Managing Brand Equity [David A. Aaker] on soundofheaven.info *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. In a fascinating and insightful examination of the phenomenon. Aug 12, Managing brand equity by Aaker, David A., , Free Press, Maxwell Macmillan Canada, Maxwell Macmillan International edition, in English. Tue, 04 Sep GMT managing brand equity david aaker pdf - In a fascinating and insightful examination of the phenomenon of brand equity, Aaker .
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Managing Brand Equity by David A. Aaker - In a fascinating and insightful examination of the phenomenon of brand equity, Aaker provides a clear and. provide a comprehensive framework for managing brand equity; and finally, we distinguish different . (Aaker , –; Keegan – Moriarty – Duncan. Read Managing Brand Equity by David A. Aaker for free with a 30 day free trial. Read unlimited* books and audiobooks on the web, iPad, iPhone and Android.
The sixties and seventies saw the addition of Pampers disposable diapers, Folger's coffee, Scope mouthwash, Bounty paper towels, Pringles potato chips, Bounce fabric softener, Rely tampons, and Luv disposable diapers. Need help? Peter A. Clearly, the management of associations, covering three chapters, is both important and complex. Copy and paste this code into your Wikipedia page.
Chapter 4 discusses perceived quality, how it can be managed, and the evidence as to its role in business performance.
Chapter 5 introduces the concept of associations and positioning. Methods to measure associations are covered in Chapter 6. Selecting, creating, and maintaining associations is the subject of Chapter 7. Clearly, the management of associations, covering three chapters, is both important and complex. The brand is identified by the name, and often by a symbol and a slogan as well. Chapter 8 discusses these indicators and their selection.
Brand extensions the good, the bad, and the ugly is the topic of Chapter 9. Chapter 10 presents methods to revitalize a tired brand—to breathe new life into both it and its context. It also discusses the end game: Chapter 11 provides a discussion about global branding, presents a summary model of brand equity, and concludes with a set of observations from each chapter that collectively summarize the major points presented in the book.
An historical analysis of a brand that has experienced a dramatic event, or has been especially good or bad at building brand equity, begins each chapter. There is much to be learned from history. Each of these analyses provides a vivid illustration of how a wide variety of actions can affect a brand. In several cases a dollar value is placed upon a set of actions affecting a brand, even though it is impossible to know for sure what caused what.
Too, there is a host of case studies throughout, to illustrate the concepts and methods and to make them more tangible and understandable. In addition to the historical flavor—what has happened to individual brands—more systematic studies are sought out and reported. The past 15 years have seen the development of studies about such brand constructs as market share, awareness, brand extensions, perceived quality, and others that provide significant evidence about their role.
Some of these studies have been based upon large-scale data bases. Others come from controlled experiments. They all help provide substance to an area that has too long relied upon opinion.
Each chapter closes with a set of questions to consider. The goal is to provide a vehicle with which to translate the ideas in the chapter into a diagnostic and action agenda. Some questions will stimulate new ways of looking at your brand and its environment, and others will suggest a need to find out more information.
Many people helped in the writing of this book. Let me offer my special thanks here to the following: Bob Wallace, my editor at The Free Press, for his enthusiasm for the project and Kevin Keller, my research colleague on the first two branding research efforts in which I was involved, for his stimulating ideas. From among those who read large portions of the manuscript and gave helpful comments: Among my colleagues who read chapters or gave helpful suggestions: Then there was MSI, who sponsored three branding conferences, provided inspiration and support.
A product is something that is made in a factory; a brand is something that is bought by a customer. A product can be copied by a competitor; a brand is unique.
A product can be quickly outdated; a successful brand is timeless. That ad is shown in Figure Figure shows a Ivory ad illustrating the consistency of the positioning over time. Note the imagery created by the forest, the barefoot girl, and the clear water.
The flotation property, first created by a production mistake which fed air into the soap mixture, was discovered by customers—who attempted to reorder the floating soap.
Ivory was a remarkable product in a time in which most soaps were yellow or brown, irritated skin, and damaged clothes. The fact that it floated had practical value to those used to being frustrated by trying to find their soap in the bath water.
It was thus well positioned—a soap that was pure, was mild, and floated. From the outset, the fact that it was mild enough for babies was stressed, and babies were often featured in the advertising.
The claims of purity and mildness were supported by the white color, the name Ivory, the twin slogans, and the association with babies. Ivory, now over years old, is a prime example of the value of creating and sustaining brand equity. Brand equity will be carefully defined and detailed later in this chapter. Briefly, it is a set of assets such as name awareness, loyal customers, perceived quality, and associations e.
Curiously, in a yellow soap named Sunlight, when introduced to dreary, sun-starved England, became the start of Unilever, now one of the largest firms in the world. The loyalty and market presence that Ivory had built was challenged in by an Ivory clone called Swan from Lever Brothers.
It was billed as The first really new floating soap since the Gay Nineties. Without any clear product difference, Lever could not dislodge Ivory, and ultimately withdrew from the market. He argued that there were not enough people caring about Camay.
The marketing effort and the effort to create and maintain equity was diffused and uncoordinated, and lacked a budget commitment. The solution, creating a brand management team responsible for the marketing program and its coordination with sales and manufacturing, was a key event in the history of branding.
In the U. Most firms will focus efforts upon one brand, protecting its position by pursuing a given positioning strategy. New segments are usually therefore uncovered by competitors who are attempting to gain a position in the market.
The mature, fragmented laundry detergent category is an excellent example of how a set of brands can combine to reach a variety of segments and result in a dominant position: Ivory Snow— Ninety-nine and forty-four one-hundredths percent pure, the Mild, gentle soap for diapers and baby clothes.
Gain—Originally an enzyme detergent but now a detergent with a fragrance— Bursting with freshness. Era—Concentrated liquid detergent—with proteins to clean stains Solo—Heavy-duty, with a fabric softener. In few other companies is the power of branding so apparent.
Their persistence with Pringles chips, Duncan Hines ready-to-eat soft cookies, and Citrus Hill orange juice in the face of substantial losses are examples. In this book we shall explore brand equity. However, it can also involve an initial and ongoing investment which can be substantial and will not necessarily result in short-term profits.
Payoffs, when they come, can involve decades. Thus, management of brand equity is difficult, requiring patience and vision. In the following pages we will define brand equity and suggest that it is based on a set of dimensions each of which potentially needs to be managed.
Several perspectives on how to place a value on a brand will then be detailed. First, however, several basic questions must be addressed. For example: What exactly is a brand? Have brand equities been eroding? How do price promotions affect brands? What is behind the pressures for short-run financial results? Can a focus on brand equity provide a counterpoint to the tyranny of short-term financials?
A brand thus signals to the customer the source of the product, and protects both the customer and the producer from competitors who would attempt to provide products that appear to be identical. There is evidence that even in ancient history names were put on such goods as bricks in order to identify their maker. In the early sixteenth century, whiskey distillers shipped their products in wooden barrels with the name of the producer burned into the barrel.
The name showed the consumer who the maker was and prevented the substitution of cheaper products. In a brand of Scotch called Old Smuggler was introduced in order to capitalize on the quality reputation developed by bootleggers who used a special distilling process. Although brands have long had a role in commerce, it was not until the twentieth century that branding and brand associations became so central to competitors.
In fact, a distinguishing characteristic of modern marketing has been its focus upon the creation of differentiated brands. Market research has been used to help identify and develop bases of brand differentiation.
Unique brand associations have been established using product attributes, names, packages, distribution strategies, and advertising. The idea has been to move beyond commodities to branded products—to reduce the primacy of price upon the purchase decision, and accentuate the bases of differentiation. The power of brands, and the difficulty and expense of establishing them, is indicated by what firms are willing to pay for them. These values are far beyond the worth of any balance sheet item representing bricks and mortar.
An even clearer example of the value of a brand name is licensing.
The Fruit Corner tag line, Real fruit and fun rolled up in one, was overshadowed by Sunkist Fun Fruits, a name that said it all. The value of an established brand is in part due to the reality that it is more difficult to build brands today than it was only a few decades ago. First, the cost of advertising and distribution is much higher: One-minute commercials and sometimes even half-minute commercials are now considered too expensive to be practical, for example.
Second, the number of brands is proliferating: Approximately 3, brands are introduced each year into supermarkets. There were at this writing nameplates of cars, over brands of lipstick, and 93 cat-food brands.
It also means that a brand often is relegated to a niche market, and so will lack the sales to support expensive marketing programs. Despite the often obvious value of a brand, there are signs that the brand-building process is eroding, loyalty levels are falling, and price is becoming more salient.
The accompanying insert suggests a series of indicators of a lack of attention to brands which most firms will find familiar. Managers cannot identify with confidence the brand associations and the strength of those associations. Further, there islittle knowledge about how those associations differ across segments and through time. Knowledge of levels of brand awareness is lacking.
There is no feel for whether a recognition problem exists among any segment. Knowledge is lacking as to top-of-mind recall that the brand is getting, and how that has been changing. There is no systematic, reliable, sensitive, and valid measure of customer satisfaction and loyalty—nor any diagnostic modelthat guides an ongoing understanding of why such measures may be changing.
There is no person in the firm who is really charged with protecting the brand equity. Those nominally in charge of the brand,perhaps termed brand managers or product marketing managers, are in fact evaluated on the basis of short-term measures. The measures of performance associated with a brand and its managers are quarterly and yearly. There are no longer-term objectivesthat are meaningful. Managing brand equity Aaker, David A. Managing brand equity Close.
Want to Read. Are you sure you want to remove Managing brand equity from your list? Managing brand equity capitalizing on the value of a brand name by Aaker, David A. Written in English. Places United States. Edition Notes Includes bibliographical references p. Classifications Dewey Decimal Class B7 A22 The Physical Object Pagination xiii, p. Number of pages Readers waiting for this title: Check nearby libraries with: WorldCat Library. Buy this book Amazon. Share this book Facebook. External Links Contributor biographical information Sample text Publisher description.
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