cover the fundamentals of telephony, from its inception in Alexander Graham By telecommunications had become so important to the country that. The Second Edition of this critically-acclaimed text continues the standard of excellence set in the first edition by providing a thorough. View Table of Contents for Fundamentals of Telecommunications Demystifying the technology of telecommunications: a guided tour for the.
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Fundamentals of telecommunications / by Roger L. Freeman.–2nd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN (cloth). 1. To present the basics concepts of telecommunication systems with focus on digital and wireless Telecommunication signals are variation over time of voltages. Fundamentals of Telecommunications Second Edition Roger L. Freeman A JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC., PUBLICATION Fundamentals of Telecommunications.
For the input signal given in the procedure. It consists of 4 twisted pairs of copper wire The problem with UTP cable is of cross talk. Click DSP Sources in the left pane. Building a Simple Model The model integrates a sine wave signal and displays the result along with the original signal. The critical angle determines the acceptance angle of the fiber. Hard Disk S.
In addition to the previous edition of Fundamentals of Telecommunications , Mr. Freeman has written six other books on the subject of telecommunications engineering: A senior life member of the IEEE, Roger Freeman has lectured at numerous professional conferences and published widely in international telecommunication journals.
Free Access. Summary PDF Request permissions. PDF Request permissions. Tools Get online access For authors. Email or Customer ID. Forgot password? Old Password. New Password. Your password has been changed. Returning user. Request Username Can't sign in? You can notice this while listening to the car radio during a thunder storm. Less radiated power required for the same signal-to-noise ratio for FM over AM. When two FM transmitters are nearby operating on the same frequency. An FM wave typically requires 15 to 20 times the bandwith of an AM wave.
There is as much as a dB increase in this ratio over AM. A Much better signal-to-noise ratio. Set the carrier frequency to Hz and change the frequency deviation to Set the Carrier frequency to Hz and observe the output. What is the effect of decreasing the frequency deviation?
What is the effect of increasing the Carrier frequency? Attach the print out of the plots that you have obtained. The quadrature detector.
The most common is a Foster-Seeley discriminator.
This is composed of an electronic filter which decreases the amplitude of some frequencies relative to others. A variant of the Foster-Seeley discriminator called the ratio detector Another method uses two AM demodulators. If the filter response changes linearly with frequency. One of the terms that drops out from this operation is the original information signal.
The signal is fed into a PLL and the error signal is used as the demodulated signal. Using a digital signal processor. A demodulator is an electronic circuit or computer program in a software-defined radio that is used to recover the information content from the modulated carrier wave. What is PLL? Which is the most widely used type of FM demodulator? Optical Fiber They can be either single mode or multi-mode fibers.
Rays that meet the core-cladding boundary at a high angle measured relative to a line normal to the boundary.
Such fiber is called multi-mode fiber. The refractive index of the core is greater than the cladding. It consists of core and cladding. Figure 9. The critical Multi-mode Fiber: Fiber with large core diameter greater than 10 micrometers may be analyzed by geometric optics. The most common type of single-mode fiber has a core diameter of 8—10 micrometers and is designed for use in the near infrared. The index profile is chosen to minimize the difference in axial propagation speeds of the various rays in the fiber.
The critical angle determines the acceptance angle of the fiber.
The resulting curved paths reduce multi-path dispersion because high angle rays pass more through the lower-index periphery of the core. This causes light rays to bend smoothly as they approach the cladding. This ideal index profile is very close to a parabolic relationship between the index and the distance from the axis.
The normalized frequency V for this fiber should be less than the first zero of the Bessel function J0 approximately 2. The mode structure depends on the wavelength of the light used.
In graded-index fiber. A high numerical aperture allows light to propagate down the fiber in rays both close to the axis and at various angles. A low numerical aperture may therefore be desirable. Single mode fiber has the least dispersion and hence are used for longer distances.
Rays that meet the boundary at a low angle are refracted from the core into the cladding. Multi-mode fiber. Workbook for the Course TC Fundamentals of Telecommunications Engineering Department of Electronic Engineering angle minimum angle for total internal reflection is determined by the difference in index of refraction between the core and cladding materials.
Cable 3 is ……………………………………………. Cable 4 is …………………………………………….
Cable 5 is ……………………………………………. Some uses of fiber optic cables include: Medical Used as light guides. What is the difference between step index fiber and graded index fiber? Write down the applications of Single mode and Multimode Fibers. What type of losses occur when light travels through an optical fiber cable? MW-9 Short-Circuit mod. The first microwave message was sent in from towers located in New York and Philadelphia. MW Variable Attenuator mod. The technology used for microwave communication was developed in the early 's by Western Union.
Microwave Communication Microwave communication is the transmission of signals via radio using a series of microwave towers. Microwave transmission refers to the technology of transmitting information or energy by the use of radio waves whose wavelengths are conveniently measured in small numbers of centimetre. MW Matched Load Termination mod. MW-4 Coaxial Attenuator mod. These correspond to wavelengths from 30 centimeters down to 1. MW-2 I mod. Microwave communication is known as a form of "line of sight" communication.
This part of the radio spectrum ranges across frequencies of roughly 1. Wave-Guide mod. Figure These are often seen on the touchlines of sports fields on Steadicam systems. Microwave links are commonly used by television broadcasters to transmit programmes across a country. Workbook for the Course TC Fundamentals of Telecommunications Engineering Department of Electronic Engineering Microwave link A microwave link is a communications system that uses a beam of radio waves in the microwave frequency range to transmit video.
Microwave Link Properties of microwave links Mobile units can be camera mounted. Obviously its function is performed in both directions. Our adaptor is Coaxial cable kind: Some of these components are: The commonly available adapters are set for the excitation of the electrical fields inside the wave-guide: See Figure MW-4 must be used and is screwed on the upper part of the trailer that slides along the slot of the wave-guide.
Our system uses three rigid and straight ones with the following characteristics. Important characteristics are low loss and VSWR. The Detector mod. The voltage provided by the detector is proportional to the amplitude of the standing wave in the different positions along the line.
It is used as a transmission line and there are rigid or flexible versions of different kind. MW-5 It is a device used to detect the standing wave inside the guide Figure Coaxial Attenuator mod.
The attenuator is used when in presence of strong signals that could damage the next circuit. MW-4 Inside. MW The coaxial attenuator is a passive component inserted into a metal container see Figure.
Its function is to attenuate the level of the RF signal to the input of 20dB. The DC output is commonly called Video output. The input and the output use the SMA coaxial connector and are matched on 50ohm. In particular. The particular shape with triangular section enables the gradual and complete absorption of the incident power to prevent reflections. Important characteristic is the low VSWR. See Figure Figure It uses the completely closed standard flange that causes the complete reflection of the whole incident RF signal.
MW It is short-circuit termination for wave-guide. MW-9 Figure It consists of a WG straight section of wave-guide closed in short-circuit. What are the advantages of Microwave Communication? Which type of antenna is best suited for Microwave Communication? How many types of microwave waveguides are there? Define each type. Before creating a model. Building a Simple Model The model integrates a sine wave signal and displays the result along with the original signal.
For example. The Save As dialog box opens. A copy of the Sine Wave block appears in your model. Your model should look similar to the following figure. These angle brackets represent input and output ports: Click and drag a line from the output port to the top input port of the Mux block.
Most blocks have angle brackets on one or both sides. The connecting lines represent the signals within a model. While you hold the mouse button down. Drag a line from the output port of the Integrator block to the bottom input port on the Mux block. A line is drawn between the blocks to connect them. Your model should now look similar to the following figure. The Integrator block connects to the Mux block with a signal line. Your model is now complete. Because the output port of the Sine Wave block is already connected.
The new line. The Scope window opens and displays the simulation results. Double-click the Scope block. The plot shows a sine wave signal with the resulting cosine wave signal from the Integrator block. Click the Sine Wave block and drag it into the model window. Once a block is in the model window. This displays a list of the DSP Sources library blocks in the right pane. This displays a list of the Signal Processing Blockset libraries.
Scroll down in the right pane of the Library Browser until you see the Vector Scope block. If you do not see the Sine Wave block. Click DSP Sources in the left pane. When the pointer is on the input port of the Vector Scope block. The arrowhead pointing inward on the Vector Scope block is an input port.
Workbook for the Course TC Fundamentals of Telecommunications Engineering Department of Electronic Engineering Connecting Blocks The small arrowhead pointing outward from the right side of the Sine Wave block is an output port for the data the block generates. You should see a solid arrow appear.
To connect the two blocks. Set Amplitude to 5. Dialog for the Sine Wave Block Set Samples per frame to Set Frequency to Change the following parameters by clicking in the field next to the parameter. Click OK. In this case. The Stop time is not the actual time it takes to run a simulation. Configuration Parameters Dialog Box If you typed commstartup before creating the model.
To view the current settings. Select Configuration parameters to open the Configuration Parameters dialog box. Setting Stop time to inf causes the simulation to run indefinitely. The actual run-time for a simulation depends on factors such as the model's complexity and your computer's clock Select the Simulation menu at the top of the model window.
The Stop time determines the time at which the simulation ends. Move the block from the Simulink Library Browser into the model window. Running the Model Run the model by selecting Start from the Simulation menu. When you do so.
The settings in the Configuration Parameters dialog box affect only the parameters of the current model. The block adds white Gaussian noise to the sine wave. You can add the block to the model as follows: Click the AWGN block and drag it onto the line.
Extend the line between the Sine Wave block and the Vector Scope block by dragging the Vector Scope block to the right. What did you observe?
What is the effect of noise on this signal? Using Simulink i. Integrate step function iii. Mention the library or sub-library in which these blocks are present Note: Attach the screenshots of the Simulink models of Q. Build the models given in the procedure and attach the screenshot of the model and its output. Amplify a sine wave using gain block ii.
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Reviewed By: Workbook for the Course TC Fundamentals of Telecommunications Engineering Department of Electronic Engineering Write down the procedure of connecting the RJ connector to the cable. Anwar Zainuddin. Nurindah Atika. Charlene Cathrine. Dari Parruca. Ayie Boyzz. Suhana Sharma. Nabilah Huda. Elizabeth Porsche. Sebastian Clavijo. Tamire santhosh mohan. Fenil Desai. Vayudhar Mogili.
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