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The Three Musketeers can be termed as a Romantic Historical Fiction work written by the French Author Alexandre Dumas. Key characters behind this story are. Trending eBooks about Historical Fiction. Classic Literature. Historical Fiction. Mystery & Crime. Horror. Poetry. Romance. Science Fiction. Drama. Story. Books or stories in the historical fiction genre blend actual historical facts with fiction. The chart below describes the characteristics of the historical fiction genre.
History is an empirical discipline in two respects. It was easy to stay under with so much clothing and my boots […] There were shots when I ran and shots when I came up the first time. The Content of the Form. He emphasises that history always changes according to the concerns and interests of today. McHale, Brian. CA, 78 With the sovereignty over time and space I have as narrator, I dash you now, my patient reader, thirty years ahead in time and, at the same time, spin the globe a bit more than half a turn east from Telluride, Colorado!
The most interesting textual feature in Colorado Avenue is a section in which a film manuscript is quoted and the making of a silent movie is reported.
Chapter 14 in the first part of the novel starts with a description of a scene from a black-and-white silent movie. This is a crucial turning point in the novel, where, with the young lovers parted by death, Hanna decides to return to her home country, and Otto reluctantly leaves his country of birth at the age of seven. The fictional film is the only form in which the reader gets information of the events. The representation of the movie is a series of described scenes and quoted texts from the screen, and finally a description of the actors and directors on the set making the movie.
Whereas all fiction is, as I argued, a system of quotations, quotations like these involving another medium bring this system of quotations to a head, since they involve a modification from one medium to another, in this case from visual to verbal. Yacobi , — The textual and artistic nature of the novel is highlighted as this description of an emotional event is represented with one more remove from the main plot, through the description of a movie.
Like the frame narrative in Sigrid Liljeholm, this quotation from a fictional movie evokes generic context. The first text quoted from the screen gives the genre of the movie: Both novels use intertextual references to historical documents and sour- ces in order to build historical credibility.
Both also discuss the generic tradi- tion of literature with allusions to drama and film. These allusions to fictional practices do not, however, diminish the illusion of referentiality but rather maintain it by setting the novels against a background of more melodramatic and less serious genres.
Thus, both references to historical sources and refer- ences to renounced genres aim at building historical liability. Next, I will ana- lyse the narrative levels of the novels and their discursive practices. Experiencing the Past, Reflecting History Narrative Levels Mise en abyme-structures, narratives within the narrative, have been called mirrors of the text.
They are also special cases of narrative, since a character takes the role of a narrator for a while. In Sigrid Liljeholm, Sigrid tells a fairy tale — about a king with a son and a daughter — to the children of Fleming. The tale shows how women are overlooked but powerful actors in history.
Colorado Avenue has narratives within the main narrative as well. They are not, however, positioned like mises en abyme, since they are not located inside the story world. They are an example of the various forms of metalepsis in the novel, as the characters narrating them temporarily move to the same narrative level as the main narrator. After Johannes Smeds has denied his younger son his wish to become a cantor, the narrator addresses the son directly: Ja, Gustav: CA, Well, Gustav — much would have been different had you had the chance to become a cantor!
If you had gotten out the music that rings and chimes inside of you. But you were ever kept in reserve. And right into this story drives a truck, around which there is a sharp aroma of dung. This unsettles the position of the narrator, who has acted mostly like a historian, gathering information from historical sources.
Then again, most parts of the novel do not provide any explanation of how the narrator has gained access to the information. In this respect, the novel does not follow the pat- tern of historiographical metafiction, reflecting and contesting given informa- tion. Rather, it highlights the existence of the story itself, without the media- tion of the narrator.
Gen- ette , — In Colorado Avenue, these kinds of narrative metalepsis do clearly cross the narrative boundaries, but not at the expense of the story world, rather the opposite. Free indirect discourse FID is a mode most often claimed to be possible only in fictional narratives, since it mixes the voices of agents on two differ- ent narrative levels and thus entails knowledge of and access to a mind of another agent.
Furthermore, FID as a dual- voice discourse often lingers between an ironic and an emphatic standpoint towards a character, and in both cases is regarded as being highly subjective and emotive. Cohn , —; McHale , and passim; Teilmann , 77; Tammi The fictional specificity, like everything else about FID, has been under dispute for decades. McHale I will not participate in this discussion here, but study how FID is used in these novels in relation to their historical nature.
Since the narrator telling and reflecting the story assumes a retrospective view of the events, and the character is experiencing them as her present, the mixing of these two discursive and temporal positions is of interest here. Nu var det annorlunda. SL, 28 But the obeisance towards the king and his representative still constrained the peasants, even if blood had already been shed in many regions. Now things were different. Fleming had no right to rule, even less to oppress the people. The subjectivity of the people is clearly present here: Fleming has no right to rule, even less to oppress the people.
Cohn , ; McHale , From a historical point of view, it is remarkable that these words seem to have an authentic source, even though they were necessarily not verbalised by the peasants in the exact form given in the novel. Before the quotation, the novel relates how certain leaders of the peasant rebels, like the historical fig- ure Jacob Ilkka, have just given speeches with the same content and with the aim to agitate the peasants.
What is more, it is important for the historical inter- pretation to designate the origin of any opinion that led to historical events. In the case quoted, two possible interpretations, not mutually exclusive, can be discerned: Colorado Avenue uses a more open mode of metalepsis.
Both transgress the temporal boundary between the narrator reflecting history and the characters experiencing the past. This enables the reader to partly access the story world as the characters experience it.
I will now look closer at the ways in which the two novels make their historical story worlds accessible to the reader. Historical Story Worlds Story worlds have gained much theoretical attention in recent narratology. Cognitively inspired narratology studies and elaborates on the processes of immersion Ryan, , readerly orientation within the story world Herman , a , and perceptual positioning on the levels of story world, narra- tion and the actual reading process Jahn, Whereas Sigrid Liljeholm begins with the frame narrative, Colorado Avenue takes the reader right into the middle of the story world with a description of a character and her recollections.
Mannen var min morfars far. CA, 7 Dollar Hanna had a particular relationship with dynamite. The smell of detonated dynamite would always for her be inextricably linked to love and sorrow.
Experiencing the Past, Reflecting History later, she would always recollect this smell vividly enough to feel it burn her nose — a pungent mixture of sulphur, heated metal and ozone. This sensory recollection in turn evoked an image of a man who slowly comes walking down a dusty street carrying a pair of saddlebags and a Winchester rifle, a hat pressed down on his forehead; in the back- ground rise the mountains, and their pointed, snow-covered tops sparkle like large shards of glass against the deep blue sky.
From Telluride, Colorado, Dollar Hanna had brought home the smell of dynamite. A subtitle page precedes this beginning, giving the information: Telludire, Colorado. Telluride, Colorado. Besides the coordinates in a story world, cognitive narratology under- stands that human experientiality lies at the core of narratives.
Fludernik , — These perspectival schemata give the reader an access point to the story world and an experiencing subjectivity in it, much the same way as Herman under- stands that the reader navigates using the coordinates offered. At the begin- ning of Colorado Avenue, the perspectives of viewing, experiencing and reflect- ing are activated: It is evident that Colorado Avenue explicitly offers the reader coordinates to, and an experience of, the story world. From the point of view of fictionality and historical representation, two features of this opening are especially interesting: At the beginning, the narrator seems to be a third person narrator located outside of the story world, with at least some of the privileges of an omniscient narrator, capable of relating the minds of the characters and moving in space and time.
This makes the narrator part of the fic- tional world described one of the characters there. Cohn has argued that a historian is actually rather a character narrator than a narrator outside of the story world. Cohn , — According to her argumentation, however, this results in the narrator being restricted to the narrative abilities of a natural person, not able to know or depict the minds of the others.
I would argue, however, that in historical fiction — as in Colorado Avenue — the narrator may both assume the role of a historian, reflecting past story on the basis of docu- ments and the like, and utilise fictional narrative liberties like telepathy.
This offers the reader an audience position inside the fiction, where the story world is the actual world which the characters experience as their present and the narrator and the audience reflect as their past. Still, despite this assumed role as a historian, the narrator is able to read and relate to the minds of the other characters in the story.
The different perspectival schemata in the opening of Colorado Avenue first seem to follow each other logically, as the narrator reflects on the experience of the character.
The third frame of viewing, however, does not readily fall into the same continuum. The change from past to present tense highlights its nature as an image rather than a part of the narrative. It is offered, and may be interpreted, as a mental image of the character Hanna, her visual recollec- tion. The temporal order of the narrative layers is reversed.
In the passage quoted, it is not only the narrator but also Hanna who assumes a retrospective view of the narrated events, since they are her memories: The description of the oldest and deepest layer of her mind is, however, offered to the reader through the schema of viewing with coordinates of what, where and when in the present: Throughout the novel, the narrator moves between his position as a histo- rian relating the story to a contemporary audience, and offering more direct glimpses of the story world like the image in the last quotation.
Even metalep- tic passages are informative with respect to historical timing and placing: CA, 78 With the sovereignty over time and space I have as narrator, I dash you now, my patient reader, thirty years ahead in time and, at the same time, spin the globe a bit more than half a turn east from Telluride, Colorado! We end up in the archipelago of Siklax. The narrator openly plays with his double role as omniscient narrator and historian, declaring his ability to take the reader to whatever time and place he chooses while at the same time giving historical details connecting the story world to history.
This indicates that the narrator, despite his ability to move in time and place and to telepathically read the minds of the characters, does not adopt the fourth feature of omniscient narration, the omnipotent ability to make anything happen in the story world. Nelles , This goes together with the role of a historian: As mentioned, Sigrid Liljeholm begins with a frame narrative which gives the reader the coordinates of the story world. It also introduces an authorial narrator, who claims to have written the text to come and is now sending it to a friend to read.
The narrator holds her temporal distance to the story world throughout the text, but does describe visiting the places where the story is set. The following is about Qvidja, one of the mansions of Clas Fleming. SL, — In Qvidja stands a high stone tower; it remains to this day, a reminder of times past and speaks of when Clas Fleming and his noble spouse stayed there.
But in those rooms, from where Clas Fleming ruled over Finland, more autocratic than many a king, rats now gnaw the rich grain stores from the fields of Qvidja. The deep window niches had chairs with Adam and Eve and the tree of knowledge embroidered on each cushion. The colours had faded, and the whole setting looked as if it could have been the remnants of what the room had looked like years before. According to Hamburger, a narrator in a passage like this assumes the temporal position of a real subject, and the deictic references are to be interpreted as if the narrator were a real person.
Hamburger , 79—80 In this case, temporal references originate from the middle of the 19th century, from the time Rune- berg wrote the novel.
The passage quoted demonstrates the multiple ways in which fictionalised historical characters can be portrayed in relation to fictional characters. The last paragraph indicates the perspective of both the writer and the reader of a historical novel since the past characters are imagined from the present per- spective. Also, the narrator has shared the same space with the Fleming family. Thus the past story world is presented as a concrete place, still existent, and as a concrete time in the same historical continuum where the authorial narrator and her audience are situated.
Experiencing the Past, Reflecting History As Rigney has pointed out, historical fiction is characterised by the inter- play between story elements that are historical and those that are invented.
Rigney , 19 In historical fiction, historical characters referred to and depicted become fictionalised. This process, according to Cohn, makes corre- spondence to real events and circumstances optional, not mandatory. Cohn , 13—15 It is, however, crucial to the genre that the reading process requires prior knowledge of these events. Even if Fleming in Sigrid Liljeholm is not the Fleming, the character is certainly associated with the historical person and evaluated on the basis of this knowledge.
Both Sigrid Liljeholm and Colorado Avenue build and maintain the illusion of the depicted story world, its events and characters as past reality by building links between the history reflected and the past experienced. He emphasises that history always changes according to the concerns and interests of today. This is, of course, also true in the case of historical fiction: The two novels analysed here participate in many contemporary discussions: Colorado Avenue depicts immigration to the U.
In these novels, the referred past events are paired with invented ones. Still, the connection with history is maintained through intertextual allusions to known past events. What is more, the novels openly highlight and discuss their textual and narrative structure, and the truthfulness of the events depicted. Both novels analysed here create and maintain the illusion of writing his- tory by using representative and discursive modes mostly associated with fic- tion.
Many of them, like metalepsis between the narrator and a character, or the mixing of the voices of the narrator and a character in FID, mediate the temporal positions of experiencing the past and reflecting history.
The narrators in these novels employ fictional liberties associated with omniscience, like telepathy and free- dom to move in time and place, but still present the story worlds as if they really happened in the past. These novels show how historical fiction may offer readers a possibility to become immersed in the past world while main- taining the awareness of it being part of history — a history they themselves participate in and reflect upon.
Bibliography Adhikari, Madhumalati. Lars Burman. Gidlunds, Cohn, Dorrit. Transparent Minds: Narrative Modes for Presenting Consciousness in Fiction. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, Culler, Jonathan. Demos, John. The Mirror in the Text.
Jeremy Whiteley and Emma Hughes. Polity, Fay, Brian. Fludernik, Monika. David Herman. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications, Fryxell, Anders. On the era of Luther] Stockholm: Hjerta,  I heard them when I was almost above water. There were no shots now. This retrospection transformed through the s as Evelyn Waugh, L. Hartley and Anthony Powell among others wrote forward-looking criticism focussed on concerns of the development of the Welfare State in Britain and a changing social climate in Eastern Europe.
Coetzee, Kazuo Ishiguro — wrote of their guilt for being born too late for the heroism of parents who fought at war. Fictions of this era were of authors seeking out their roots, not only to contemplate their pasts in order to understand their present, but to reclaim an estranged past.
Critics asked for depictions of contemporary life rather than of an unyielding focus on the past, but what these critics did not see was that a focus on the past was an attempt to find historical paradigms for contemporary situations Byatt As Linda Hutcheon has concluded: Hutcheon They did not dismiss current events, but they did not ignore how much the past influences their present.
These are only two in a wealth of texts published in the past eight years, and indicate that the War on Terror and its countless ramifications in political and cultural developments is an influence that cannot be ignored. The paternal grandfather has been driven to silence in his pain — something that if not avoided in the current generation, is certainly addressed with new knowledge about post-traumatic stress.
Metaphorically the writer gives a structure of feeling by juxtaposing the individual experience of loss and pain across two widely separated wars. When I thought I was dying at the base of the Loschwitz Bridge, there was a single thought in my head: Keep thinking.
Thinking would keep me alive. Foer Theorising Historical Fiction: A Retrospective Methodology Historical fiction deals with issues, events and problems that history proper cannot. Yet the writer of fiction can employ the criteria of narrative — the traditional historian will not. American philosopher and literary theorist Louis Mink wrote of the difference between fiction and history: The historian, on the other hand, finds the story already hidden in […] evidence; he is creative in the invention of research techniques to expose it, not in the art of narrative construction […] the story of the past needs only to be communicated, not constructed.
Mink Questions of why events occur and how they play out the way they do force us beyond the realm of historical investigation and to consider human experience, feelings and motivations that offer perspectives rarely achieved within an empirical discipline. The author operates within a retrospective methodology.
Each have 3 See for example David Carr. Approaches to Modernity: Companion to Historiography. They find no need to conceal the dark side of history or the less-than-favourable reality of conditions onboard the Ark, instead: Does he even want us to?
We all think we are speaking a truth when often it is our ignorance that makes us unknowing, or our ideological and psychological propensities and preferences that intrude and affect our judgement or determine our interpretation. Even if these events are not documented on historical record, what Barnes does is allow the reader to imagine that they were.
He allows us to question the official record, to query classical interpretation, and by doing so his work becomes a useful tool for examining our past. Historical narrative uses the evidence, manuscripts and testimonies that construct a past as the framework for representation. The night before I lost everything, I typed our last future home: And when we open its front door, the previous home will be destroyed and rebuilt as a new home.
It seems any historian writing from lates to the mid-twentieth century felt it necessary to note his or her awareness of the subjectivity of their craft in the form of the conscious or unconscious selection, interpretation and manipulation of historical fact.
A second dimension of historical thought, the history of history: Collingwood And with a particular audience or reader-response in mind historians are accountable for the choice of facts presented; knowledge is sought and emphasis weighed on evidence that supports the historical record; anachronisms are to be excused, almost expected.
Hayden White, historian of literary theory and criticism, contends that historiography took shape as a scholarly discipline during the nineteenth century primarily, but not only, as a backlash to all forms of myth. Ranke asked writers of history to utilise factual articles and reliable evidence as the sole resource for obtaining and promoting knowledge of the past.
In doing so he believed historical accounts would then become discourse without subjective or misleading influences.
Tolstoy turned from history to represent the human condition in fiction, and by doing so produced documents on cultural history. As Snowman contents: Michael Bentley comments that this shift ran alongside a major political move away from the fellow- traveller position and socialist planning toward the free-market economics of Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher b: Campaigns of the late- s affected literary criticism, political, philosophical and social thought and created a new mood in historiographical understanding.
Historians, although in some cases unfamiliar with the language of postmodernism, found themselves having to rethink their approach in order to maintain relevance and congruence with other forms of thought Bentley b: A significant development in contemporary historiography is the shift from a discourse focussed on formalising the empirical conditions of historical enquiry to one that pursues the contextual, ideological and textual motivations of the author-historian.
The taint of subjectivity that lingers in all historical enquiry, be it fictional, empirical, digital or otherwise, can no longer be the overwhelming, almost vain, preoccupation of historiographical study. Contemporary historiography represents a stunning turning point in the way history as a social science is accessed, debated, and hypothesised.
Historiography has emerged — or stepped forward — as a viable, innovative and pursued field of historical erudition. Its forms, structures and struggles make it a most interesting and progressive consideration, addressing problems of history, aesthetics and language, and of the validity of fiction as an historical voice — determining that history can no longer be the simple study and re presentation of empirical facts.
Professor of Intellectual History Frank Ankersmit attests: History is an empirical discipline in two respects. First, in the more trivial sense history is an empirical discipline in that it deals with the data the past has left us that can empirically be verified or falsified.
The history of historical writing is, in the final analysis, a chapter in the book of the history of aesthetics.
While chronicle is restricted to events that occurred within a fixed timeframe or parameter, narrative is able to represent endings as directly linked to a faraway beginning, with action in the middle, too. As Salman Rushdie explains of the art of writing historical fiction: The story does not go from the beginning to the end but it goes in great loops and circles back on itself, repeats earlier things, digresses, uses sometimes a kind of Chinese-box system, where you have the story inside the story inside the story and then they all come back.
He rejects views that historical discourse cannot take a fictional form, contending that emplotment is natural to any historical retelling — because historical situations are stories waiting to be told, and the idea of the epic, the drama or the comedy is not inherent to an experience but a trope applied by the historian. Life and historical existence are narrative in the practical sense that they are episodes of experience, not a literary narrative construct.
This approach should not be seen as an excuse for writers to ignore factual evidence or compromise the truth of historical analysis.
Rather, understanding the constraints of empirical study and recognising the potential of interpretation grants the reader greater insight into the past. Our understanding of a past event or era of course increases with knowledge about the period in question. And knowledge is developed and enhanced by reading varied interpretations by historians, novelists and scholars. It also forces the reader to understand and question the parameters of re presentation, the meaning and reasons driving interpretation, and the influences of these.
The reader can only serve to gain insight and knowledge by questioning their sources. It is too easy to simply assert that narrativising an event removes historical authority. As White contends: It is the success of narrative in revealing the meaning, coherence or significance of events that attests to the legitimacy of its practice in historiography.
White New York: Berghahn Books Atwood, Margaret. Jonathan Cape Bentley, Michael. Routledge - b. Routledge Buxton, Jackie. On Histories and Stories. Selected Essays. Harvard University Press Collingwood, R. The Idea of History. Oxford University Press Dray, William.
Routledge Foer, Jonathan Safran.