductor connection errors. Neutral wires are white or gray, grounding wires are 2. Bedding green, and hot wires are of any other colour. Armouring The cable are also designed according to number of conductors they 4. Outer sheath contain and their size. The larger the diameter, the greater the wires 5.
Insulation capacity is to carry current. Another important factor is the mechanical and chemical properties of The mostly commonly used metal for wires is copper due to its efficiency the connection technologies.
In many applications cables withstand intense as a conductor. Wire also comes in aluminum and aluminum clad with heat and welding sparks. Some of them are tabulated in Table 1. So the wires are Conclusion required to be of large size to achieve the same capacity. Cables are integral part of every technology and engineering field. Power cables are mainly used for power transmission and distribution Frequent research and development is required to compete with the fast purpose.
It is an assembly of one or more individually insulated electrical growing infrastructure of other countries by improving the ratings and conductors, usually held together with an overall sheath. The assembly is durability of cables so as to open new applications. Electrical power www. Online Partial Discharge Measurements on Power Cables Partial discharges PD are in general a consequence of local electrical stress concentrations in the insulation or on the Dr B Nagehwar Rao surface of the insulation.
Corona is a form of partial Additional Director discharge that occurs in gaseous media around conductors CPRI, Bangalore which are remote from solid or liquid insulation. C ondition monitoring of high voltage interferences associated with PD signal equipment is mandatory to prevent extraction. Joint director Partial discharge measurement is an important Discharge condition monitoring technique to assess the Partial Discharge is the localized electrical CPRI, Bangalore discharge that only partially bridges the insulation condition of high voltage equipment like power cables, generators, motors insulation between conductors and which can or transformers, cts pts etc.
The partial discharge cannot occur adjacent to a conductor . Partial measurement is a non-destructive diagnostic discharges PD are in general a consequence of test to locate incipient fault in an insulation local electrical stress concentrations in the R Arunjothi insulation or on the surface of the insulation. Engineering officer system. Compared to all other electrical product, extruded power cables system is most vulnerable Corona is a form of partial discharge that occurs CPRI, Bangalore in gaseous media around conductors which are to partial discharge failures.
This paper summarises the various partial discharge remote from solid or liquid insulation. Partial measuring techniques, issues and signal discharges are often accompanied by emission of processing techniques available to eliminate the sound, light, heat, and chemical changes.
It is www. Partial discharge measurement on long Table 1. While off line testing is a valuable resource, this method is costly due to the requirement of disconnection measured in units of charge known as pico- these in turn may contain different discharges the cables from the substation.
Coulombs or millivolts. Consequently, if discharges are made visible on an oscilloscope a complex picture will appear. On-line PD Measurements Occurrence of Partial Online PD Detection is based on detecting Constant, intermittent and irregular sequence of Discharges discharges may appear separately or the discharges at operating voltage using proper It has been well recognised that one of the superimposed.
Surface discharges may also occur sensors, without the use of any additional source. For dielectric surface. It is a non- manufacture or oil impregnated paper insulating Failures due to Partial destructive test and does not use over voltages systems such as power transformers and Discharge that could adversely affect the equipment.
Online capacitors, voids are generally introduced due to Partial Discharge leads to chemical and Partial Discharge Testing is relatively inexpensive maintenance of poor vacuum during the mechanical destruction of adjoining materials. When the insulation system Insulation breakdown is the number one cause of interruption of service and production.
In medium and high voltage occluded results in local over-stressing and equipment, partial discharges are the first Issues with Online PD undergo partial discharges activity.
Although, indication of insulation breakdown. The failure Measurements the magnitude of such discharges is usually small rate of Electrical equipment due to Partial Compared to Off line methods, the sensitivity they are known to cause progressive deterioration discharge based on IEEE report is as given below.
Another issue insulation due to their chemical effects. The dielectric constant of the void inclusion Partial discharges in power cable systems are In these cases, an adequate selection of the non- usually a gas or a mixture of gases is often lower caused by various defects such as voids, shield conventional measuring technique with the most than that of the surrounding dielectric so that the protrusions, contaminants, improper installation suitable sensors and the implementation of electric stress in the void is higher than in the of accessories, improper stress control at effective signal processing tools are essential to dielectric.
Hence, void breakdown at a lower accessories and defects developed due to ageing. When the void is subjected to a stress Off line and on line measurement techniques are condition. Capacitive or inductive sensors are used for voltage discharge will occur regularly at each half cycle of the applied voltage wave.
The Off-Line Partial Discharge Partial discharge detection to measure the high number of the discharges that occur in each half Testing Techniques frequency pulses generated due to Partial Offline Detection requires de-energization of discharges. Generally, capacitive sensors are used cycle is mainly determined by the integer times the cable under test and in some cases, for offline PD detection and Inductive sensors for that the applied voltage peak exceeds the completely removed from the distribution online detection.
Typical inductive sensors are ignition voltage of the void. It has the advantage of close control of ferrite based high frequency current sensors The insulation of all power equipments may the test voltage, and if necessary raising the HFCT.
The sensors provide wideband contain several cavities at different locations and. Typical form of disturbances in time domain Figure 2: Typical form of disturbances in Frequency domain a Broad band noise b Narrow band noise a Broad band noise b Narrow band noise c Pulse noise c Pulse noise.
These Narrowband Interference Broadband noise is present within the entire split core sensors are inductively coupled to the Narrowband interference is usually the most frequency spectrum of the partial discharge earth link of each phase cable.
Most of the Noises and Interferences noise level. Its amplitude can be a lot higher than broadband noise is concentrated on frequencies On-line partial discharge measurements are the amplitude of the partial discharge pulses. The below 30 MHz. There are three common radio transmitters. Broadcasting stations, mobile Pulse-shaped interference frequently occurs types of disturbances namely a narrowband phones, etc.
The level of these kinds of disturbances during partial discharge measurements. Examples interference, b broadband noise and c pulse- varies strongly as a function of time of day and of pulse-shaped interference are thyristor pulses, shaped interference. Narrowband interference is picked up by switching transients and partial discharges from typical form of disturbances in time and the cable shield, overhead lines, badly shielded adjacent systems. The pulse shape of this kind of frequency domain.
RMU components or the sensors themselves. Thus this signal is random in nature and its energy is conventional notch filters or modern signal type of interference can lead into false results if equally spread along the whole frequency band. A pulse- Stochastic broadband noise signals result shaped signal is discontinuous in time domain from numerous natural and artificial sources like Signal Processing and in frequency domain its power is widespread thermal noise, lightning noise, measurement Techniques and usually concentrated on lower frequencies.
Wavelets are mathematical functions that divide the data into different frequency components, and then study each component with a resolution matched its scale. They have advantages over traditional www. Fourier transform methods where the time- based signal is converted to frequency based, where all information regarding time will be lost. Since Partial discharges are non-stationary signals with discontinuities and sharp spikes, the time information is also vital in analysing the PD signal.
Wavelet Transform The general wavelet-based denoising method proceeds in three steps: Wavelet based de-noising S.
Decomposition Thresholding Reconstruction A1 D1.
Wavelet-based denoising procedure A3 D3 Figure 4: Wavelet Method. Soft choosing the best nodes subset best tree for shown in Figure 3.
In the first step, the signal is thresholding sets the wavelet coefficients below representing a signal in wavelet packet domain. The coefficients greater The tree structure of wavelet packet transform is represented by weighted coefficients. This stage than threshold are kept and then shrunk towards as given in Fig. The reconstruction is defined by the inverse In wavelet packet analysis, the details coefficient wavelet, and the decomposition levels.
The first discrete wavelet transform which involves as well as the approximation coefficients are split. At the Conclusion level using the selected mother wavelet. The completion of this stage, the denoised signal is Partial discharge PD measurements provide levels for decomposition need to be selected with represented in time domain.
In each expansion from the DWT pyramid tree algorithm The availability of significant Online PD level, the signal is down sampled by 2. The tree where each branch of the tree has two sub- measuring techniques makes it possible to structure of wavelet method of dividing signals branches. It is the generalization of DWT in that acquire the PD signals from cable system, without to detail and approximation coefficients are both the low-pass and the high-pass output interruption.
However in Online PD shown in Fig 4. In this step, it is necessary to set a partitioning the high-frequency bands to yield in ascertaining the actual magnitude, its proper threshold in such a way that all better frequency resolution. The digital signal interferences and noises are suppressed. Wavelet The complete binary tree resulted from WPT processing technique based on wavelet technique denonising methods can be carried out using contains many nodes.
It follows that the terminal is highly imperative in proper extraction of PD either hard or soft thresholding. Hard nodes leaves of every connected binary subtree signals. Wavelet Packet Method. ABB India to reinforce Bangladesh power grid INR crore substation order to enhance transmission capacity and boost electricity supply to more than , households growth of over 7 percent.
This economic growth ambition is also boosting the demand for electricity. Benefiting from a young grid, the country has been adopting smart technologies like GIS with ease, to connect households to reliable power.
Advanced technology solutions for secure and quality power will enable the country to tap into its potential and catalyze growth in the region, he added. ABB will also provide substation automation systems and fiber optic communications. The long-term plan for Bangladesh is to generate 60, MW electricity by four times its current capacity and grow its industrial and transport sector.
Bangladesh is investing in its electricity infrastructure to ABB India will build two new substations and upgrade meet the rapidly increasing demand for power and to ensure a reliable two existing substations, all located in the south- supply of electricity. For over a decade, ABB has supported utility and eastern parts of Bangladesh.
The o industry customers in Bangladesh to help the country meet its growth plans. ABB is a pioneering technology leader in electrification products, robotics and motion, industrial automation and power grids, serving.
Grid Company of Bangladesh Ltd PGCB , the countrys leading Continuing more than a year history of innovation, ABB today is writing transmission utility, to support the countrys power infrastructure the future of industrial digitalization and driving the Energy and Fourth expansion and meet its growing electricity needs.
ABB operates in more than countries with about India will build two new substations and upgrade two existing substations, , employees. The order was booked in the first quarter of The design, engineering, system integration and supply of key products will be executed in India, another example of making in India for the world.
The substations will add around megawatts MW of transmission capacity enough to power more than , households and contribute to the governments target of providing access to electricity for its population of around million by The government of Bangladesh is working towards its Vision , which outlines plans to have a strong and developed economy by To achieve this, the country is focusing on a steady GDP.
Wireless Power Transmission Safely Charges Devices Anywhere Within a Room Today, most wireless power transmission occurs over very short distances, typically involving charging stands or pads Today, most wireless power transmission occurs over very short distances, typically involving charging stands or pads.
The QSCR method involves inducing electrical currents in the metalised walls, floor and ceiling of a room, which in turn generate uniform magnetic fields that permeate the room's interior. This enables power to be transmitted efficiently to receiving coils that. A new method developed by Disney Research for wirelessly operate at the same resonant transmitting power throughout a room enables users to frequency as the magnetic fields.
The induced currents in the structure charge electronic devices as seamlessly as they now connect are channelled through discrete capacitors, which isolate potentially to WiFi hotspots, eliminating the need for electrical cords or charging harmful electrical fields. In the demonstration, the researchers constructed a by The researchers demonstrated their method, called Quasistatic foot room with aluminium walls, ceiling and floor bolted to an Cavity Resonance QSCR , inside a specially built byfoot room aluminium frame.
A copper pole was placed in the centre of the room; at their lab. They safely generated near-field standing magnetic a small gap was created in the pole, into which discrete capacitors waves that filled the interior of the room, making it possible to power were inserted.
At the same time, the magnetic Scientist at Disney Research, said, This new innovative method will waves at that frequency don't interact with everyday materials, so make it possible for electrical power to become as ubiquitous as WiFi. This in turn could enable new applications for robots and other Though the demonstration room was specially constructed, small mobile devices by eliminating the need to replace batteries and Sample said it likely will be possible to reduce the need for metalised wires for charging, he further added.
It may be possible to retrofit According to Sample, who leads the lab's Wireless Systems Group, existing structures, for instance, with modular panels or conductive wireless power transmission is a long-standing technological dream. Larger spaces might be accommodated by using multiple Celebrated inventor Nikola Tesla famously demonstrated a wireless copper poles.
EPC scope in these projects includes design, detailed engineering, for two large gas-based power projects in Bangladesh in quick supply, installation and commissioning of the power plant on a turnkey succession during March BPDB s MW Combined Cycle Dual Fuel Power Plant at Sikalbaha in While procuring gas turbines, steam turbines, gas booster compressors, Chittagong district was synchronized with the national grid on March 25, transformers and other equipment from world renowned manufacturers, It will be ready company - Marubeni Corporation - through international bidding, which for commissioning in Once commissioned, the in revenue.
It operates in over 30 countries worldwide. A strong, customer- two power plants will generate more than MW on full load. T he company has been awarded three further contracts for the building on the success of a previous project with Siemens wind supply and installation of 13 of its gearless turbines in Lower turbines. For its new expansion project in the community of Karlum, Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein. KG, Siemens will install and commission six units community wind farm association which will operate the project now of the latest type SWT A project in Karlum in the northern consists of more than citizens of the three municipalities in the part of Schleswig-Holstein will receive seven units of the type SWT- region.
Siemens will install the wind turbines in the spring of on 3. The deals include a long-term service agreement for 15 and steel towers at a hub height of meters. KG is now years. Similar to the predecessor Brebek wind farm, the new Karlum expanding its Siemens fleet: According to plan, all turbines of its first project utilises the electromagnetic compatibility of the direct drive project close to the A1 motorway were connected to the grid by the turbines to fulfill site-specific constraints to protect a neighbouring end of last year.
The operator has now ordered six further turbines of military radio station. The new turbines will be installed German market underlines the fact that our technology is now in autumn at a hub-height of meters. In the framework of a established as good choice for demanding sites. Not only so, people also solar penetration, thus resulting in maximised savings even during utility want to introduce a mix of green in their existing portfolio with failure.
Using solar for the additional period of the year can make that period multiple green energy sources. DEIFs solar solution will thus prove to be a boon to Indias safe and reliable energy control solutions, we at DEIF are committed to evolving solar sector. Our goal is to help make the world a little greener every time product sold is contributing to a greener world. We do not only contribute we implement a DEIF solution. Reflecting the accelerating switch of the we also optimise.
Thus, the control systems of DEIF Wind Power Technology worldwide energy system towards more renewable and sustainable energy are constantly subject to optimisation of the energy generated by the wind practices, DEIFs progressive strategies and product development focus turbines. Aiming to also act in an ethically responsible way across all business segments, including conventional power generation, all DEIF products and solutions are developed in accordance with DEIFs green vision. DEIF develops energy efficient products and solutions that reduce fuel consumption, maintenance intervals, thus cutting harmful emissions and costs.
As a means to combat climate change, conserve natural resources and meet the challenges of global population growth, we are continuously looking for ways to increase the performance and efficiency of our partners installations. A DEIF solution is a greener choice because it means optimised operation: DEIF solutions being cost-effective balance your economy and conserve the environment as they are highly efficient.
Flexible and reliable control solutions being our strength, we deliver Extracting more out of the Sun everything from complete turnkey solutions to individual components.
At DEIF, we continuously strive to improve the performance of the wind turbines and make necessary upgrades to the application and embedded www. As a customer you also benefit by receiving free software updates in future as well. DEIFs wind turbine control systems are not only suitable for new installations but also can be used for retrofitting existing wind turbines to give you numerous key benefits.
Harnessing Hydro Power DEIFs Automatic Sustainable Controller ASC is a solution that provides Hydroelectric power plants are installed to capture energy from the integrated solution for systems with utility, diesel and solar power source. Critical functions such as speed governing, Systems. The green focus at DEIF is not only related to product solutions but also to our internal processes as well. Internally, we focus on carbon-neutral heating and cooling; the DEIF Group's headquarters in Skive, The advantages to DEIFs Delomatic solution go beyond savings, wiring, Denmark,features advanced green energy system includes a carbon neutral construction, engineering and maintenance.
It is also a flexible solution Aqua Thermal Storage System: We want to have a common green mind-set. The carbon for total engine control and protection whereas Automatic Genset Controller emissions from both the website and the users of the site are offset through AGC-4 Gas is suitable for power management and CHP applications.
As part of Hostnordics green IT strategy to minimise power consumption to take pressure off the Transforming black to green environment. The paper used for printing is FSC certified Forest Stewardship Council implying that the paper comes from well managed forests that provide environmental, social and economic benefits. We at DEIF have done our part in all aspects of product life cycle, now its your turn to make a commitment towards green energy and safe Equipped with features and functionalities such as fuel optimisation, environment.
DEIF can help you achieve your green energy goals. The innovative solution gives you a critical market advantage that ultimately helps you produce more green power at the lowest possible cost. Internally Green For more details, contact: M icrogrids and smart grids are becoming increasingly relied upon meaning it will not import any power from the grid.
A smart grid generally as the world searches for sustainable power sources and as its refers to a class of technology people are using to bring utility electricity energy needs continue to grow. As advancements in power delivery systems into the 21st century, using computer-based remote technology continue making electrical grids smaller, more powerful, and control and automation. As these new types of electrical infrastructure become more plentiful, The Copper Development Association CDA has examined these trends the technology will advance and the costs of components will drop.
The new in electrical infrastructure and has published a new case study, titled Copper electric grid will be built around thousands of microgrids that are not totally Connects Microgrids with Smart Grids. This new publication offers expert independent but rather can share their resources to mutual advantage while insight into the latest energy technology, how it encourages renewable at the same time not becoming too vulnerable to a single control centre.
The study found that One thing is clear: They are smaller, more efficient, and commercial facilities, universities, and even island communities. The copper in these microgrids is vital to Microgrids utilise wind and solar energy systems, which also use copper their success and will continue to be relied upon throughout the lifespan of to run efficiently, as opposed to traditional energy storage systems and these grids, due to its resiliency.
Microgrids are also very resilient and decrease the chances of major electrical failure. MW combined cycle gas units and a small wind turbine.