Jul 10, This list is divided into two sections (click on the link to jump there): Contemporary Komiks, which are comics made after the s including. ng Amerika. Pagsang-ayon sa Ingles: 6/ Pagsang-ayon sa pagsasalin: 6/ Pagsasalin ng New Testament Stories. Tagalog Hiwaga (Mystery in Tagalog) Komiks was the third comic to come from Ace Publications, the premier producer of komiks in the Philippines. It continued mystery.
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Mar 30, This book has 13 pages and was uploaded by unknown / mr_goldenage on March 30, The file size is mb. Non-English Section is. Jul 2, Notes, Pinoy Komiks Compilation through Ipo Ipo, Lagim, Marte, Gagamba, Comic Book Cover For Pinoy Komiks Compilation. Pilipino Komiks - Download as PDF File .pdf) or read online. Philippine Golden Age Comics.
The presentational mode dictated the narrative style. Lumbera notes this in his CCP publication titled Pelikula: Anderson, Benedict. Skip to main content. Adaptations of Shakespeare. Log in. Old lore is rendered in new forms.
Click on the link in the email. Step 3: Enter and confirm your new password. While it's true that you won't find komiks in every corner, as in the days of Mars Ravelo's Ang Panday , a whole bunch of Pinoy comic book creators are keeping the comic spirit alive. Trese and Kikomachine Komix are just the tip of the iceberg. In this season of superhero movies, we take a look at 11 other comic stories you should be checking out.
From sci-fi to fantasy to straight up classic slapstick comedy, from super cute to super bastos, there's one for everyone, showing the wide range of fiction these new creators are churning out.
Since most of these are indies-that is, not backed by a major corporate publisher-it may be a bit difficult to find a copy. Comic Odyssey should be carrying a few titles, as well as Flipreads. Most comics retail for less than P, and you'll get to meet the creators, too! With hilarious characters cast straight out of a company payroll, Crime Fighting Call Center Agents combines team building seminars and fearsome creatures with a tongue-in-cheek tone.
There's actually not much crime-fighting or call-centering going on Written in Taglish and drawn in a loose, cartoony style that still manages to stay melancholic, it's funny and hip and modern and totally worth checking out. Tejido and Posadas build a strong mythology, then bring it to life with action-packed pages that don't skimp on the detail. Joel Chua's colors make everything pop. Without any word balloons to distract from the action, it's a quick and funny read that's perfect for anyone.
Zombie plague hits the Philippines Not really. It's not all karaoke jokes and sight gags even if the creators do love putting their fans' faces in the comic panels -social commentary comes in the form of a meddling US government who steps in to help for their own twisted reasons, along with a serious look at how we Pinoys would react if zombies actually showed up on our doorsteps.
Three issues-one season, as the creators call it-are already out, and season two is coming up next. Years later, Taga-Ilog picks the story up again, releasing the further adventures of Mina and Dante in individual comic book issues.
Two issues are out, with more to come in Indieket. The creators go for their own epic spin on Pinoy mythology in this comic tale. Ian Sta. Maria's art is up to the task-clean, richly shaded lineart with a keen eye for details. Story elements from a source text are transposed in filmic mode using basic and technical properties that inhere in the medium. This language may be reduced to smaller units, namely: Following the discussion of the example of komiks as source text taken up in the above, it can be asserted that a series of panels may constitute a scene and in certain cases, a single shot.
In komiks, cinema has found an ally. As Horn articulates: Both tended to the same end: One technical property of cinema is editing, which forms the grammar of narrative film.
It provides mechanisms for the transitions in scenes such as cuts and dissolves. Moreover, it is only fair to mention, Horn further says, that the illusory audio in komiks, represented through the balloon and other dramatic suggestions and approximations implanted in the frames, has influenced its employment in film.
The basic and technical properties of the film medium are universally applicable. However, Filipino adaptation practice in the s operated according to its own predispositions and technological limitations.
Filipino film adaptations re-imagined komiks materials by first approaching the narrative structure of the original. Thus, an assumption of the theory that is connected to the form and mode of adaptation is stated as follows: Certain tendencies of the Filipino komiks that have not been well-elaborated in previous literatures have been unravelled in this study. For example, the notion that Filipinos are more visually-oriented than literary—at least in the case of reading komiks or komiks culture—may not be accurate at all.
Valiente thinks that while American comics thrive on visual storytelling, Filipino komiks is word-oriented or script-dominated. Cinema has also wrestled with the same challenge. As the source text is used as structural guide, the filmmaker adds or deletes in filmic terms, not in komiks terms.
In all types of Filipino source texts storyboard, structural guide, essential story, co-storyteller , an establishing shot becomes the choice to find an equivalent to Kritika Kultura 30 Generally, the expository epilogue in the komiks would be elided in the film version. The presentational mode dictated the narrative style. For instance, voice-over narrations are used only in the prologue of film and not in the main body. Under the presentational mode, the story details unfold in a linear way, approximating the sequentiality of komiks panels but through cut-to-cut film editing style.
There are no breaks from the narrative diegesis into a meta-narrative type. In other words, the fictive mode is not interrupted to accommodate some documentary and non-diegetic elements, except of course in the prologue and the epilogue where the typical s film tried to show a little semblance of authorial voice or point of view. Furthermore, when two or three characters are in the frame, the use of reaction shots became more profuse. In some instances, parallel montage and intercutting of thematic shots were experimented on.
The long take is noticeable in art house films like Lapu-Lapu while the genre films the rest of the films listed above used simpler cut-to-cut transitions. The long take is resorted to in order to allow the viewers to find their subjective attention within the frame, instead of the editor and a few engineering staff in the cutting room directing focus and therefore, emphasis. Some directors were working on their own, expanding or condensing as they saw fit. It is noticeable that the director who was more in touch or more faithful with the source text ended up being more original e.
The directors who decided to make departures from the source were sometimes dictated not by artistic choice but by either the perceived audience taste, or by the pressure to economize on shots, or by the surveillance being carried out by the censors. Meanwhile, F. The examples just mentioned illustrate the extent of the dialogic relationship, which Bakhtin discoursed about articulately in his works. The more epical scenes, where an ensemble of protagonists, Kritika Kultura 30 Establishing shots showing backdrops in stasis were conveniently used to transition from one segment to another.
Costumes and backdrops complement character exposition and projection of atmosphere. Perhaps to compensate for the black and white photography, there has always been an attempt to be accurate in designing and executing period costumes, in creating backdrops, and in being more stylish as well.
Latter advances in film technology would show improvements in cinematography, and color and sound engineering. Along with the growth of filmmaking science was the shaping of an iconography that contributed to modern Filipino visual culture. Meanwhile, Filipino adaptation mode means the status of the film adaptation in relation to its source text.
This has been true of the shared audience following of komiks and film in the s. Very seldom did movies in the s transform the source, except in a few parts where details have to be condensed or expanded.
The addition and deletion of details were done mostly to make the inherent properties of cinema work to the advantage of the adaptation. The films usually prioritized economy of details and efficiently identified performative moments in the source text—i. Filipino Cycle of Genres Filipino film genre means the types or categories of films that have been evoked by a work of adaptation.
The genre of adaptation may parallel the genre of the source text, but it may also employ sub-genres. While the influence of Hollywood on Filipino film genres in the s was far-reaching, local cinema also came up with story types that were diverse and were spin-offs from some earlier native sources. One example of multiple generic evocation in a single film is the korido movie, which would usually employ varieties of sub-genres such as drama, action, and musical.
The success of genres is hinged on audience formation. A genre is an embodiment of the close affinity of the audiences with an assembly of story types and themes that were circulated, referenced, invoked, and re-interpreted in that era.
The genres invoked in the komiks and are adapted in the film dictated the conventions, tropes, themes, and motifs that were recycled by the industry. Genres are categories of films that are made distinct by certain uses of cinematographic language. A category of film may have its own set of conventions. One example is the musical portion in a courtship scene in a film exemplifying the romantic comedy. Another example is the sword fight in korido-inspired komiks story turned into film.
The said conventions have been borrowed from European metrical romances and cloak-and-dagger or cape-and-sword genres, but these may also be residual influences of pre-colonial heroic literatures like the ethno-epic, where the fight sequence is a stock convention or device. The use of stock devices in a source text is translated using the properties of film.
As Tudor opines: A trope is a figurative invocation of certain themes, motifs, or patterns that are repeated in a cluster of films evoking the same category or type. A generic trope may be distinct to a Filipino film although it may still reveal traces of foreign influences.
A work of adaptation repeats the genre, conventions, and tropes of its source text in an attempt to recycle a former experience pertaining to the text or to replicate its popular success.
There are two ways by which films are classified into genres. Contrary to the general perception that Filipino generic categories were copied from Hollywood or from transhistorical genres Moine , the local audience of the s also had a part in re-configuring those plot types according to their preferences, confirming what Tudor has articulated: Adaptation serves the purpose of generic mediation.
Stam confirms this interpretative role of adaptation: Korido- based costume pieces, fantasy, and comedy reflect the interplay of the foreign and the native. These local genres are further demonstrated by conventions and tropes. The generic conventions and tropes deployed in a work of adaptation are responsible for the recurring motifs, stock characters, and recurring themes.
Lost foundlings, bastard sons, missing fathers, mistaken identities, disguises, and warring kingdoms were recurring motifs.
Commoners-turned-heroes, neglected wives, poor single girls, wicked uncles and stepbrothers, bandits, and freaks are stock characters. Search for identity, the eternal triangle, restoration of peace, maintenance of harmony in the home, class conflict, agrarian problems, marriage plot, and acceptance of freaks are recurring themes.
Repeatability of images makes immediate recall and audience identification easier. Some artistic productions move beyond generic conventions and troping. Films like Lapu-Lapu were impelled by aesthetics rather than formulaic entertainment. Leitch; Hutcheon. After all, a filmmaker is situated in between two creative choices: Generic conventions and tropes also enable the appropriation of certain stories from diverse sources. Genres are also called cycles because they circulate and return.
Filipino Komiks-to-Film Characters The characters in the komiks reprise their roles in the film screen. The characters of fantasy come from the lower class, unlike their foreign counterparts who are from the middle class S.
They are defined by their struggles and their motivations and actions drive the plot forward. In a historical genre, they are the immortal hero- founders of the proto-nation. In the comedies, they are the clowns, or buffoons, or characters who provide a satiric function.
The graphics in the komiks guides the visual rendering in film, the signifier being close to the signified.
There is the contribution of motion and sound in an illusory way. The two media then shared Kritika Kultura 30 Thus, another assumption of the theory is as follows: The characters in the Filipino source text reflect their society and milieu. Filipino characters and heroes, even the extraordinary and grotesque, resonated among the audiences. In the world of film and komiks, the grotesque and the freak, such as Pugo and Togo in Kambal-Tuko, were accepted and embraced because their story provided not only an escape mechanism but also an occasion for self- identification.
Reyes confirms this: Within this frame of discourse, it is easy to see how the monstrous, the grotesque, and the terrifying, bloodcurling images that occupy the road to hell, on the one hand, and how the idyllic scenes, supernatural heroes and heroines bathed in light, eerie configurations of paradise that shape the ascent into heaven, on the other hand, can lend themselves to psychoanalytic readings. From Darna to Zsa Zsa Zaturnah 13 In other words, part of the motivation for adaptation has been the familiarity of the audiences with the characters and heroes whose adventures they have followed in a prior text.
Filipino heroes are not spared from archetypal interpretation. Sometimes, the romance genre and the fantastic turn in heroes such a mestizo who escapes hard labor conscription in a galleon ship or an avenging dispossessed tenant.
Heroes may also be based on real-life figures whose heroic exploits are mythologized in a way that almost overshadow their historical personas. The characters have gestures and appearances that are familiar to the audience. Genre characters inhabit a world of their own.
Yet, in the same breath, characters in komiks are complex because they are illumined by their cultural contexts.
They represent some emplematic figure, some archetype linking us to the primeval drives and forces across the night of history. It is as if the comics had taken it upon themselves to embody all our collective longings and try to give them some channel for fulfilment. And yet at the same time, it is asked that they toe the social line, and this dichotomy has often led to ambivalence and frustration.
Suffice it to say that characterizations in komiks face a new life in the film version where they extend their tenure and circulation in the visual and literary imagination of the nation. Visual iconography is the instrument of komiks stories in creating appealing and charismatic characters and heroes. Filipino expressive anatomy is a special case. It thrives on familiarity and iconicity.
It caters to the caricature in comedy, but it is also capable of representing distinct mannerisms and making these memorable through iconic poses. The lunge, the gallop, the slap, the stretch, the bend, the counterpose, the thud — these are marked deeds of wilful beings who read out for the impossible and return the look with interest. Thus, we may say that Coching has partly crafted a Filipino manner, so to speak, an iconography of villainy and righteousness.
Life and Art of Francisco Coching 19 Philippine komiks in the s also depicted the human form along simple and realistic lines, and this had an impact on the characterization and physical rendering of heroes in the movies. However, the heroes of the koridos such as Bernardo Carpio are presented in a more stylized manner that is befitting their mythical and quasi-historical origins.
Sometimes humorous, sometimes sensual, the royals and the princesses are portrayed as larger than life. They are presented visually in exaggerated postures, displaying mannerisms that go with their noble background and performing extraordinary roles that gave them an aura of invincibility. Reyes asserts, heroes who are indigenized meld foreign mannerisms with those of the folk: Filipino historical fiction film and fantasy such as Lapu-Lapu and Tulisang Pugot, respectively, achieve artful iconography owing to the rich imaginations of their artists.
Their gestures are complex, and they meld well with their backdrops. Imaginative iconography in the source text translates easily into film and it is possible too that film iconography influenced printed media in return; genres becoming cycles in the truest sense of the word. The contexts of film production include the identification of formulaic story materials, the studio system, and the star system. The cultural economy then consisted of the people who propelled the commercial drive of the industry and the social and cultural aspects of the creative enterprise.
These factors sustained the industry in the s. Thus, another assumption of the theory goes: Some of the key components of the cultural economy of film adaptation, such as the producers, the stars, and the fans, were implicated in the practices of Filipino komiks-to-film adaptation in the s. It meant identifying source texts that would spawn similar or familiar materials in a sort of an assembly line. Part of their creative function was to develop Kritika Kultura 30 The casting of actors for a film adaptation was sometimes influenced by their images and portrayal in the source text.
The iconography suggested by a source- text would be merged with film roles and the aura of stars. Taken to their extreme, iconographies that were memorable and became almost identifiable with the actors who played the roles have been linked to the making of cultural icons and symbols. Some fans adored the stars, but some were also fans of the komiks material who wanted to check on their screen versions.
The cultural economy of adaptation has always been implicated in the film production process. As Horkheimer and Adorno, in Dialectic of Enlightenment, have eloquently said: The whole world is passed through the filter of the culture industry.
The familiar experience of the moviegoer, who perceives the street outside as a continuation of the film he has just left, because the film seeks strictly to reproduce the world of everyday perception, has become the guideline of production. It discusses the general features of Filipino komiks-to-film adaptation.
The following discussion further crystallizes Pelikulang Komiks as a Filipino film adaptation theory. While the section on concepts and assumptions draws conclusions from the specific archival texts uncovered and the issues pertaining to production and consumption of komiks and films, the Kritika Kultura 30 Moreover, the flow of the discussion is guided by the following diagram: Therefore, the Filipino native of the s may have been a product of centuries of evolution and filtration.
The country then was a Kritika Kultura 30 Second, it makes a reference to the place of origin of a trait as a pre-condition to what is indigenous.
Third, it reflects the agency of the natives themselves in defining who they are and what they are capable of. They came from mainland Asia by boat and migrated to the islands. After some time, the early settlers would be regarded as the first discoverers or natives of the islands. These early peoples eventually became indigenous to the place The cinema was not indigenous to the Filipinos, and neither were the early theatrical forms and early prototypes of the novels that have become part of their narrative tradition.
Brought from the outside through colonial encounter, these early foreign narratives prepared the Filipinos for cinema, which they considered both a novelty and a continuation of early narrative traditions. Before the coming of the Spaniards in , the communication forms in the country were predominantly oral. This was true of all civilizations before the advent of writing and printing.
Influenced by Kritika Kultura 30 Lumbera agrees to this role of material history in the rise of media: Para sa akin, history and culture ang nag-de-determine kung paano tayo kumikilos, tumitingin, nagpapasya. The ethno-epics were already in existence in the Philippines prior to Spanish contact, and served a number of functions in pre-colonial Philippines aside from providing amusement and delight.
In both its ritualistic and its artistic function, the epic is a key to understanding the pre-colonial native. The qualities of the native that found their way in the narrative forms of the 20th century were forged in ancient times. The natives who greeted the early missionaries were predisposed to singing and to producing verses that capture the reality of the everyday. The artistic temperament that we associate with contemporary Filipinos seems to have been rooted in their nativist past.
During the Spanish years, new narrative forms such as the pasyon and didactic prose were introduced and became influential enough to displace the epic. In pre- colonial times, epics were recited for days by the chanters who possessed excellent memory and improvisational skills. These oral forms had the fractured feel of the episodic.
When Spanish dramaturgy and storytelling devices were introduced through religious and community rituals, the epic went into history. Some of these Spanish narrative styles were imbibed in cinema, and some were sifted first through the komiks medium. Hispanismo is all-embracing, a seepage on various domains of culture.
Spanish narrative forms reconfigured ancient genres and rendered these in a new package, and the native narrative tradition was never the same again. With the Americans, cultural narratives developed from traditional to innovative, from didactic to secular.
Fanon reveals this as the reaction of the native—whether an Kritika Kultura 30 The roots of imitation, of conscious borrowing from foreign forms in the s, may be linked to a longing to acquire universal knowledge. Fanon articulates: This is because the native intellectual has thrown himself greedily upon Western culture. Like adopted children who only stop investigating the new family framework at the moment when a minimum nucleus of security crystallizes in their psyche, the native intellectual will try to make European culture his own.
However, Bhabha sees this mimicry as having two implications: Mimicry, for Bhabha, is a site where colonial memory and influences meant not only adopting a standard or an idea but also subverting it: What Fanon has referred to as the tendency of the native to imbibe or to imitate foreign culture may be evident in the cycle of borrowings that the s film industry engaged in.
From the koridos to the fantasy-adventures, from the historical genre to the comedies, the influences of both Spanish and American forms were intertwined with the sources of komiks. Del Mundo, Jr. Philippine Cinema and Colonialism , draws a vivid picture of how easy it was to build the local film industry from the example of the American entrepreneurs At the same time, appropriation of foreign influences has been crucial in forging a postcolonial consciousness.
The foreign and the native get entangled with each other, creating the komiks-based cinema of the s. Together, they constitute the national and the popular.
Prior to the rise of cinema cultures in the Philippines, two print-based media performed the task of implanting the idea of community, which was once assigned to the pre-colonial communication forms.
The novel and the newspaper grew alongside the spread Kritika Kultura 30 Conceptions of community defy time. In other words, the nation has only been an idea.
Eventually, colonized societies that imagined the nation, through the novel and the newspaper, would soon be consumed by the desire to free themselves from colonial oppression. Departing from the predominantly religious themes during the Spanish years, the secular themes during the period of independence bordered on various aspects of modern life.
Reyes opines: History books refer to the s as the Decade of Philippine Nationalism. This must have something to do with the general feeling of exuberance that the Filipinos had following the colonial years. The presence of Hollywood influences should not be a problem in an era of nationalism. It is the assimilation of influences that should be interesting to film history Personal Interview.
The empire has answered back, which is a sort of re-enactment of a usual postcolonial narrative. The dynamism of the decade in terms of the quantity of films and the constant sourcing of komiks stories was perceived as something important, if not merely novel.
The young nation has created various artistic expressions that are to be enunciated for the first time. Flores has labelled three ramifications of the idea of the postcolonial Filipino: The nation is a pervading presence in pelikulang komiks, maybe not in a direct way, but in an oblique way.
One example that may be cited to prove this point is the treatment of the past that has been sifted from komiks to film. The subject of the past is perceived to be a means of constructing identity through fiction.
For S. She adds: With the economy in shambles, the infrastructure almost completely destroyed and its people still trying to recover from three years of a repressive Japanese regime, the country had very little to look forward to.
Those films set in a modern setting are reworkings of the same old themes of the conflict between a land-grabbing haciendero and a dispossessed land owner. Yet there are other forms of domination that rework the residual patron-client relationship in the films. While the komiks writers and filmmakers seemed to be less critical of the old values that needed to be further re-examined, they were however reflective of urban woes, of the chaos wrought by industrialization, and of crass materialism that challenged family values.
The Coching-Avellana Lapu- Lapu, in its avowed proto-nationalism, combines coherent storytelling with Kritika Kultura 30 Another text, Tulisang Pugot, may be too fantastic and evasive of politics, but its sheer depiction of the late 19th century that evokes the eerie and the gothic presents a possibility for critique via iconography. The past as subject for pelikulang komiks is not only about the Spanish period.
Various periods of oral and written history of the Philippines were also tackled by komiks stories by borrowing plots from awit and corrido S. The distant past is a trope by which the film story may be able to achieve a resolution of old issues. But the indiscriminate evocation of the period film and its problematic values had been revisited by adaptation not in a didactic mode but in a nostalgic mode. Instead, the intention in recapturing the past may be to retrieve a sense of pride that has been crushed by wartime experiences.
There was a need to make sense of the past, to return to what used to be untrammelled and whole. The past serves as a school for the honing of the visual iconography of the s. This specificity does something else; it is a key to the heroic ideal of the Filipino. It served both as a value and as a generic trope. The concept of nation penetrated pelikulang komiks either through the use of the past as trope or by pursuing myth- making strategies.
As Horn offers: The problem of creating a milieu at once ordinary and different is the lot of all mass media which also aspire to becoming art forms. To answer the challenge, the comics may resort to the wholesale creation of a mythical ontogeny. It is where heroes fulfil their role in the collective destiny of the people: But then the bright lights of criticism, of mythography, are easily dimmed by commerce. This Janus-faced content of film adaptation can be problematic when it surrenders politics to entertainment.
As Figure 1 above shows, the confluence of foreign borrowings and indigenous elements in pelikulang komiks reflect both scripting the nation and fuelling a culture industry. The latter is inevitable insofar as cinema is a technology borrowed from the West and is propelled through the capitalist enterprise. As Armes offers: Cinema has been a notable exception being not native to any third cinema as the Philippines.
Lumbera differentiates it from folk culture, which denotes the traditional culture that a distinct community of people has evolved sometimes in isolation from others in its struggle with nature, and in the process of accommodation and resistance experienced by each community in its multifarious relationships with outsiders. The result is repetition. Insofar as the pelikulang komiks of the s engaged both the national and the popular, we can say that colonization was only one of the factors implicated in the complex borrowings of content and form.
The growing consciousness of the masses has also been shaped by the Enlightenment doctrine of rationalism and a new excitement over the kind of cinema current in those days.
Although not immune from being victims of deception, the masses gave new voice to the idea of nationalism that has been forged by or made complex by capitalism. Adaptation is not exclusive to cinema. It is an artistic practice that has been in existence as far as the known history of the Filipinos is concerned. In locating adaptation in culture, one is not limited to any specific art form or cultural practice.
The whole of cultural tradition is implicated in understanding specific moments of adaptive art and ways of sourcing materials from narrative lore and cultural memory. Filipino adaptation practices in the s were distinct because these were rooted in a culture of recycling.
Stories and narratives were assimilated from various sources—foreign and local—and were rendered in the vernacular native language , using local color and idiom. Adaptations re-symbolized source texts Kritika Kultura 30 In this sense, the past and the present merge in a work of komiks-to-film adaptation. In another sense, locating culture in adaptation allows for a broader view of adaptation.
It is about culture as a whole, the kind of stories we recycle, and the type of materials that help explain the present. A great era of adaptation only proceeds from a great era of source texts, and the komiks industry has seen major changes in decades past.
As Yonzon has added: The values carried forth in both source texts and target text may also subvert status quo. Valiente agrees. After the war, with the memory of their harrowing experience at the hands of the Japanese, Filipinos worked towards the rejuvenation of their spirit.
The Second World War, he says, impelled Filipinos to find their moorings. There came a need to carve an image of a new Filipino that is ideal, chivalric, and heroic. It is recycling materials from various periods of cultural development across forms, across genres, and across meanings. In the act of updating a material, both capitalistic drive and cultural impulses are at play.
Sourcing is paean to the past—albeit in a more unconscious way. There would come a time when traces of foreign borrowings would have already melded smoothly with the local to be ever visible. This was the route taken by the sarswela and komedya.
Komiks-to-film adaptation has been only one point of entry in that long process of cultural adaptation. There is perhaps no other more articulate way to illustrate appropriation than the example of the Bernardo Carpio story, which followed multiple routes.
From a 19th century Spanish corrido, the story became a legend about the Filipino folk hero. To vernacularize is to express an appropriated material in the language, idiom, and metaphor of the Filipino. Film adaptation of komiks in the s, that artistic product brought about by the merging of foreign and native materials, is a vernacular narrative. Baker, Jr.
Vernacularization as a form of adaptation in cinema works along the principle of addition. Moreover, pelikulang komiks presents itself as a type of vernacular narrative, alongside the Tagalog novel, epic, awit, korido, and pasyon because it delivers a story that is exclusively retold using conventions and tropes drawn externally and locally.
This aptly parallels what Baker has commented on vernacularized forms like blues music: During the early American period, other forms of narratives reflected traces of adaptation practices and their popular reception. The past and the present, the folk and the popular, merge in the komiks and in film. The historical roots of Filipino film adaptation practices are linked to linguistic translation. After all, vernacular cinema and vernacular adaptation are partly about the vernacular language that they employ or speak.
If one were to trace the ability of Filipino media forms to refer or to borrow from diverse sources, the dramatic years of the Spanish period would come to mind. Translation in Early Spanish Rule, adaptation is posited to be synonymous with translation.
Natives in early Spanish rule barely spoke the Spanish language but they took to imagining in their own Tagalog language or vernacular Christian concepts that contain messages about freedom and justice. Rafael articulates that these nascent concepts of vernacularization may be beneficial to present day scholars of culture: Tanikalang Apoy by Pablo S.
Pinoy Webtoon http: Like Like. You can see a few images here: You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email. This list is divided into two sections click on the link to jump there: Contemporary Komiks , which are comics made after the s including webcomics but excluding samplers; and Classic Komiks , which are those made during the so-called Golden Age of Philippine komiks s to s.
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