Cosmopolitan - Aug pdf - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Jan 16, Cosmopolitan Argentina - Noviembre - PDF HQ. beginning of the 21st century political perspectives, cosmopolitan alternatives? 1. The Normative The “cosmopolitan moment” of the world risk society can.
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Education for cosmopolitan citizenship: A framework for language learning. Article (PDF Available) · November with 1, Reads. PDF | On Dec 1, , Humberto Saldanha and others published For a The exotic other in Tanna (Bentley Dean and Martin Butler, ). Cosmopolitan Perspective. Ulrich Beck. This chapter raises the following questions: What is new about mobility in the cosmopolitan perspective? How does the.
But is helping Philip compete with the others a good deed? I was so embarrassed! Nonetheless, as Charles Jones rightly points out Jones It has been decided that given his contract he cannot be asked to open his office door to students more than once a week. If we adopt the latter view, as cosmopolitan utilitarians do, we determine a misalignment between the electoral body and the persons that the government ought to consider while evaluating the conse- quences of a given policy. The non-residents are thus excluded from the moral calculus Nie- sen
New City can offer a relative advantage in all three areas of interest. If the industrial plant closes down, 1, workers will lose their job.
They will not suffer from hunger because, having worked under favourable conditions during previous years, everyone has managed to save a sufficient amount of money. Moreover, their country offers a sound welfare programme; hence, from the day after the plant closes down, they will start receiving unemployment help.
They will have to reduce their living standards by half but will still be able to lead a decent life. Meanwhile, if the company inaugurates a new plant in New City, 1, persons who are currently unemployed, not assisted by the state and, thus, living on the edge of starvation, will get jobs.
Their children will start going to school. They will be given accommodation and gain access to a decent life. Obviously, workers in Old City do not want to lose their jobs. They go on strike and ask the city council to intervene. Every year, his municipality receives a remarkable amount of money from the federal government as funds for industrial development.
It is completely up to him whether to use it or not. If he does not use the money in a given year, it goes back to the federal gov- ernment and the municipality loses it completely. If the mayor uses the fund to subsidize the car company, the CEO will not delocalize and the workers will save their jobs. If, on the con- trary, he does not do so, then the industrial plant will be moved to New City and Old City will lose the money in the fund.
What should the mayor do?
According to cosmopolitan utilitarianism, the rational choice in private life as well as in public policy consists in picking among available alternative actions the one that maximizes the happiness or the utility of humanity as a whole3.
In the case I have presented, the best maximizing option for the mayor is to renounce his political action. A cosmopolitan utilitarian would be obliged to accept that the best thing for the mayor to do is keep the money in the fund and let the industrial plant fail.
In order words, he must lose the money and indirectly drive 1, fellow citizens into unemployment. The reason, clearly, is the classic utilitarian argument of decreasing marginal utility.
A job contract in New City can generate a much higher utility than in Old City. Workers in New City are much poorer than workers in Old City, and eve- ry additional dollar coming from a job contract will create a higher utility in New City than in Old City. If workers in New City lose their jobs, they will reduce their living standards by half, but their life will still be more than acceptable.
In con- trast, workers in New City are desperately looking for jobs and live close to starvation levels; a job contract will enable them to access the basic goods needed to start a decent life. The problem with this extreme conclusion is that cosmo- politan utilitarianism does not simply suggest that the policy decision maker should act only in the way that maximizes global utility independently from local or national affiliations.
In this case, cosmopolitan utilitarianism requires the politician who has the means and the power to help his community to renounce his agency. He should do nothing and opt for inac- tion because here inaction is the maximizing action. This example can seriously challenge the universal ap- plicability of utilitarian ethics in public policy. When discussing cosmopolitan utilitarianism, we tend to take into consideration positive actions.
A standard example may be the following. Two boats are going to sink off the coast of Old City. On the first boat are four people from Old City. On the second one are five people from New City. Unfortu- nately, the municipality of Old City has only one rescue vessel at its disposal. Since the two sinking boats are far from each other and there is not enough time to reach both of them, the mayor must decide which boat to rescue.
According to cosmopolitan utilitarianism, the mayor should opt for the action that maximizes global utility. He should not take into consideration things like citizenship or local affiliation. Every utility curve has an equal value, inde- pendent of the gender, sex or nationality of the relevant per- son.
Saving five lives is better than saving just four. Hence, the mayor should send the vessel to rescue the people from New City, letting his four fellow citizens die. Obviously, many people would reject this conclusion.
Some would question the basic assumptions of utilitarian eth- ics. Some others would claim the existence of special duties towards compatriots. But the cosmopolitan utilitarian can still defend his argument.
He holds that the public decision maker should exercise his political power in one way rather than an- other. He should do A saving lives irrespective of ID instead of B saving lives taking into consideration special duties to- ward compatriots. Put in this way, as an alternative theory of action, cosmopolitan utilitarianism can find its own credible place in the political debate.
But the classic case of action A instead of action B does not exhaust all the possible scenarios that a political decision maker faces during his term in office.
In a globalized world, a case like that of the car company is common, and the conse- quentialist soul of cosmopolitan utilitarianism risks binding the politician to a series of inactions that contradict his own job and mandate. If we look only at the consequences of our actions, then delocalization to New City is clearly the best op- tion. But the cosmopolitan utilitarian recommends to the mayor not to do A instead of B as in the case of the sinking boats , but rather to do nothing.
Just letting things happen, delegating the decision to other private and public foreign decision bodies. This happens because, in the former, the principle of decreasing marginal utility is freed from every local or communitarian boundary.
When Bentham described how institutions were to apply the utility principle in the provision of public policies, he gave this simple definition: Here, Bentham holds that the sum-ranking logic, intrinsic to every form of utilitarianism, is limited to the community. Both definitions leave room for extension or restriction of the moral scope.
Who are the persons whose utility the gov- ernment has to consider as part of the total sum? Peter Niesen holds that there are two possible responses. From this perspective the interests that the government ought to maxim- ize are those of the people that are subjected to its power.
The non-residents are thus excluded from the moral calculus Nie- sen We may hold that the government ought to maximize the total utility of its political community, meaning national citi- zens. Or we may maintain that every human being is part of a community that ought to be taken into consideration when evaluating the consequences of a specific action. If we adopt the latter view, as cosmopolitan utilitarians do, we determine a misalignment between the electoral body and the persons that the government ought to consider while evaluating the conse- quences of a given policy.
Obviously, such misalignment exacerbates the problem of forced inaction by increasing in number the circumstances in which it can occur.
But its origins can be traced to the intrinsic characteristics of the utility principle and of decreasing mar- ginal utility. A domestic case in which utilitarianism compels the decision maker to an inaction that is difficult to be accept- ed both from a political and from a purely intuitive point of view concerns the performance of a supererogatory act by a person exercising a public office.
Imagine this second scenario. We are in a university. Eve- ry professor teaching in this institution is required, besides lec- turing activities, to receive students in his office once a week. The day should be fixed in advance before the semester starts. During that day, the office is open for three hours. All of a sudden, an announcement of competition is published. It says that one of the current students has the opportunity to spend one year abroad in a prestigious university.
This experience will probably change for good the life of the student who will be enrolled in the exchange programme. In order to partici- pate in the selection, interested candidates have to submit their curriculum and a presentation letter from their supervisor. Many students submit the application, but there are only two students with the right grades to win over the others: John and Philip.
Both have the same supervisor, Professor Stuart, who has fixed office hours on Monday. So, he has all the time to prepare his application. Philip, however, does not see it in time because he was spending some months abroad doing research and his classmates do not inform him of the announcement because they think him to be a too dangerous competitor.
Philip reads the notice of compe- tition three days before the deadline, on Tuesday. He needs the letter from his supervisor, but Professor Stuart is not re- quired to serve office hours until the next Monday, which is after the deadline. However, he is completely free.
As the se- mester is almost over, he has no lectures or exams, and is sup- posed to sit in his office every day of the current week. Should Professor Stuart open the door and sign the presentation letter for Philip? He knows that Philip has the best grades in school and that if he gets his letter signed, he will be selected. Philip comes from a wealthy family. Getting enrolled in this prestigious programme and starting an academic career is his dream, but it is not as eco- nomically important for him.
He can keep on studying relying on his high family income while waiting for the next oppor- tunity. On the other hand, John, the second-best student, de- pends on a scholarship that will expire within few months. If he does not get this opportunity now, he will probably not get a second one. Opening the door, receiving Philip and writing a letter for him would take 30 minutes. Professor Stuart is a good man and completely free during these days.
He would be willing to offer 30 minutes of extra work to the state to do a good deed. But is helping Philip compete with the others a good deed? Philip cannot claim the right to have the letter signed in the name of a more general right to free and fair competition for public office. The university rules are very clear. Every professor is required to receive students only once a week, on a specific day in this case Monday that is fixed at the begin- ning of the semester.
Not having realized the existence of the notice of completion in time to knock on the door of Profes- sor Stuart on Monday, he has lost the chance to take part in the competition. On the other hand, Professor Stuart is willing to bring him back on track, offering 30 minutes of extra work and is also free to do it.
Furthermore, it provides a sense of territoriality, especially for younger generations that have never been to India, although for ritual purposes they have to cope with tradition, orthodoxy, and arranged marriages, often with unknown grooms, when the European matrimonial market is insufficient.
My aim here is to analyse the extent to which the Indian diaspora has had an impact on Western patterns of cultural consumption, by creating a new trend of cosmopolitism that integrates the West and the diaspora itself. Although the literature by Indian writers in the diaspora has been gaining academic and public recognition, cinema reaches a much larger audience and carries a set of meanings that will enable me to develop my argument.
The Indian musical grew independently out of its own cultural roots see Shede, Despite this, the term Bollywood has gained unprecedented global currency in recent years.
Indian popular culture is identified with this term all over the world, as it heralds a new era for Hindi cinema. In this case, it means a combination, on celluloid, of nineteenth-century Parsi plays with their song and dance numbers, Urdu poetry, Victorian melodrama, and folk theatre see Mooij, Therefore, what should be stressed is that a cosmopolitan web was created, linking India to the rest of the world through a common aesthetic and semiological language.
Films set in the West feature lead characters that are not NRI, exploring the theme of the relationship between the diaspora and the homeland through stories about family and romance see Gopal, Cinema is therefore the most popular and significant cultural form and commodity in the transnational Indian cultural and political economy. As Desai explains: South Asian diasporic identities are centrally configured and contested through cinema, its production and consumption.
Provided that we do not limit ourselves to conceptualising cosmopolitanism only at a textual level, and that we take fieldwork as a key foundation on which relevant theories can be formulated, thus breaking with a certain predisposition in anthropology to abandon the field in favour of cosmopolitan themes, and giving precedence to the context over the text. Film advertisement in a street of Diu, India.
Photos by Rosa Maria Perez. Cheah and B. Robbins eds , Cosmopolitics: Cosmopolitan Sociology]. Ember, C. Ember and I. Skoggard eds , Encyclopedia of Diasporas. Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World, vol. Mehta and R.
Pandharipende eds , Bollywood and Globalization: Marketing the Margins New York, Routledge. Hinglish in Hindi Cinema, in R. Kothari and R. Snell eds , Chutnefying English: Border Thinking and Critical Cosmopolitanism, in C. Breckenridge, S. Pollock, H. Bhabha and D. Looking for India on the Internet, in S. Jones ed. Identity and Communication in Cybersociety London, Sage: No Heroines, No Villains, Cineaste, 31 3: Arend, C. Rial and J. Cultural Nationalism in a Global Arena, in A.
Kavoori and A. Making Elephants Fly, Cineaste, 31 3: A Journal of Transnational Studies, 6 3: NOTES 1.
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Learn more Check out. Abstract In this article, we investigate cosmopolitan attitudes among the people often considered the most cosmopolitan — the elite.