Motorola Mobility | Consumer eXperience Design interaction design > interface design. 21w .. Designing Interactions, Bill Moggridge. Designing Interactions - Bill Moggridge - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Designing Interactions. Gillian Crampton Smith, the director of Interaction Design Institute Ivrea, is the foremost advice from Bill Moggridge, the external assessor for the program. Now.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Arabic|
|ePub File Size:||16.65 MB|
|PDF File Size:||17.16 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Regsitration Required]|
Digital Technology has changed the way we interact with everything from the games we play In Designing Interactions, Bill Moggridge, designer of the first laptop A pdf of Chapter 4, Adopting Technology, and videos of the interviews with. The Book; Chapters; Interviews; DVD; Reviews; Bill Moggridge. Download Download Chapter PDF Website Comments? [email protected] com. Bill Moggridge. The MIT design of interactions as being about shaping our everyday lives through the British Design Council put out a little book called.
Since Then you pointed at and clicked the beginning of the thing you wanted deleted. Alan Kay loved that idea and had been thinking of similar things. Another advantage of the top edge of the screen is that the size of the target for the menu extends into an endless vertical column in virtual space. The story of the development of the first affordable mice from Apple is told— and the controversy over the number of buttons that would make the interactions easiest to learn and use. You want your links to point in high resolution. I began to understand that the wheel would roll only as far as you went in the one direction.
Star was conceived in response to this; based on the combination of Smalltalk and Alto, it became a design that fit all of the requirements. Star was a very futuristic machine; when they were asked in the market research surveys, people responded that they would not give up that advanced interactive performance for a much inferior but less expensive machine.
After it was launched, the IBM PC came out, and the people who said in the research that they would pay a lot for Star proved to be only willing to pay much less for an inferior interface. Doug Engelbart is best known as the inventor of the mouse. Taking credit as the inventor of such an ubiquitous product is not enough for Doug; in fact, he is charmingly modest about that achievement, preferring to discuss other ideas that have not met with such spectacular success.
He has always wanted to create designs that enhance human performance and is not interested in ease of use for the novice.
He grew up in Oregon, and his electrical engineering studies were interrupted by service in World War II. During his stint in the Philippines as a naval radar technician, he came across an article by Vannevar Bush in the Atlantic Monthly9 and was inspired to think of a career dedicated to connecting people to knowledge. In the early seventies he took several members of his team to Xerox PARC, where he helped put the mouse and the desktop together.
Doug Engelbart Douglas C. This is the contribution for which Doug Bootstrap is universally acclaimed. In spite of this, he himself is inclined to Institute give credit to the trackball: When I was a senior in electrical engineering, some of the experiments we had to do in the laboratory would end up resulting in funny shaped curves that curled back on themselves, and it was the area under the curve that we were experimenting with.
They had an elbow shaped device there, a platform sort of thing that would set down on the table. You would run the pointer around that area, and there was a small wheel next to the pointer, resting on the tabletop, and the other side of the joint there was another one.
It would be easy to convert that into potentiometers and things so that the computer could pick up that signal.
At the time I was unaware that that same thing was sitting underneath the tracking ball. That became the pointing device for our user interface. As we were setting up the experiments.
You can picture why. I began to understand that the wheel would roll only as far as you went in the one direction. I think it was from NASA. It also says a lot about his methodical persistence that he used his moments of boredom at that conference to fill a notebook with ideas and that he remembered what was in that notebook when he was looking for the best input device solutions many years later: When you were interacting considerably with the screen.
There should be credit given to the tracking ball. We got some funding in the early sixties. That one was put in the experiments. It was a very simple idea. I happened to remember some notes that I had made in a pocket notebook some years before. Later on the manufacturers put the wheels against the table.
I thought of that again one time during a conference on computer graphics. We listened to everybody who had strong ideas. The computer measured time. It was many years later that I heard from Stuart Card. The light pen had been used by radar operators for years and years. We asked them to put their hands on the keyboard.
The assessment just showed the mouse coming out ahead. Soon all of us just started calling it a mouse. Come up with an idea. The recognition that this idea might be important for interaction came from the tests that compared the mouse with other possible input devices.
That has proved. For the test we had naive users coming in. The designers came up with as many alternatives as they could that seemed plausible. There is an objectivity in this process of letting the user decide. Thinking of the possible relevance of those orthogonal wheels was the first step. The time it takes to grope for it and lift it up to the screen seemed excessively large.
I was an idealistic country boy. The Demo that Changed the World There is a gentle modesty. He remembers his early motivations: My initial framework for thinking about these questions got established in By this time he had been working for a couple of years at the Ames Laboratory. His job researching aerodynamics and wind tunnel testing was interesting and enjoyable. I was an electrical engineer with an interesting job. Eventually I realized that the world is getting more complex at an ever more rapid rate.
His passion for philosophy and ideas shines through. When I was half way through college. His fixed idea that people should be able to interact with computers directly did not fit with the prevailing view. He started there at the end of He finally landed a job at SRI. After learning the ropes at SRI for a year and a half.
Air Force Office of Scientific Research provided a small grant. I was drafted for World War II. The Mouse and the Desktop Once he had his PhD. That intuitive certainty made me change my career path totally to go after it. His first step in that sixteen-year path of dogged determination was to leave his job and go to the graduate school at the University of California at Berkeley.
His wish was granted when the U. They had a year-long program which taught me a lot of practical things about electronics and exposed me to the fact that the electronics of radar could put interesting things on the screen. He talked to Bill Hewlett and David Packard. There was no question in my mind that the engineering for that would be feasible. If a radar set could respond to operators pushing buttons or cranking cranks.
Methodology—the methods. The tragedy is that training is a necessary component of the system. Training—the conditioning needed by the individual to bring his skills in using augmentation means 1.
Artifacts—physical objects designed to provide for human comfort. He developed concepts for experts. In this short quote one can see the seeds of triumph and tragedy. The explicit new system we contemplate will involve as artifacts computers and computer-controlled information storage. From this came the mouse and the other elements of interactive computing that he pioneered. The system we wish to improve can thus be visualized as comprising a trained human being.
Language—the way in which the individual classifies the picture of his world into the concepts that his mind uses to model that world. I stuck my neck out and proposed giving a real-time demonstration. We rented microwave links from the Menlo Park civic auditorium up to San Francisco. Doug took a chance to show the computer science community what he had been doing: For the Fall Joint Computer Conference in He joined ARC in and was the perfect complementary talent.
Bill English was a partner for Doug in much of the work they did. But we are getting ahead of ourselves in the story. We had a timesharing computer supporting our laboratory. After four years of development. That proved a barrier to acceptance by ordinary people. We put a TV camera in front of the screen and used a TV display for a larger size image.
He put together a stellar team of engineers for both hardware and software and set about developing NLS. He built a backstage mixing booth. Links were demonstrated between one document and another.
We had cursors controlled by two people simultaneously interacting on the screen.
Documents were planned and formatted using headings and subheadings. We were able to show high-resolution links. He was wearing a short- sleeved white shirt and a thin tie. It was something entirely different. He had experience doing the stage work for amateur plays. The audience all stood up and applauded at the end of the demo. One of the basic design principles that we started with was that you want to be able to talk about any other knowledge object out there.
The computer science community moved from skepticism to standing ovation in an hour and a half. I had written a script for different people to come onto the stage. This was not punched cards and Teletypes. This was the demo that changed the world. The overhead camera showed his right hand using a mouse. He could select from the feeds so you could see a composite image in real time. Doug sat alone at a console in the middle of the stage.
Words were manipulated with full-screen text editing. In his calm but mesmerizing voice. His team grew to thirty-five people at one point. NLS grew in sophistication and content as time went on but remained essentially the same in concept. In they were connected to ARPAnet as one of the original nodes of the military research connected network. When I get there. This was the start of a slide for Doug Engelbart. The demo was truly amazing.
You want your links to point in high resolution. The demo also positioned Doug and his band at ARC to receive continuing funding for their research until You also should be able to have optional alternative views.
Now we might want to see a similar set of rules for the structure of an argument. In a group of the best people at ARC. You can feel the frustration behind his words as he describes the determined pursuit of his ideals and bemoans the Demo at Joint Computer Conference. The assumption that high levels of training would always be acceptable did not get in the way until ordinary people tried to become users of NLS.
I understand. This gave a much richer vocabulary and a much more compact way to evoke it than the GUI. In practice. It is easy to understand the idea of going for the best. I admit. Quite a few users adopted the chording key set that I built for myself. You could type any of the characters in the alphabet with one hand. Many years ago it became clear to me that what you need to do is develop a basic software structure that will have file designs.
Then it is easy enough to support the beginner. On the mouse. If you wanted to delete a word. This would have been a very good solution for people with four hands. Doug Engelbart strives consistently toward a goal of the best possible performance. That process was complicated to learn. If you made a mistake at any point. If it was the letter f. It was d. This is how the interactions were designed.
Then you pointed at and clicked the beginning of the thing you wanted deleted. His influence has been limited by his decision to design for people as determined and proficient as he is himself. It was d because it is the fourth letter in the alphabet. Photo Author Stu Card 38 Chapter 1. In the eighth grade he read navy circuit manuals about how to build flip- flops out of vacuum tubes.
Stu built his own telescope. He looks at you intensely from behind his glasses and speaks in bursts. Stu Card seems to be a serious person.
PARC was the most interesting. His ambition to be an astronomer led him to study physics. As a freshman in high school. At first meeting. Occasionally his face breaks into an impish grin. After graduation he was offered three jobs. His first evening course in computing was to aim the college telescope in the direction defined by a computer program that he wrote. You have to concentrate hard to keep pace with him. At graduate school at Carnegie Mellon University he had designed his own program.
There is also obviously a human part. Stu was more interested in contributing to the design process at the beginning. The idea was that computer science is a very asymmetrical discipline.
This made his position somewhat different from the concept 2—puck concept 3—pen other researchers. There had been several attempts to develop similar sciences. If you take things like time-shared operating systems or programming languages. Even now. You could have a technical discipline that would support the design activity.
The core skills of design are synthesis. Information processing psychology showed real promise as a theory. To think that design is where all the action is was very forward-looking at that time. The idea was that this would give you lots of insight that it would otherwise be hard to have gotten. In order to do basic research. You could have the equivalent role to that of structural engineering in relation to architecture. If this was going to work at all. The idea was that you would be able to look at a situation.
The idea was that any science worth its salt should have practical applications. It would really have to work. It would be difficult to do this in a university. In fact. All of the work that had been done in computer science was on the computer side and none on the applied psychology side. This did not mean that you could do all of design from science. Since we were trying to do the science of this stuff. Stu remembers the experiments: English was pretty busy.
Stu went down to El Segundo to meet the Xerox engineers who were trying to invent a pointing device for the office system The Mouse and the Desktop There were devices like rate-controlled isometric joysticks.
The hand was showing through the machine instead of operating the machine at a loss. I modeled each one of the devices so that I had the empirical differences between them.
We could know this theoretically once we had this one empirical fact. The unique contribution that Stu Card made was to create a supporting science. He set up the usual kind of A-versus-B experiments between devices. The most interesting model was the model of the mouse. They wanted to do more experiments on the mouse to determine whether it or some other device was really the better one.
What that meant was that the device was nearly optimal. He went into the laboratory and took a little video of a mocked up task to check the theoretical curve. Xerox put a mouse on the market. In introducing the Star system.
Stu demonstrated that you could use the same theory to understand how to develop a better pointing device: Just as we showed the advantages of the mouse. There was no need to run lots of user experiments and counterbalance them and do the analysis. In a design context you want to very rapidly say. They resisted the idea of something outside the normal cabinet full of standard electronic racks that needed a work surface and a connection cable and would have to be packaged separately.
Stu discussed this over lunch one day with a colleague. If they had to make it faster. It is still the most successful pointing device to this day. Stu presented the results of his tests. It was possible to arrive at this definitive result four hours from the initial formulation of the problem because there was a theory. In particular. Stu Card was able to help the designers think about new concepts for pointing devices.
At the end of the project Stu concluded: This was my ideal model of how the supporting science could work. In the mid eighties ID TWO12 was engaged by Xerox to design the enclosures for a new workstation and wanted to push the design of the mouse farther.
As soon as Stu explained how to structure the design space from his theory. You could probably do one with the tongue too. The most radical one was the penlike device with a weighted base. The whole mouse was on a chip. They produced three models. It required good designers to actually do the design. One was a conventional mouse that was flatter and more elegant. He demonstrated one idea with a pencil stuck onto an eraser. He believed that it had become feasible to build a mouse like this because of the purely optical mouse that had been developed at PARC by this time.
If you see these maps of the motor cortex and how much of it is devoted to different sets of muscles. Tim went on to run a small company called Macromind.
In the late seventies he became more interested in designing processes for management and business and honed his management skills working for Versatec. He is a pilot. From the very beginning. In he cofounded Electronic Arts EA and set about building a set of processes to enable the creation and production of really rich interactive entertainment experiences—as soon as the supporting hardware was available.
Once EA was successful. He studied computer science at Manchester University in England in the sixties and found a job with a publishing company called Ginn. He was a founding investor in Audible. They were based in Lexington. This was When the Ginn management team found out how their contribution to Xerox corporate finance was being spent.
Larry started working with Ginn and writing specifications for their system and suggested that they hire somebody. Nothing was on the display and no programs were running. What are you going to do for us?
This challenge eventually reached Bill English. Larry remembers interviewing Tim: Tim Mott Tim put the editors in front of a display with a keyboard and a mouse. Guided Fantasy Ginn was one of several companies in the publishing industry that Xerox acquired around They found Tim Mott at Oberlin College. I wrote a letter of resignation to the executive editor back in Boston. When I got out there. Tim spent a little time at Ginn.
Together they imagined typing in the text and creating a manuscript. Tim went back to Lexington and put the editors in front of a display with a keyboard and a mouse. We hired Tim Mott. Their background was in building editing systems and design systems for themselves and for other computer professionals.
The editors described the process that they used at that time with paper and pencil. I spent some time with Bob. When we talked to him. If you wanted to mark an insertion point in the text. Up until that point. These techniques that we see in all the word processing programs today came directly from working with people who spent their entire lives editing text and asking them.
They wanted to use the mouse to draw through the text. There was a new design methodology that came out of it. Tim explains the difficulty that this caused: That was one of the first things that I got from working with these editors. None of the text editors that had been designed for computers up to that point had a space between characters.
We talked about the design process as one that began with building a conceptual model that the user had today. When it came to deleting text. One of the concepts that they worked with was the space between characters. It had bold. They shared one Alto between them. The Smalltalk system incorporated menus and editing techniques.
The origin of the cut-and-paste metaphor is described by Larry in his interview. They changed the name of the control key to look with a paper label. Tim and Larry took the code base from Bravo. Gypsy had a file directory system with versions and drafts. It was more like a noniconic toolbar of today. You could select something by dragging through it or clicking the two ends.
You could build any kind of program you wanted. In this way they could work on the same code around the clock and could protect their access to the computer. There was also the first dialog box. In the spring of Tim took the text- The Mouse and the Desktop You could have versions of the document and drafts of the version.
There was a graphics program that William Newman built called Markup and a paint program that Bob Flegal created—applications started springing up. After the first day she said.
I think the quality of my work will be better going forward. The metaphor was that entire documents could be grabbed by the mouse and moved around on the screen. They could be dropped into a file cabinet. The Desktop Office Metaphor In parallel with completing the text editor.
I was thinking Author about what happens in an office. They were still struggling with the issue of how to think about the user interface for documents and files. I was just consumed by it. For the first test he picked the most senior editor. I was just obsessed with Photo this design at the time. Tim and Larry were pretty far along in designing a page layout system for graphic designers. When Larry heard about the idea and saw the bar napkin. He said that people had tried to implement similar designs before.
The desktop was part of the design. The simplicity of the representation was the breakthrough! Photo Author Larry Tesler 56 Chapter 1. He realized that the best way to design the software was with participation from the customer. When he was at Apple. After a three-year stint at Amazon.
He learned to create prototypes rapidly and to test them with the intended users early and often. After working at the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.
He founded his own company to offer programming services while he was in his junior year and soon discovered that his customers had a different way of thinking from the software engineers in the Computer Science Department. He simplified the use of the mouse by reducing the controls to a single button.
In he moved to Apple. He invented cut-and-paste and editable dialog boxes. His first lesson occurred while he was still rear studying at Stanford. An art student would draw polygons to represent the shapes and colors and describe an animation. Students from the Computer Science Department had already written a programming language on punch cards.
A picture of a room full of cabinets with drawers and file folders is one approach to a spatial filing system. Larry was persuaded to take over the coding role. Finally the cards would be torn along perforations and set out on the seats. At halftime during the football game. That was my first experience with what we call usability tests today. He did not have to run the software for them. That was really the beginning of my interest in usability. That worked out really well.
They had scheduling problems because appointments overlapped. They were trying to arrange for patients who came in to get assigned to rooms with doctors.
With the art students and the card stunts. He started talking with the art students and trying to figure out what they wanted. In One of the programs he wrote was a room-scheduling program for the Stanford Psychiatry Department. One of the psychiatrists and I designed it together.
I would watch how they used it and see when they got confused. It was a different world! Over the next three years. You know. He was putting together a catalog for a volunteer group one day in He decided this was really the wrong way to do it. He got interested in typography and developed a publication language called Pub.
It was what today would be called a markup language with embedded tags and scripting. It only ran on the PDP 6. A lot of graduate students used it for their theses in the major universities that were on the ARPAnet. This was disappointing. On request. He was looking for the right place and opportunity to turn this vision into reality. When he got there.
That was pretty exciting. Initially I started working with a guy named Jeff Rulifson. Alan Kay loved that idea and had been thinking of similar things. A lot of it was kind of nuts and all wrong. Jeff thought that we should incorporate that. Jeff had just read a book about semiotics. The idea was that you would point at stuff that looked semirealistic.
The author of the book had said that icons would be a really appropriate thing to use in an interface for a computer system. The trouble was that it was really hard to learn. I sat her down in front of a screen. Larry set out to prove that you could learn something in a day. Perhaps it was. What started as a testing language acquired a mystique. Before doing it he decided that he wanted to observe a user.
There were commands like delete. They all started using it and learned it. Jeff was the least wedded to it. When the gauntlet was thrown down by Ginn to help them with a publishing system. Up to that time. It turned out to be so easy to use that they could take people who were walking by in the building. He found Tim Mott. She just designed it right there!
Larry felt that he had to demonstrate that testing did not have to be difficult or expensive. To insert. How would you do it? Bill English had been extremely skeptical about what I was doing. I wrote a report about this. You click twice in rapid succession in the same place to get a word. One in five times it was. Larry tells the story of inventing the double- click: When I had written up Miki Mouse.
I thought if we could separate that out really cleanly we would reduce the common mistake of hitting the wrong button on the mouse. We had three buttons on the mouse. Another reason was that when people were using the software.
We brought in the secretaries and had them try it. I was trying to decide what to do with all this hardware. There were lots of detailed technical arguments from the programmers.
I really wanted it to be a single-button mouse. It was done by first selecting what you wanted to delete and then saying escape-d- The Mouse and the Desktop Every system that had a cursor took a character and either underlined it or showed it in reverse video. The cursor was likely to be where it was before. I seem to have the reputation for labels written by originating cut-and-paste.
When Larry was working on Gypsy. We were doing this for a publisher. Ginn and Company. Larry found in experiments that a lot of people expected it to go after the The Mouse and the Desktop The problem with that was that if you moved the cursor somewhere and started typing. The way it worked in most systems was that the character that you had inverted would change as you typed.
Because of that. The trouble was that it was not good for copying. The magic of this idea was that if you moved the cursor somewhere else after you said delete. If you wanted to insert. They made it easier to see by making it blink on and off. He was puzzling about this. A few days later he bumped into Peter Deutsch in the hallway. Larry tried other alternatives to make it more visible.
The vertical line was the design that survived. Dan Ingalls came up with the idea of just doing a vertical line between characters and implemented that for Smalltalk.
He was very good at rewarding people and acknowledging their work. I think this is one of those things that a lot of designers do. He would say things like. I was thinking of graphical metaphors with books on bookshelves. You just kind of close your eyes and vision. He describes his delight in working for Alan and how he was challenged to design a browser: Alan was always a great research manager. I thought that if I could figure out a way to browse through code.
Instead of putting the secretaries in front of a blank screen. As a result of the success of the Gypsy project. He went on to use the Smalltalk browser to build a point-and-click debugger and inspector. Close your eyes. Dan Ingalls made a big improvement to it by dividing them into categories. This was the first browser design. Each pane will have its own scroll bar so you can browse before you pick one to see the code.
Blank screen: Smalltalk had classes of objects. It was a welcome change for Larry to design something for himself as a software engineer. It was a window broken up into three pieces. I built it in somewhere between one and two weeks. Then I can scroll through the lists.
Other people have used the same metaphor to browse around databases. I might as well let you edit it. There were over a hundred classes and over a hundred methods. He had become so wedded to the ideas of participatory design and user testing. That became the classic Smalltalk browser. Larry was headed for Apple. I should join a company like Apple. I agreed with all the things that they said should be done next. As it happened. The only part of the research at PARC that Xerox really took advantage of was the laser printing technology.
It was natural for all those brilliant researchers to want to take the next step in their careers. There was also a sense of opportunity in Silicon Valley. I had been trying to convince people at Xerox about my belief in the future of personal computers. Larry Tesler. He had participated in the famous demo of PARC technology to Steve Jobs and the team from Apple and was getting to know more about them: I was blown away by the Apple people.
They had been together long enough to be strengthened by their collective experience. Xerox was struggling to maintain dominance in the copier market. Alan Kay. This was the start of a great collaboration between Larry Tesler and Bill Atkinson. David Hough. Apple is not ready to do research. They put me in the research group consisting of three people: Bruce Daniels. Bill was a neuro-psychologist by training. He was a great integrator.
Between the picnic and the demo. Two years before I joined Apple. An interview with Bill Atkinson follows in chapter 2. I said once again. They formed a tight bond and creative partnership and went on to design some of the most significant and long-lasting interactions in the world of desktops and windows.
Bill Verplank. Paul Bradley. The high-cost road started with the superior interface of the desktop and mouse but remained too expensive for commercial success until the cost of the components fell far enough to allow the breakthrough from Apple.
The low-cost road built on the typewriter as an interface to the computer. In chapter 1. As a condition of My PC Bill went home. This chapter follows the brochures development of the designs for the first versions that were Photos Courtesy of Apple affordable enough to be personal. Bill Atkinson was the architect and designer of most of the precedent-setting software that made Apple so successful.
We look first at the parallel paths that led to personal computers. The second path pushed the limit of designing the human-computer interaction. This led to two parallel paths. He explains his point of view about designing interactions with a combination of words and drawings.
The design of the desktop seemed to be going nowhere in the eighties. The Low Road or the High Road? Interactive computing started with Whirlwind. Whirlwind had two kinds of interactions. Cordell Ratzlaff was responsible for the design of the versions of the Macintosh operating system OS. Bill Verplank worked with Paul on the human factors for the mouse.
The story of the development of the first affordable mice from Apple is told— and the controversy over the number of buttons that would make the interactions easiest to learn and use.
Steve Jobs negotiated the rights to use the technology in the Xerox mouse. In Microsoft decided to try to set a new standard for the design of mice. The low road and the high road stayed parallel for a while. That led to time-sharing through a series of machines. The human operator was thought of as a component in the system. It was much less demanding for the technologists. The low road built on the Teletype interaction.
In order to get the new product out really fast. The Apple II was one of a flurry of hobbyist machines that were inexpensive enough to make computing accessible for the enthusiastic people who wanted to write their own programs and plug together the hardware themselves. This was the low-cost road.
By the time Windows 3. As soon as the costs came down enough. The key to it being a personal machine was the price. He picked one up and then licensed it to IBM. There was no proportional spacing. Once you had one.
My PC It also had sound basic ergonomics. At first this seemed very difficult to achieve and impossibly expensive. The screen had clear fonts that showed up strongly against the dark background. This allowed you to move from recall to recognition. If you asked. The high-cost road combined the display and a pointing device.
The personal computer arrived via the low road. That meant that you could build machines that were very expensive at the time with the capabilities that you wanted. To most people. The path to the high road came from the mouse. The PC had neither a desktop nor a mouse. The most obvious link between Whirlwind and the future graphical user interface GUI was a pointing device.
The idea was to start with an investment and perhaps buy Apple after a while. Both Lisa and Mac were very different from Star—full of new interactive features and dramatically less expensive to manufacture. Apple was heading toward a hot initial public offering IPO. Lisa was a wonderful accomplishment of interaction 80 Chapter 2. Commodore PET. The Xerox management was starting to get a little nervous. Know someone who might love this book? Come work with us! We are always looking for great talent to join our global teams.
Oct An outspoken advocate for the value of design in everyday life, Bill pioneered interaction design and integrated human factors into the design of computer software and hardware.