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Perhaps was another planet in our Solar System? KU, whose arrival are observed, the supreme traveller between Sky and Earth, in the middle of the pavilion that I constructed, screening its flanks. He has made the depths of the seas. But, isolated of what? The speculations with respect to the possibility that the Earth was visited by intelligent beings of another planet have centered until now in our neighbors Mars or Venus like place of origin of these beings. Ein Brevier. Read Beatbox Your Choir:
The list of sources for Near Eastern texts, given at the end of this book, thus ranges from the oldest to the newest, and is followed by the scholarly publications in which valuable contributions to the understanding of the texts were found.
When the seed for this book was planted, nearly fifty years ago, I was totally unaware of the then raging Evolution versus Bible debates.
But as a young schoolboy studying Genesis in its original Hebrew, I created a confrontation of my own. We were reading one day in Chapter VI that when God resolved to destroy Mankind by the Great Flood, "the sons of the deities", who married the daughters of men, were upon the Earth.
The Hebrew original named them Nefilim; the teacher explained it meant "giants"; but I objected: I was reprimanded and told to accept the traditional interpretation. In the ensuing years, as I have learned the languages and history and archaeology of the ancient Near East, the Nefilim became an obsession.
Archaeological finds and the deciphering of Sumerian, Babylonian, Assyrian, Hittite, Canaanite and other ancient texts and epic tales increasingly confirmed the accuracy of the biblical references to the kingdoms, cities, rulers, places, temples, trade routes, artifacts, tools and customs of antiquity. Is it not now time, therefore, to accept the word of these same ancient records regarding the Nefilim as visitors to Earth from the heavens? The Old Testament repeatedly asserted: But the credibility of the Bible was shaken by the advent and general acceptance of Evolution.
If Man evolved, then surely he could not have been created all at once by a Deity who, premeditating, had suggested "Let us make Adam in our image and after our likeness".
All the ancient peoples believed in gods who had descended to Earth from the heavens and who could at will soar heavenwards. But these tales were never given credibility, having been branded by scholars from the very beginning as myths.
The writings of the ancient Near East, which include a profusion of astronomical texts, clearly speak of a planet from which these astronauts or "gods" had come.
However, when scholars, fifty and one hundred years ago, deciphered and translated the ancient lists of celestial bodies, our astronomers were not yet aware of Pluto which was only located in How then could they be expected to accept the evidence of yet one more member of our solar system? The old drawing, in partially even deteriorated statue, comes accompanied in the superior part by groups of vertical lines whose number diminishes as it increases the space among them.
It would seem that the divine architects were able to give the complete instructions for the construction of a temple with seven elevations from a simple plane of plant accompanied by seven variable scales. One says that the war spurs the Man so that it advances so much in the scientist as in the material, but seems that in the old Sumer it was the construction of a temple which spurred to people and its sovereigns to reach a greater technological development, commercial, of transports, architectonic and organizational.
The capacity to carry out so important construction site in agreement with prepared architectonic plans, to organize and to feed an enormous mass of workers, to smooth the Earth and to elevate knolls to make bricks and to transport stones, to bring strange metals and other materials from so far, to fuse metals and to give to form to utensils and ornamentos, speaks to us of an important civilization, already in the heat of splendor in the third millenium a.
Even with the masters that implies the construction of until the oldest sumerios temples, these were not more than the end of iceberg of the possibilities and the wealth of the material profits of the first great civilization that is known the Man. In addition to the invention and the development of the writing, without which a great civilization could not get to be, to the sumerios also the invention of the press is attributed to them.
Also they invented to the precursor of our rotating ones: The seal also allowed one to certify the authenticity of documents; a new impression could always be made to compare it with the one of the document at issue. Certainly, it is not possible to reach certain degrees of civilization without a parallel advance of the mathematics. In some aspects, this system is superior to our present one; in any case, he is unquestionablily superior to the later systems of the Greeks and the Romans.
To the sumerios it allowed to divide them in fractions and to multiply million, to calculate the roots or to elevate the numbers to several powers. Their parallel profits in astronomy, the establishment of the calendar and other feats mathematician-celestia them of similar caliber will much more receive a precise study in later chapters. Los primeros objetos de metal moldeado se encontraron en las tierras altas de los Montes Zagros y del Taurus.
No se puede fundir, refinar y alear sin un abundante suministro de combustibles para alimentar hornos y crisoles. Una tablilla encontrada en Ur, de cerca de 5. Grace M. Tan apreciadas eran las prendas de Senaar Sumer , que la gente estaba dispuesta a arriesgar su vida con tal de hacerse con ellas.
Estas prendas eran TUG. Nuestra palabra. Gansos y patos pudieron estar reservados para las mesas de los dioses. En , el profesor Samuel N. Se estudiaban y se copiaban las obras literarias del pasado, y se creaban obras nuevas. Sin embargo, el Consejo de Ancianos estaba por las negociaciones. Hacia el a. Si estamos condenados a morir, gastemos; si hemos de vivir una vida larga, ahorremos. Aquel que posee mucha plata, puede ser feliz. Aquel que posee mucha cebada, puede ser feliz. En una ciudad donde no hay perros guardianes, el zorro es el supervisor.
Lo que consiguieron los profesores Richard L. Crocker, Anne D. Kilmer y Robert R. Brown fue leer e interpretar las notas musicales escritas en una tablilla cuneiforme de los alrededores del a. Los textos del segundo milenio a. Que una esposa te sirva de apoyo; que un hijo sea tu suerte futura. De los En Shuruppak, se encontraron escuelas que databan del tercer milenio a. Umma produjo inscripciones que hablaban de antiguos imperios.
En Kis, se desenterraron edificios monumentales y un zigurat de, al menos, el a. En , H. C, a.
C - Fig. Edades pasadas. Por debajo de esto, se encontraba el suelo virgen. Habiendo comenzado a utilizar piedras como herramientas unos 2. C-, the primitive hunters and nomadic recolectores transformed into agriculturists and potters, in constructors of cities, engineers, mathematicians, astronomers, metallurgical, trading, musical, judges, doctors, writers, librarians or priests? It would be possible still to be gone beyond to make a question still more basic, magnificently raised by professor Robert J.
Braidwood Prehistoric Men: The sumerios, the people by who came to be this so sudden civilization, had a prepared answer. The Greeks offered an anthropomorphic image of their Gods, with a physical aspect similar to the one of the mortal men and women and with a human character.
They could be happy, irritated or jealous; they made the love, they discussed and they fought; and they procreated as you are human, having descendants through the sexual relation, among them or with humans. They were unattainable and, nevertheless, always they were mixing themselves in the human subjects. They could go of here for there to a speed of vertigo, appear and disappear; they little had arms common and of an immense one to be able. Each one had a specific function and, like consequence, any human activity could suffer or benefit from the attitude of the God in charge of that activity in individual; therefore, the rituals of cult and the offerings to the Gods were destined to gain their favor.
Its main weapon and symbol were the ray. It was not neither the first God on the Earth, nor either first in having been in skies.
Mixing theology with cosmology to create what the students call mythology, the Greeks thought that at first it was the Chaos; later, they appeared Gea the Earth and his consorte Uranus the skies.
Gea and Urano had twelve children. Titanes, six men and six females. Although their legendary feats took Earth place, occurred by the way that they had one contraparte astral. Crono, the youngest from titanes men, emerged like main figure in Olympic mythology. It reached the supremacy between titanes through the usurpation, after castrating his father, Uranus. Fearing to the others titanes, Crono took prisoners and it exiled them. By all this, her mother cursed it and she condemned it to undergo he himself destiny that its father, and to being overthrown by one of its own children.
Crono married with its sister Criminal, with whom it had three children and three daughters: Once again, the destiny had marked that the youngest son would be the one than he would demote his father, and the curse of Gea became in fact when Zeus overthrew to Crono, its father. But it seems to be that the coup d'etat was not free of problems. During many years there were battles.
It fights reached to great zones, as much of the Earth as of skies. After his victory, Zeus was recognized like supreme God. Nevertheless, he had to share the control with his brothers. The three brothers and their three sisters, all of them children of Crono and its sister Criminal, conformed the oldest part of the Olympic Circle, the group of the Twelve Great Gods. The other six were all descendants of Zeus, and the Greek stories to a great extent dealed with their genealogies and relations.
The deities of both sexes that they had by father to Zeus had by mother to different goddesses. Marrying at the outset with a called goddess Metis, Zeus had a daughter, the great Athenian goddess.
It was the one in charge of the common sense and the maneuver, for that reason outside the Goddess of the Wisdom. But, in addition, to the being the only main deity that remained next to Zeus during its combat with Typhoon the rest of Gods had fled , Athenian also acquired martial qualities and she became Goddess of the War. Zeus married later with other goddesses, but their children did not cualificaron themselves to enter the Olympic Circle. When Zeus put itself to give him returned to the serious subject to have an inheriting.
The greater one was Hestia. Disappointed not to have a son man, Zeus became towards other goddesses in search of consolation and of love. With Harmony he had nine daughters. Apolo, like first-born of Zeus, was one of the greatest Gods of the Greek pantheon, feared so much for men as by Gods.
She was the interpreter of the will of his father Zeus before the mortals and, of there, the Maxima authority in the matter of religious law and of cult in the temple. Being the representative of the moral and the divine laws, it advocated the purification and the perfection, spiritual as as much physical. The second son man of Zeus, born of the Mayan goddess, was Hermes, pattern of the shepherds, guardian of flocks and herds. Less important and powerful than its Apolo brother, Hermes was more near the human subjects; any stroke of good luck was attributed him.
Like Giver of Good Things, he was the one that was in charge of the commerce, pattern of merchants and travellers. Impelled by certain dynastic traditions, Zeus still needed to have a son of one of his sisters, reason why he paid attention to youngest, Hera. But the marriage, blessed with a son, You plow, and two daughters, was shaken vigorously constantly by the acts of infidelity of Zeus, as well as by the rumors of infidelity on the part of Hera, that threw some doubts about the true kinship of another son, Hefesto.
Plow was introduced immediately in the Olympic Circle of the twelve main Gods, and head of Zeus became the lieutenant, in a God of the War.
One imagined to him like the Spirit of the Slaughters, although he was far from being invincible; fighting of the side of the troyanos in the War of Troy, he underwent a wound that only Zeus could cure. Hefesto, on the other hand, had to make an effort in its way until the Olympic top. It was the God of the Creativity; to him to the fire of the forge and the art of the metallurgy were attributed to him.
He was the divine creator, creator of objects, as much practitioners as magicians, for men and Gods. The legend says that it was born lame, and that, by this, their mother, Hera, rejected it infuriated. Another more credible version says that the one went Zeus that exiled to Hefesto - by the doubts on its kinship, but that Hefesto used its magical creative powers to force Zeus to give a seat him between the Great Gods.
The legend also says that, in certain occasion, Hefesto made a network invisible so that it fell on the bed of his wife in case that a loving intruder warmed up his sheets.
Perhaps it needed this protection, since her wife and consorte were Aphrodite, Goddess of the Love and the Beauty. It was of most natural than many stories of love were constructed around her; and, in many of these stories, the seductive era You plow, brother of Hefesto. One of the children of this illicit love was Eros, God of the Love.
Aphrodite was including in the Olympic Circle of the Twelve, and the circumstances of their admission throw certain light on our subject. Aphrodite was not sister of Zeus, nor either its daughter, and, without you embark was not possible to be ignored to him. Aphrodite had come from the Asian coasts of the Mediterranean that watch Greece according to the Greek poet Hesiod, arrived through Cyprus ; and vindicating a great antiquity its origin was attributed to him to the Uranus genitals.
In this way, and genealogically, a generation in front of Zeus went, being, to say it of some way, sister of its father, in addition to the personification of the castrated Ancestor of the Gods. Therefore, Aphrodite had to be including between the Olympic Gods. But his total number, twelve, it seems to be that it was not possible to be exceeded. The solution was ingenious: Since to Hades power had occurred him on the Inferior World and it did not remain between the Great Gods of Monte Mount Olympus, a seat was created that, of a way admirably practitioner, allowed Aphrodite to seat in the exclusive Circle of the Twelve.
It also seems that number twelve was an exigency that worked of two ways: This is left patent in the circumstances that took to the admission of Dioniso in the Olympic Circle.
This one was son of Zeus, born of the fertilization of its own daughter, him to me. With the purpose of hiding it of the wrath of Hera, Dioniso was sent to very distant earth arriving even at India , introducing the culture of the grapevine and the elaboration of the wine there where it went.
Meanwhile, in the Mount Olympus it was left a seat free. Hestia, the older sister of Zeus, weak and old, totally was excluded from the Circle of the Twelve.
It was then when Dioniso returned to Greece and it was allowed him to occupy the seat. Once again, there were twelve Olympic ones. Although Greek mythology is not very clear as far as the origins of the humanity, the legend and the traditions proclaimed the divine ancestry of heroes and kings. These demigods conformed the bow between the human destiny - the daily eagerness, the dependency of the elements, the plagues, the disease, the death and a golden past in which only the Gods vagaban by the Earth.
And, although many of the Gods had been born in the Earth, the select Circle of the Twelve Olympic ones represented the celestial aspect of the Gods. The Latin names of the Great Gods, dices when the Romans adopted the Greek pantheon, clarify their astral associations: Following the tradition Greek, the Romans saw Jupiter like a God of the thunderclap whose weapon was the ray; like the Greeks, the Romans associated it with the bull.
At the present time, there is a generalized agreement in which the foundations of the Greek civilization were put in the island of Crete, where bloomed the minoica culture from around the a.
C to the a.
Between the minoicos myths and legend, it emphasizes by his importance the myth of minotauro. The archaeological discoveries have confirmed the extensive minoico cult to the bull, and in some cylindrical seals a divine being imagines this one like a, accompanied by a cross that, for some, would be an not identified star or a planet.
For that reason a Celestial Toro has conjectured itself that the bull to that they gave cult the minoicos was not a common creature terrestrial, but - the constellation of Taurus, in commemoration of some events happened when, during the equinox of spring, the Sun appeared by that constellation, around the a.
According to the Greek tradition, Zeus arrived at continental Greece via Crete, where he had arrived in his fled crossing the Mediterranean after the kidnapping from Europe, the beautiful daughter of the king of the Phoenician city of Shot.
The certain thing is that, when the older minoica inscription was deciphered to the aim by Cyrus H. In fact, the Greeks never affirmed that their Olympic Gods arrived directly at Greece from skies. Zeus arrived through the Mediterranean, via Crete. He said myself that Aphrodite had arrived by sea from Near East, via Cyprus. Doubt that does not fit the Greek religion and traditions they arrived at Greek mainland from Near East, via Smaller Asia and the islands of the Mediterranean.
It is there where its pantheon inserts the roots; it is there where we must look for the origins of the Greek Gods, and its astral relation with number twelve. Such Gods wrote, says them the Hindu tradition, in the era that preceded to the present. But, with the passage of time, a number every greater time of the , original verses, that was happening through oral transmission of generation in generation, went losing and confusing. When to the aim they could read and to analyze the Prohibitions, the strange similarity that were between the stories of the Vedaic Gods and those of old Greece were surprised when seeing.
The Gods, counted the Prohibitions, were all members of great, but a not necessarily pacific one, family. In the middle of stories of ascents to skies and reductions to the Earth, of air battles, portentosas arms, friendships and rivalries, marriages and acts of infidelity, it seemed to exist a basic preoccupation to keep a genealogical registry - who is the father of whom and who was the first-born of whom.
The Earth Gods had their origin in skies; and the main deities, even in the Earth, continued representing the celestial bodies. Of them, seven were the Great Ancestors. Along with his consorte and its ten children, the twelve the divine family composed Adityas, Gods that were assigned to a sign of the zodiac and to a celestial body each one. With time, the leadership of the pantheon of twelve happened to Varuna, the God of the Celestial Extensions.
Varuna was omnipresent and omnisciente; one of the hymns that intoned him to him reads almost like a Biblical psalm:. It is the one that makes shine to the sun in skies, and the winds that blow are their breath. It has hollowed the river basins of the rivers; these flow by their mandate.
He has made the depths of the seas. Its reign also arrived, more soon or later, to an aim. It was the new Gentleman of Cielos and God of Storms. One was Vivashvat, that was the ancestor of Manu, the first Man.
The similarities between the pantheons Vedaic and Greek are obvious. The stories relative to the main deities, as well as the verses that smaller - children deal with multitude of other deities, spouses, daughters, lovers are, evidently, duplicated or original of Greek stories. And, in both cases, the Circle of the Great Gods was always of twelve, does not concern the changes that took place in the divine succession.
How could arise such similarity in two so distant zones, as much in the geographic thing as in the weather? The experts think that, at some time during the second millenium a. C, a town that spoke an Indo-European language and that had to be trim in the north of Iran or the zone of the Caucasus, it embarked in great migrations.
A group went towards the Southeast, to India. They brought with them the Prohibitions like oral stories, around the a. Another big wave of this Indo-European migration was towards the west, towards Europe. Some gave the return to the Black Sea and entered Europe through Russian steppes. But the main line that followed east town for, along with its traditions and their religion, to arrive at Greece was shortest: Smaller Asia.
In fact, some of the oldest Greek cities are not indeed in continental Greece, but in the western end of Smaller Asia. But, who were these Indo-European that chose Anatolia like home? Little it has in the western knowledge that can throw light on this subject.
Once again, the only source available - in addition to trustworthy-it demonstrated to be the Old Testament. These brief references to the hititas reveal the high esteem in which they were had, among other towns of the zone, the military abilities of those. Could not leave to no sign a so important kingdom? And their efforts had compensates: The Biblical hititas had summoned up life.
After passing through porches and sanctuaries, old the devotee one entered an open gallery outdoors, an opening in the middle of a rock semicircle on which they were represented, in procession, all the Gods of the hititas.
In the left end, that is to say, at the end of this amazing parade, there are twelve. In the group of twelve whom there is in half, some deities seem older, others take diverse arms and are two that are indicated by a divine symbol.
The third group of twelve the one of ahead clearly is constituted by more important the masculine and feminine deities. Their arms and emblems more are varied; four have the divine celestial symbol over them; two have wings.
In this group also there are nondivine participants: Marching past from the right there were two groups of feminine deities; nevertheless, the statures too much are mutilated to be able to be safe of their original number. Both processions, the one of the left and the one of the right, were in a central panel that it represented, with all clarity, to the Great Gods, because all these it was to them high, standing up upon mountains, of the animals, the birds or, even, on shoulders of their divine assistants.
Many efforts invested the experts for example, E. The smaller Gods were organized in groups of twelve, and the Great Gods on the Earth were associate with twelve celestial bodies. In him, one imagines altogether with all clarity the divine pair surrounded by other ten Gods, adding twelve. Certainly, there were other present Gods, not only on the Earth but between the hititas, acting like supreme sovereigns of the Earth, naming to the human kings and instructing them in questions military, international treaties and other subjects.
It was, therefore, which the experts call a God of Storms, related to winds, the thunderclap and the ray. Like the Greeks, the hititas also represented some type of cult the bull; and, like Jupiter later, Teshub were represented like God of the Thunderclap and the Ray, mounted on a bull.
The hititas texts, like the later Greek legend, relate the battle that it had to confront his deity head with a monster to consolidate his supremacy. Not being able to defeat to him in the battle, Teshub resorts to the other Gods in search of aid, but only one goddess comes lends attendance to him, and it undoes of Yanka emborrachando it in a celebration.
As we show more ahead, to these old traditions on the fight between a God of winds and a deity serpentine a deep meaning was attributed to them. Here, nevertheless, we only can stress that the battles between Gods by the divine crown were related in old texts like facts that, unquestionablily, had taken place. That listens to the Gods that are in the Sky, and those that are on the dark Earth!
That the powerful Gods of long ago listen. Before, in the old days, Alalu was king of the Sky; It, Alalu, were seated in the throne. The powerful Anu, first between the Gods, standing up before him, one inclined before his feet, and it put the glass in his hand.
During a total of nine periods, Alalu was king in the Sky. In the ninth period, Anu fought to him to Alalu. Alalu was defeated, fled before Anu. It descended to the dark Earth. Down, to the dark Earth it was; in the throne Anu seated. But that one was not the end. The text continues relating how Anu, as well, was overthrown by a called God Kumarbi brother of Anu, according to some interpretations.
Doubt that does not fit this epic, written thousand years before the Greek legend was created, was the precursor of the story of the Uranus dethronement at the hands of Crono, and of the dethronement of Crono at the hands of Zeus. The detail of the castration of Crono on the part of Zeus even is in the hitita text, because that is exactly what Kumarbi did to him to Anu:. During a total of nine periods, Anu was king in the Sky; In the ninth period, Anu had to make battle with Kumarbi.
Anu was able to loosen of Kumarbi and fled. Anu fled, rising towards the sky. Kumarbi left after him, and it took hold it by the feet; it threw downwards of him from skies. According to this old story, the battle did not finish with a total victory. Although castrated, Anu grasped them to flee until its Celestial Dwelling, leaving to Kumarbi with the Earth control.
One of these Gods was Teshub, the supreme God of the hititas. Que derribe a todos los dioses del cielo. Incluso se da el caso de que la esposa de Teshub, Hebat, intenta suicidarse ante el fracaso de su marido en derrotar a su adversario. Pero estos registros no consiguen resolver el conflicto, y Enlil aconseja entonces otra batalla con el aspirante, si bien con la ayuda de algunas armas muy antiguas. Dado que el acadio era el idioma internacional del mundo antiguo en el segundo milenio a.
El sumerio, en palabras de O. Los hititas. No hay duda de que los hurritas eran de origen ario o indoeuropeo. Los hurritas dominaron cultural y religiosamente a los hititas. Ya no existen dudas: Ni siquiera su lengua era, realmente, indoeuropea. Las evidencias sugieren que los hurritas, que eran los vecinos septentrionales de Sumer y Acad en el segundo milenio a.
C, se mezclaron en realidad con los sumerios durante el milenio anterior. Es un hecho demostrado que los hurritas estaban presentes y activos en Sumer en el tercer milenio a. Durante el siglo XIII a. El lugar, llamado en la actualidad Ras Shamra, en la costa siria, era la antigua ciudad de Ugarit. La lengua de las inscripciones de Ugarit, el cananeo, era lo que los expertos llaman el semita occidental, una rama del grupo de lenguas entre las que se incluyen el primitivo acadio y el actual hebreo.
De hecho, cualquiera que conozca el hebreo puede leer las inscripciones cananeas con relativa facilidad. Ante los pies de El se inclina, cae, se postra, rindiendo homenaje. Yam da instrucciones a sus emisarios para que se muestren desafiantes y los dioses de la asamblea claudiquen.
En este combate, Baal resulta vencido; pero su hermana Anat se niega a aceptar la muerte de Baal como final. El, el bondadoso, el misericordioso, se alegra. Pone los pies en el escabel. La doncella Anat En este caso, se llamaba Ashera, en un evidente paralelismo con la griega Hera.
Los cielos fueron divididos en tres partes, con doce cuerpos celestiales en cada una de ellas. Sus contactos directos con la fuente sumeria fueron los amontas. C, y Hammurabi, que le dio grandeza a Babilonia en los alrededores del a.
Una de las pinturas murales del gran palacio de Mari representa la investidura del rey Zimri-Lim a manos de la diosa Inanna a la que los amoritas llamaban Ishtar. Hemos entrado en los templos de los griegos y los arios, de los hititas y los hurritas, de cananeos, egipcios y amoritas. If we named and we told these Gods in its original forms sumerias or later acadias, Babylonian or you would take root , the list ascends by the hundred. But, at the moment at which it is classified to them, it is clear that that was not a dough of divinities.
They were headed by a pantheon of Great Gods, governed by an Assembly of Deities, and were related among them. At the moment at which he is excluded nieces, nephews, grandsons and others, a group of deities emerges small and much more coherent where each one plays a role, with certain powers and responsibilities.
At no moment one says that these Gods never appeared on the Earth. Their centers of cult were, mostly, cities of provinces; they were not more than local deities. In the best one of the cases, they were in charge of some operations limited - like, for example, the goddess NIN. Of these deities any heroic story does not exist.
They did not have impressive arms, and the other Gods did not shake before their orders. They remember to one that group to him of young Gods that marched past the last ones in the stony procession of the hitita city of Yazilikaya. They were not simple local deities. They were national Gods - or, better still, international Gods. Some of them were present and active in the Earth, even before there were Men in her.
In fact, it was considered that the existence of the Man had been the result of a deliberate creative company on the part of these Gods. They were powerful, able of feats that were beyond the capacities or of the understanding of the mortals. And, nevertheless, these Gods not only had human aspect, but that, also, they ate and they drank like them, and they exhibited all type of human emotions, from the love and hatred to loyalty and the infidelity.
Although the papers and the hierarchic position of some of the main Gods could change with the millenia, some of them never lost their encumbrada position and its national and international veneration.
As we observe more close by this central group, we will see emerge a dynasty from Gods, a divine family, closely related among them and, nevertheless, bitterly divided. Its kingdom was the immensity of skies, and its symbol was a star. From the first times until the cuneiform writing almost vanished - from the fourth millenium a.
C to the time of Christ, this symbol preceded the names of the Gods, indicating that the name written in the text was not the one of a mortal, but the one of a deity of celestial origin. The dwelling of Anu, and the seat of its Royalty, was in skies.
There it was where the other Gods of the Sky and the Earth went when personal advice or favors needed, or where they met in assembly to settle disputes between they themselves or to make important decisions. Numerous texts describe the palace of Anu whose porches were guarded by a God of the Tree of the Truth and a God of the Tree of the Life , as well as their throne, the way in which the other Gods came near him and how they seated in his presence. The sumerios texts also gathered cases in that to the mortals it was even allowed to raise them the dwelling of Anu, most of the times with the intention of escaping to mortality.
He was so perfect and so loyal to the God Ea, that had created to him, that Ea outside arranged everything to it so that taken until Anu. It is then when Ea described to Adapa which was due to hope. Adapa, you are going to go before Anu, the King; you will have to take the way towards the Sky. But when the possibility of becoming inmortal, Adapa refused to eat the Bread of the Life, thinking that was offered to him the infuriated Anu was offering him poisoned foods.
Therefore, it was given back to him to the Earth like priest anointed, but still mortal. The affirmation sumeria of which also the humans could ascend to the Divine Dwelling in skies finds its echo in the stories of the Old Testament on the ascent to skies of Enoc and of the prophet Elias. Although Anu lived in a Celestial Dwelling, the sumerios texts speak of occasions in which it lowered to the Earth - or in the days of some important crisis or with occasion of ceremonial visits in which it went accompanied by his wife ANTU , or at least, once to celebrate nuptialses of their Earth great-granddaughter IN.
At the present time, in the ruins of Uruk, there is an immense artificial knoll where the archaeologists have found signs of the construction and reconstruction of a great temple, the temple of Anu; here they have been discovered not less than eighteen different layers or steps, which speech of convincing reasons to maintain the temple in this sacred place. To the temple of Anu E. But this simple name was applied to a structure that, at least in some of its levels, deserves well that we contemplate it.
Due to the deterioration of the small board, we only can read the relative thing to second half of the ceremonies, when Anu and Antu already were seated in the patio of the temple. There, the protocol gave the following instructions:. The people of the Country will ignite fires in her houses, and she will offer banquets to all the Gods… The guardians of the cities will ignite fires in the streets and the seats. The game of both Great Gods also was planned, not only to the day but also to the minute.
In the seventeenth day, forty minutes after leaving the sun, the door will be opened before the Gods Anu and Antu, arriving at its aim its stay, after spending the night.
Although the end of this small board is broken, is another text that describes with all probability the game: Later, the Great Gods were taken to their departure point on bunks with form of thrones on shoulders of the civil employees of the temple.
A representation exists would take root of a procession of Gods that, although is quite later in the time, it can give a good idea us of the form in which Anu and Antu were taken during their procession in Uruk. They prayed by the blessing of the seven celestial Gods and invoked to the Gods that were in the Sky and the Gods that were in the Earth.
In conclusion, they in this way gave the goodbye them to Anu and Antu:. That they bless to you to newspaper,. Between thousands and the thousands of representations of the old Gods that have been discovered, no seems to represent Anu. And, nevertheless, it to the present time observes from each statue and each picture to us of each king who has had, from the antiquity. Then Anu was not only the Great King, King of the Gods, but also that whose grace the others could be crowned like kings. The standards of Anu were the tiara the divine hairdo , the sceptre symbol of the power and the walking stick symbol of the guide that the shepherd provides.
At the present time, the walking stick of the shepherd can be found more into the hands of bishops than of kings, but the crown and the sceptre continue taking them all those kings who the Humanity has left in its thrones.
The second deity in being able of the pantheon sumerio was EN. He was the older son of Anu, born in the Celestial Dwelling of his Father. But, at some time from the oldest times, it descended to the Earth and one thus became the main God of Cielo and the Earth. When the Gods met in assembly in the Celestial Dwelling, Enlil presided over the meetings in company of its father. When the Gods met in Earth assembly, they were in the cut of Enlil, in the divine enclosure of Nippur, the city dedicated to Enlil, in addition to being the site where was its main temple, the E.
Not only the sumerios had to Enlil by supreme, but also the Gods of Sumer. Enlil, according to the beliefs sumerias, arrived at the Earth long before which the Earth was adapted and it was become civilized.
Cities would not be constructed, nor would be based towns; stables would not be constructed, nor would rise folds; neither kings would be crowned, nor extreme born priests. The sumerios texts called to this connection DUR. Enlil, when you indicated the Earth towns divine, Nippur you raised like your own city. The City of the Earth, the nobleman,. You founded Dur-An-Ki in center of the four corners of the world. In those first days, when only the Gods inhabited Nippur and the Man not yet had been created, Enlil knew the goddess that would end up becoming its wife.
It was a love at first sight, but not necessarily with marriage in mind:. The Enlil shepherd, who decrees the destinies, the one of the Shining Eye, saw it. The gentleman speaks to him to her of sexual relations; it is not arranged. Enlil speaks to him to her of sexual relations; it is not arranged: Pero Enlil did not accept not by answer. Nushku suggested a stroll to him in boat and it brought a Enlil boat to him persuaded to Sud to leave to sail with him and, once they were in the boat, violated it.
The old story tells then that, although Enlil was the head of the Gods, these became infuriated so much reason why it had done that they stopped it and they exiled it to the Inferior World. Another version says that Enlil, sorry, looked for the young person and sent to its chamberlain so that it asked his mother the hand to him of the daughter.
But what they knew neither he nor the Gods who exiled to him are that the one did not go Enlil the other way around that it seduced Ninlil, but. With an only exception, which, according to we create, had to do with the dynastic succession, more indiscretions are not known Enlil. A found votiva small board in Nippur shows Enlil and Ninlil in its temple while to foods and drink use to them.
In addition to being head of the Gods, to Enlil it was had to him by supreme Mr. A psalm sumerio speaks with veneration of its God:. The Gentleman, who knows the destiny the Country, worthy of confidence in its profession; Enlil, that knows the destiny Sumer, worthy of confidence in its profession; Enlil father, Gentleman of all earth; Enlil father, Gentleman of the Mandate Just; Enlil father, shepherd of the Black Heads… of the Mountain of the Dawn to the Mountain of the Ocaso, there is no another Earth Gentleman; only you are King.
The sumerios reverenciaban as much to Enlil from fear as by gratitude. The one was he that looked for the destruction of the Humanity when Diluvio, but also the one that, when it was peacefully with the human sort, became an amiable God that granted favors, according to a text sumerio, along with went Enlil the one that the knowledge of agriculture gave to the Humanity, the one of the plow and the tip.
Enlil also chose the kings whom they had to govern the Humanity, not like sovereigns, but like servants of the God to which the administration of the divine laws of justice trusted to them. Therefore, the sumerios, acadios and Babylonian kings opened to their inscriptions of car adoration describing how Enlil had called to them to the Royalty. Nevertheless, he was as human as any young person able to let itself seduce by a naked beauty; subject to moral laws imposed by the community of the Gods, transgressions that were punished with the exile; and not even he was immune to the complaints of the mortals.
As we advance, we will be seeing the fundamental paper that Enlil in the divine and mortal subjects of the Earth played, and how their different children fought among them and with others by the divine succession, thus giving origin, without a doubt, to later stories on battles between Gods.
A and EN. Like his brother Enlil, Ea was, also, a God of the Sky and the Earth, a deity of celestial origin that had lowered to the Earth. Its arrival to the Earth is related in sumerios texts to a time which the waters of the Persian Gulf entered mainland much more there of which we see nowadays, turning marshy the South part of the country. It enchanted to him to leave to sail by these water obstacles and, of special way, by marshes. As its name indicates, the waters were their home.
The sumerios texts speak repeatedly of a very old time at which the three Great Gods distributed the kingdoms among them. Like Gentleman of the Seas, Ea constructed boats that sailed until distant earth, and, in special, to places from where precious metals and semiprecious stones were engaged in.
Older the sumerios cylindrical seals represent Ea like a God surrounded by fluentes rivers in which, sometimes, fish saw themselves. The seals related to Ea, like can be seen here, with the Moon indicated by its flood , a relation perhaps based on the fact that the Moon causes the tides. According to the sumerios texts, between which an amazing autobiography of he himself Ea is included, this one was born in skies and came to the Earth before there was no population or civilization on the Earth.
Later, it comes to describe the series of actions that it undertook to make the inhabitable Earth: In fact, texts sumerios and acadios, that, like the Old Testament, adheres to the belief that a God or the Gods created to the Man by means of a conscious and deliberate act, attribute to Ea a key paper in all this. Like scientific head of the Gods, the one was he that designed the method and the process by which the Man had to be created.
Put Ea of the side of the Man simply because it had to do with its creation, or was some other more subjective reason? As we explore texts, we will be whereupon the constant challenges of Ea, as much in human subjects as divine, had like primary target frustrating the decisions or the plans that emanated of Enlil.
The archives are filled with references to the burning jealousy that Ea by its Enlil brother felt. In fact, the other name of Ea and, perhaps, first was EN. The Gods had narrowed the hands, they had distributed luck and they had made the divisions. Then, Anu raised the Sky; Enlil, the Earth was put under to him. The seas, surrounded like with a bow, they occurred to Enki, the Earth Prince. The reason us gives he himself Enki it in its autobiography: If we give by all means that the legal codes that governed the life of the mortals in old the Near East were given by the Gods, we will have to agree upon which the social laws and familiar which they were applied to the men they were a copy of those others that they were applied between the Gods.
Found judicial and familiar archives in sites as Mari and Nuzi confirm that the Biblical customs and laws by which the Hebrew patriarchs guided themselves were the same laws which kings and noble by all the Near East of the antiquity were put under. The succession problems that the patriarchs had to confront are, therefore, extremely enlightening.
Abraham, deprived of succession by the apparent sterility of his wife Sara, had a first-born with his servant.
Nevertheless, this son Ismael was excluded from the patriarcal succession as soon as Sara gave to Abraham a son him, Isaac. The wife of Isaac, Rebeca, was left pregnant woman of binoculars.
Nevertheless, when finally Raquel gave his own first-born him, Jose, this one became the favourite of Jacob. Enlil, according to all the archives son of Anu and his consorte official, Antu, was the legal first-born.
But the distressing moan of Enki: Perhaps was son of Anu, but of another goddess that outside a concubine? Although Enki seems to have accepted the successory prerogatives of Enlil, some experts see the evidences sufficient as to both show an insistent fight by the power between Gods.
Samuel N. It seems that, in a while certain, Enki decided that its fight by the Divine Throne did not have sense, and put all its persistence in doing that outside a son his - in time of a son of Enlil- the successor of the third generation.
And this tried to obtain it, at least at first, with the aid of its sister NIN. It also was daughter of Anu, but, evidently, not of Antu, and there is another norm of the succession.
The students have themselves during the past few years been asking so that as much Abraham as Isaac gave account of the fact that their respective spouses were also their sisters, an affirmation whom an enormous confusion causes, given the Biblical prohibition to maintain sexual relations with a sister. But, as they were unearthed legal documents in Mari and Nuzi, it was being left that a man clear yes that hermanastra could marry with one.
He was with this hermanastra, Ninhursag, with that Enki looked for to have a son. But she turned out to be a girl. When not obtaining an inheriting man, Enki was decided to make the love with its own daughter.
But it, also, gave a daughter him. Then, Enki went to by its granddaughter and it also left it pregnant; but, once again, its descendants were feminine. Decided to stop these excesses, Ninhursag threw a curse on Enki by which this one, after eating plants, fell mortally ill. Nevertheless, the other Gods forced Ninhursag to raise the curse. Los textos antiguos lo aclaman como a un poderoso cazador, un dios luchador famoso por sus habilidades marciales.
Varios dioses, conocidos por su valor, fueron convocados. Entonces, Ea tuvo una gran idea: Para sorpresa de los dioses, Ninhursag en los textos llamada NIN.
Lanza tu ofensiva Genera todo el Torbellino para atacarle Que tus Vientos lleven sus Alas hasta un lugar secreto Zu fue vencido, y las Tablillas del Destino volvieron a Enlil. SU de la ciudad de Lagash. NA, impaciente por apropiarse, mediante un ardid, de algo que no era legalmente suyo?
De hecho, cuando a comienzos del segundo milenio a. Nanna diminutivo de NAN. Desde esa morada, Nanna y su consorte NIN. Shulgi, un gobernante de Ur por la gracia del dios de finales del tercer milenio a. Las comidas nocturnas de los dioses se suprimieron; en sus grandes comedores, se terminaron el vino y la miel En el noble horno del templo, ya no se preparaban bueyes y ovejas; el rumor ha cesado en el gran Sitio de los Grilletes de Nanna: El agobiante mortero y su mano yacen inertes Las barcas de las ofrendas ya no llevan ofrendas No llevan ofrendas de pan a Enlil en Nippur.
Los textos sumerios nos informan que Nanna y Ningal dejaron la ciudad antes de que su ruina fuera completa. Fue una salida precipitada, descrita de forma conmovedora. Sin, que amaba a Ur, no pudo seguir en su Casa. Que Anu, el rey de los dioses, pronuncie: Enlil ha adornado tu mano con un cetro eterno cuando, sobre Ur, en el Barco Sagrado te subes. Existen evidencias adicionales. El otro nombre de Nanna, Sin, se deriva de SU. EN, que era otra forma de pronunciar ZU. EN y EN.
EN no era otro que EN.
Hasta a tu enemigo, que se haga justicia Al que pida limosna, dale alimentos para comer, dale vino para beber Un rey de Mesopotamia del siglo xiii a. Ven Isimud, mi maestresala, escucha mis instrucciones; te he de decir algo, ten en cuenta mis palabras: La doncella, completamente sola, ha dirigido sus pasos hacia el Abzu Gilgamesh, soberano de Uruk alrededor del a.
Ven, dame tu fruto. Nabunaid dice en una de sus inscripciones: ZI, un hijo menor de Enki. Muchos textos antiguos tratan de los amores y las peleas de ambos. Algunos de ellos son canciones de amor de gran belleza y vivida sexualidad. Ella se las compuso para capturarlo y hacerlo desaparecer en el Mundo Inferior -un dominio gobernado por su hermana RESH.
De los seis hijos conocidos de Enki, tres fueron protagonistas de distintos relatos sumerios: Otro texto, publicado por primera vez por V. Entre Adad e Ishtar parece haber habido la mayor de las afinidades, e incluso se les suele representar a los dos juntos, como en este relieve en el que se muestra a un soberano asirio que es bendecido por Adad que sostiene el anillo y el rayo y por Ishtar, que sujeta su arco. Como los textos sumerios revelan, esto no fue un accidente.
The sumerios and acadios texts do not leave place to doubts that the people of the Near East of the antiquity had them by the way Gods of the Sky and of the Earth they were able to rise in the air and to ascend to skies, as well as to cross Earth skies voluntarily.
The same Inanna, of which one says here that it crossed skies of many and distant earth - feat that could only have made flying, spoke in another occasion of its flight. In a text that S.
To me, from my temple, they forced to me to fly; reina I am that, of my city, as a bird forced to me to fly. This capacity of Inanna, capacity which also they show others of the main Gods, used to reflect it the old artists representing the Gods - anthropomorphic in all the other aspects, since we have already seen with wings.
The wings, as it is possible to be seen in numerous representations, did not comprise of the body - they were not natural wings, but, rather, decorative adding of the clothes of the God. But its more famous trip was the one than it did to the Inferior World, to the dominions of his Ereshkigal sister. The texts that deal with this dangerous trip say that Inanna was put, meticulously, seven objects before undertaking the trip, and tells that it had to give them in the seven porches that it had to cross to arrive at the dwelling of his sister.
These seven objects are also mentioned in other texts that deal with the aerial trips of Inanna:. Blue chains of piedrecillas, around the neck. A golden cylinder, in the hands. Strap, that embraced the chest to him. Although nobody has been able, still, to explain the nature and the meaning of these seven objects, we think that the answer we within reach had it a long time ago. In , the archaeologists whom they excavated in Mari found with a similar, but intact statue, buried in the ground.
It was the representation to natural size of a beautiful woman. Its little common hairdo was adorned with a pair of horns, indicating with it that it was a goddess.
Considering their antiquity in about years of age, the archaeologists remained made an impression by the so realistic aspect of the statue in a photo, he was difficult to distinguish it of the alive men.
They put by name the Goddess to him of the Glass, because he maintained in the hands a cylindrical object. Unlike the flat statures or of bas-relief, this three-dimensional representation and to natural size of the goddess reveals interesting characteristics of his atuendo.
In the head it does not wear a hat of lady, but a special helmet; excelling of him, to both sides, and adapting to the ears, there are objects that remember one to him the earpieces of a pilot. In the neck and on the chest, the goddess takes a necklace of multitude of piedrecillas probably precious ; and in the hands it maintains a cylindrical object that seems too heavy and heavy like being a water container.
On a semitransparent blouse, two strap cross the chest to him, taking to the back, and maintaining in their place, a strange box of rectangular form.
The box closely is fitted to the later part of the neck of the goddess, firmly holds to the helmet with a horizontal strap. It was what was what the box took inside, had of being something heavy, because to the precise device of the additional support of two great shoulder reinforcements.
The weight of the box had to be increased with a hose that is connected to its base with a circular clip. The full field equipment of instruments is maintained in its place with the aid of two series of strap that intercross the back and the chest of the goddess. Parallelism between the seven objects that Inanna for its aerial trips needed and the clothes and the objects that take the statue of Mari and, probably, also the mutilated other who was in the temple of Ishtar in Assur is easily demonstrable.
As it is revealed to us in multitude of cases, they were divine aviators: Jacob saw raising them celestial stairs, to Agar the concubine of Abraham they spoke to him from the air, and they were they those that carried out the aerial destruction of Sodoma and Gomorra.
We know that its appearance was sudden. How was these men, who ate, drank, they slept and were washed his tired feet, and that, however, were recognized to them right away like angels of the Gentleman?