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Society and environment book pdf

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Environmental concerns began to develop in the s, and were particularly driven by Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring and the publicity surrounding it. ways in which members of society perceive environmental problems, and the origins of human- Klausner in his book on Man in His Environment. society and environment book pdf. Quote. Postby Just» Tue Mar 26, am. Looking for society and environment book pdf. Will be grateful for any help!.


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PDF | , 2nd Edition, Routledge. Previously published by Society and its Environment. An introduction. Book · June with 2, Reads. Publisher: 2nd. Amie Society and Environment Notes - Download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File (d) All it is mainly used as a fuel. in his famous book “ The closing circle”. the relationship between the environment and society tend to construct theoreti- other English language articles and books that draw on Beck's work.

In the second place, there is greater emphasis on rational, scientific and secular techniques for decision making. It may be noted here that vertical mobility may involve either upward or downward movement. Political parties, trade unions, religious organizations, pressure groups and other similar organizations represent functional differentiation. Thus, the expansion of technical and professional employment involves a continuing movement out of manual work, and this accounts for a major cause for the upward mobility in modem industrial societies. Export citation; Buy the print book They feed on phytoplanktons.

Environmental Inequality in the Philadelphia Region. Husband-Wife Relationship. Search for: Ilieva - Virtual Hindi Business Environment And Law ; Jun 5, Advances in Research is an annual review journal, publishing articles that have been commissioned in response to specific published The text is Export citation; Buy the print book Secondary Science - English Medium: The National General points for Text Book Writers. We need to Protecting the Environment. Contributing to Societal Responses to Environmental and Societal Challenges for our Poplars and Willows: Poplars and willows: Isebrands and J.

Science, Technology, Society, and the Environment ; Understanding the complex interrelationships among science, technology, society, and the environment. STSE is an essential component of fostering.

Conservation and Society ; PDF access policy. Full text in EPub is free except for the current issue. Linking Economy Society - Wikipedia ; A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.

Technology and society - Wikipedia ; Technology society and life or technology and culture refers to cyclical co-dependence, co-influence, and co-production of technology and society upon the other technology upon culture, and vice versa.

Download a free sample chapter, including the full table of contents, to see how this important work will improve your understanding of this crucial science. Economic Valuation of the Environment. Environmental Expertise. The Practice of Green Consumption.

Minding the Mundane: Environmental Justice. Environmental Democracy: Participation, Deliberation and Citizenship. Joining People with Things. The Commons and Environmental Sociology. Spatial Frames and the Quest for Institutional Fit. Kris van Koppen, Simon R.

Conflicting Temporalities of Social and Environmental Change? The food requirements and habit of the rich Western countries have been instrumental in destroying the forests and degrading the land of many poor Third World countries.

Despite the worldwide process of decolonization after the Second World War, it is almost certain that much more land is being used today in the developing countries to meet the food requirements of the Western countries than in the years before the Second World War.

In the US, on the other hand, the beef imported from Central America is mostly used to make pet food and hamburgers. The price of the Central American beef in the US which is roughly half the price of the beef produced in the US from grass-fed cattle does not represent its real ecological cost.

The reason is that cattle ranching has proved to be the worst form of land use for the fragile soil of Central America on which the tropical forests existed before It was found that within 5 to 7 years of clearing the forest, the productivity of the soil dropped dramatically and the cattle ranches had to move on to some other areas and clear more forests.

In our own country, the first major attack on the forests of the North-Eastern India came when tea plantations were established. This over- fishing often leads to tension and violent encounter between traditional fishermen and the owners of the mechanized trawlers. As a result, India and several other countries in South-East Asia have established regulations to prevent trawler operators from fishing in the first few kilometers from the coast, a zone reserved for the traditional fishermen.

Similarly, the export of frog-legs from India to France and other European countries to cater to the palates of rich Western consumers has led to tremendous increase in the population of agricultural pests in the affected areas. To control these pests, farmers have to use large amounts of costly pesticides which, in turn, leads to more environmental pollution. The pattern of mindless exploitation of natural resources that we see on the global scale simply repeats itself on the national scale.

Exactly what the industry of the rich Western countries does to the environment of poor Third World countries, the Indian industry does the same to the environment of the resource-rich and economically poor states of India like Orissa, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. Nearly half the industrial output in India comes from biomass-based industries like cotton, textiles, rayon, paper, plywood, rubber, soap, sugar, tobacco, jute, chocolate, tea, coffee, food processing, packaging and vegetable oils.

Each of these industries exerts heavy pressure on the cultivated and forest lands of the country. These biomass-based industries need crop lands, forests, irrigation and energy.

Thus, we see that one of the main sources of environmental degradation in the world is the heavy demand for natural resources by the high rate of consumption of the rich, whether they are rich nations or rich groups and individuals within the nation itself, and it is mainly their wastes that contribute to the global pollution.

One of the major effects of environmental degradation due to industrialization is the large-scale destruction of our forests, and this has a major impact on the productivity of our crop lands. The reduction of crop-land productivity due to the destruction of forests occurs in two ways.

In the first place, when forests arc destroyed, there is a many-fold increases in the rate of soil erosion. The result is that the soil literally gets washed leading to an intensified cycle of floods and drought. Secondly, the destruction of forests leads to the shortage of firewood and this has an adverse impact on the productivity of crop lands. The reason is that when firewood becomes scarce, people begin to use cowdung and crop wastes as fuel for cooking and other purposes.

As a result, every part of crop plants gets used as fodder or fuel and nothing goes back to the soil to enrich it. Over a period of time, this constant drain of nutrients from the soil adversely affects it productivity. The more intensive the agriculture due to the use of high-yielding varities ; without any manure and crop wastes going back into the soil, the faster is the nutrient drain.

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The district of Ludhiana in Punjab, for example, has the highest yield per hectare of many cereals today; but Ludhiana has also the highest deficiency of many micronutrients in its soil. In Punjab, many fanners have already started using zinc routinely as a fertilizer. If the dram of micronutrients from the soil continues, the farmers will soon be using sulphur, manganese and iron as fertilizers.

The micronutrient fertilizer industry is likely to become a boom industry in the near future. Explain in detail. The mechanism for this destruction of ozone involves the following two reactions: Of course, there are some other chemical reactions going on in the stratosphere that modify and compete with the above two reactions.

But if we ignore the other reactions and add the above two reactions, then we find that the net result is the following reaction:. Thus, in the presence of chlorine atoms Cl , two ozone molecules are converted into three oxygen molecules, while there is no net consumption of Cl atoms, which merely act as a catalyst.

As a result, one Cl atom can go on converting many ozone molecules O 3 to ordinary oxygen molecules O 2 before it is consumed by some other chemical reactions. It has been estimated that a single chlorine atom in the stratosphere can convert as many as 10 6 to 10 6 O 3 molecules to 0, molecules before being consumed by some other reactions.

This mechanism is often referred to as the catalytic destruction of ozone since the chlorine atoms act as a catalyst for the reaction. Most of the chlorine in the world is in the form of chemically stable sodium chloride NaCI , either dissolved in the oceans or in underground salt deposits formed by the evaporation of ancient oceans.

Elemental chlorine Cl , which is a very reactive chemical, has a very short life-time in the lower atmosphere and has few natural ways to get from the lower atmosphere up to the ozone layer in the stratosphere. The only naturally occurring chemical that can transport much chlorine high enough into' the stratosphere to damage the ozone layer is methyl chloride CH 3 CI , which is produced in large quantities by biological processes in shallow oceans. Chemically active solar ultraviolet light in the range of to nm, which enters the ozone layer but does not penetrate below it, is strong enough to split up the methyl chloride molecules, releasing Cl atoms, which initiate the reactions given earlier and destroy the ozone molecules.

However, this destruction of the ozone was in balance with its natural production mechanisms, leading to a steady-state ozone layer. Starting about a hundred years ago i. The compounds like methyl chloride CH 3 CI that also contain hydrogen atoms can be attacked in the atmosphere by the OH radical. As a result, most of such chlorine- containing compounds do not survive long enough in the atmosphere to reach the stratosphere. Carbon tetrachloride CCI, , on the other hand, has no hydrogen atom; so most of it is believed to reach the stratosphere and participate in the destruction of the ozone layer.

The world production of carbon tetrachloride, however, has remained more or less constant over the last years. Write in brief. So far the only method we know to protect the stratospheric ozone layer is to limit the emission of those substances mainly CFCs that can destroy it.

No one knows of another material we could send into the stratosphere to protect the ozone layer from CFCs. The threat to the ozone layer is so severe that international conferences have been held and declarations and treaties have been adopted that commit the nations to restrict and eventually eliminate the use of CFCs.

For some applications of the CFCs, satisfactory replacements are alread available and for others, they are being sought on an emergency basis. Many of the proposed substitutes for CFCs are hydrochlorofluorocarbons HCFCs , which contain atleast one hydrogen atom; so they are susceptible to attack by OH radicals in the stratosphere. Huge amounts of money and effort are being spent now to develop suitable substitutes for the CFCs.

The original CFCs were designed to be non- toxic, non-flammable and chemically inert. There replacements should have all these properties and, in addition, a low ozone depletion potential ODP.

The ODP is a relative measure of the ability of a gas or vapour to attack and destroy the stratospheric ozone layer. It is expressed as a function of the percentage weight of chlorine in the halogenated hydrocarbon to be used a CFC substitute and its lifetime in the stratosphere. The chemical industry' is developing two major types of CFC substitutes. The other group, known as the hydrofluorocarbon HFC family, has zero ozone depletion potential since the members of this family have no chlorine atoms in their molecules.

The data on the new HFCs are, however, scarce and of Limited accuracy and this is a major deterrent to their adoption as CFC substitutes.

Another substitute, a hydrofluorocarbon known as HFCa, is under development for domestic refrigerators; but it is likely to cost at least five times more than the CFCs used currently for this purpose. In addition to the problems mentioned above, the CFC substitutes will require a substantial amount of re-engineering in many applications. In case of domestic refrigerators, for example, larger compressors and pumps may be needed when CFC replacements are used.

These substitutes may also require more energy, thus forcing us to burn larger amount of fossil fuel, leading to more global warming. In developing countries, the organic pollutional load contributed mainly by municipal sewage is a major problem in connection with water pollution. Thus treatment, utilization and proper disposal of municipal sewage are very important steps towards the control of water pollution.

Some of the important methods used for the disposal of sewage are as follows: In this method, the sewage is disposed off on land often for the purpose of irrigation instead of discharging it into a water body.

In this case, the land area acts as a crude filter and stabilizes the sewage by aerobic filtration. The sewage is usually given primary treatment before its disposal on land. This method is very similar to intermittent sand filtration. In case of sewage irrigation, the water and the fertilizing elements in the sewage, viz. Hence, this method has the special advantage of fertilizing the land. In this method, the sewage is discharged into a large body of water like river lake or sea.

The sewage is usually treated before discharging it into a water body to ensure that the condition of the receiving water body does not deteriorate to the extent of impacting on its normal use. I he cities arid towns which are situated near a large river Allahabad, Kanpur, Varanasi and Patna, all of which are situated near the river Ganga mainly use the method of dilution to dispose off their sewage.

The primary treatment of sewage mainly consists of physical separation of floating and suspended solids that are settleable from the sewage.

The main equipment used for the primary treatment are screens, grit chambers, detritus tanks, skimming tanks and settling tanks. Secondary Treatment: The secondary treatment of sewage includes flocculation and precipitation of the remaining materials in the sewage with the help of biological agencies, and their physical separation in secondary settling tanks.

The by-products of the secondary treatment process are screenings, grit and sludges of different kinds. Out of these, the first two can be easily disposed off by burial or burning. Sludge, on the other hand, contains unstable volatile organic substances; so it may be treated by the method of digestion.

In the process of digestion of sludges, various gases are produced with high calorific value which can be successfully utilized for heating or power generation.

The solid materials left behind i. Sludge Digestion: The process of sludge digestion consists of liquefaction of organic materials in the sludge by anaerobic bacteria, which produce an alkaline reaction. When the sludge is first placed in the digesting tank. Once established, the alkaline condition remains in the digestor for an indefinite period. The main use of the sludge gas, apart from heating the digestion tanks, is for generating power.

The power thus generated is enough to pump the entire sewage. Dried digested sludge can be used as a fertilizer since it contains 0. The digested sludge may also be used for land filling, incinerated to produce heat and power, or dumped into large bodies of water. An important method used to process the domestic sewage is the septic tank,which is an underground sewage container madeof concrete. It has been estimated that more than one billion PCs personal computers have already been sold globally and there has also been a spurt in the sales of other electronic items like refrigerators, air conditioners, cellular phones and personal stereos.

The ozone O 3 is a variant of oxygen O 2 , which contains three oxygen atoms instead of the usual two, as in the case of the oxygen molcule. Herbicides, fungicides and insecticides belong to the family of pesticides. Detergents are inorganic chemicals. Detergents are organic chemicals.

Radioactive isotopes have a Very long half-life. Radioactive isotopes have a short half-life. Cadmium poisoning may lead to formation of kidney stones Ans: Cadmium poisoning may lead to toxic effect. Increase in dissolved oxygen adversely affects the aquatic plants and animals. Reduce in dissolved oxygen adversely affects the aquatic plants and animals.

Lime can not be used to precipitate phosphorous. Lime can be used to precipitate phosphorous. The anaerobic treatment process is not effective for effluents containing high concentration of orgaiuc matters. The anaerobic treatment process has been effective for effluents containing high concentration of orgaiuc matters. Prolonged exposure to noise may cause hearing loss. Heat is an example of Thermal pollutant 8.

Write the odd ones: The basic principle of a landfill operation is to deposit the refuse, compact it with the help of bulldozers and then cover the material with at least 15cm of dirt at the conclusion of each day's operation. When the area is full, a final cover of about 60cm of dirt is applied, which is necessary to prevent rodents from burrowing into the refuse. The selection of a proper land- fill site is a difficult problem. The engineering aspects of land-fill site selection include: Rapid runoff reduces the mosquito problems, but close proximity to streams or dug-wells may result in water pollution.

It is preferable that the sanitary land-fill be situated in the down wind direction from the city or town. A small land-fill site with limited capacity is generally not acceptable because finding a new site involves considerable amount of trouble. At the planning stage, one has to consider whether the area can be utilised for public or private use after the land-filling operation is completed. The above engineering problems are quite important, but even more important are the social and psychological problems of sanitary land-fills.

No one in his right mind will be happy about having a sanitary land-fill near his house. A community may be rewarded with playgrounds, tennis courts, golf courses, etc. If this operation is conducted according to accepted practice, there will be very little adverse environmental impact; but it is very difficult to convince and explain this to the people living near a land-fill. The reason is that most of the sanitary land-fills in the past were nothing but glorified garbage dumps.

The sanitary land-fill operation is, in fact, a biological method of waste treatment. In the absence of oxygen, anaerobic decomposition steadily degrades the organic material to more stable form.

This process, however, is very slow. The decomposition may still be going on after 25 years. The end products of anaerobic decomposition are mostly gases like carbon dioxide CO 2 , methane CH 4 , aminoma NH 3 , and a small amount of hydrogen sulphide H 2 S. Since these gases have to find an escape, it is a good practice to install vents in land-fills to prevent the build-up of the above gases.

The biological aspects of the land-fill as well as the structural properties of the compacted solid waste dictate the ultimate use of sanitary land-fill sites.

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It is suggested that nothing should be constructed on a land-fill site for at least two years because uneven setting may often create problems. If pilings are used as foundations on a land-fill, they should extend through the fill and onto rock or some other sufficiently strong material. Many types of micro-organisms, which are already present in the wastes, stabilize the organic matters in it to produce a soil conditioner.

The micro-organisms that decompose the wastes include bacteria which predominate at all stages of the process , fungi which often appear after the first week and actinomycetes which exist during the final stages. Initially, the process starts with the mesophilic bacteria, which oxidize the organic matters in the wastes to carbon dioxide CO 2 and liberate heat. At this point, the thermophilic bacteria take over and continue the decomposition. The refuse is periodically turned over to a How enough oxygen to penetrate all parts of the material to support the process.

The compost is stabilized after about three week's. The end point of a composting operation can be determined by noting a drop in the temperature, earthy smell and a dark brown colour.

The moisture content of the wastes is a critical factor in the aerobic composting process. Excessive moisture makes it difficult to maintain aerobic conditions. Dearth of moisture, on the other hand, inhibits the growth of microorganisms. Modern methods of composting may be classified into two broad categories: The manual method is more attractive for towns with a rural bias. Manual methods are widely practiced in India and many other developing countries.

These are: In the Indore process, layers of vegetable waste and night-soil are alternated, each about 8cm thick, to depth of about 1. The mixture is kept aerobic by turning it at regular intervals for two or three months. The resulting compost is then left for another month or so without turning. The whole process takes about months. The Bangalore process of composting is a modified form of the hid ore process.

In contrast to the Indore process, however, the material is not himed in the Bangalore process, but is digested under essentially anaerobic conditions, whereby the decomposition is complete in about months. The resulting compost is free from pathogenic i. On dry basis, the compost contains approximately 1. Fully mechanized composting plants involve shred ding, grinding and mechanical separation of high density solids.

There are basically four processes of mechanical composting available in India; 1 The Buhler process. In the Buhler process, the waste material is ground in two stages in hammer mills. The non-compos table inorganic materials metals and glass are separated from the waste by the strong sifting action on circular swinging sieves.

The remaining corn postable materialis then decomposed aerobicatly in open trenches or mounds. Stabilisation by this process may take about months. The Dane process uses a long rotating drum, called a bio-stabiliser unit, for decomposing the waste.

The rotating drum is inclined so that the waste flows from one end to the other. The refuse is partially decomposed in the drum and the outcoming refuse is generally free from odour and pathogenic micro-organisms.

This partially decomposed refuse is then completely decomposed in open trenches or mounds. The entire operation may take about a month.

In the Tollemache process, the waste is pulverized in a vertical pulveriser and then passed through a screening plant to screen out plastics, etc.

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The pulverised and screened refuse is allowed to decompose in trenches mounds for about three weeks, with three or four turnings.

The resulting compost is then cured for weeks. The complete stabilization, therefore, takes about two months.

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In the Nusoil process the non-compostable inorganic material is separated from the waste, the resultant waste is pulverised and the pulverized waste is led to a vertical digester where decomposition takes place. The vertical digester is a cylindrical unit having seven sections.

The refuse moves downward through each section of the digester. The rates of air flow and water addition are regulated so that the decomposition of the waste takes place under optimum conditions.

The refuse is kept for about a day in each section of the digester and thus, the digestion process is completed in about seven days. The resulting compost is quite satisfactory' for direct field application without addition of supplementary nutrients.

It has been estimated that approximately 1, million tonnes of wet animal dung per annum are available in our country from 2. In addition, the slurry from biogas plants can produce million tonnes of organic manure, which can replace 1. Unfortunately, this tremendous source of bioenergy has not yet been fully tapped. The variable factors range from cattle dung availability and its calorific value to biogas yield and appliance efficiency.

Two major research needs in the area of biogas technology are restricted use of water in biogas plants and better strains of methane generating bacteria. In addition, temperature is a critical factor for the amount of methane generation in a biogas plant.

Scientists at the Indian Pl "wood Research Institute, Bangalore have developed a technology for manufacturing particle board from rice husk.

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The particle board obtained by using this technology is a versatile substitute in a wide range of applications. The particle boards, moreover, can also be made decorative by incorporating suitable colours, so they can be made more elegant looking and attractive than any other wood or plywood substitute.

The particle board has been found to be superior to wood or plywood boards because of the following advantages it offers: Depending on the market demand, a varied of product-mix can be produced by varying the density and resin content of the boards. The method of particle board manufacture involves the following basic steps: The process has been licenced to several firms in India and Malaysia.

The particle boards produced by these firms have shown excellent market acceptance and gained popularity because of their elegant look, better mechanical properties and lower prices. Solid waste, the third pollution after air and water pollution, is that solid material which arises from various human activities and which is normally described as useless or unwanted.

Shredding the solid wastes also known as pulverizing and then spreading the shredded material on fields has been found to be successful in a number of places. Since spreading it out dries the pulverized refuse, it avoids the problems of offensive rats and file.

Instead of throughing the garbage , this garbage is mixed with water and bacterial species, specifically cultured for production of methane. These bacteria decomposes the waste by eating and as a result produces methane. Fly-ash from coal-fired power plants is a major industrial waste product in India. It is the final solution for the solid waste problem including volume reduction.

Open Dumping of solid waste is exclusively practiced in India. Sanitary land fill is an aerobic process. Composting is an anaerobic process. Generally the agricultural waste are non-hazardous. The compound furfural , obtained from corn cobs, is the basic chemical used for the synthesis of nitrofurans. Land-fill operations are quite difficult to carry out during the raining season.

One can recover and from the pickle liquor. In reality, all environmental problems are development problems. Many alternate development strategies have been propounded and they are being implemented without adequate environmental safeguards. In general, sustainability implies continuity of all things that are basically positive and might be thought of as broadly desirable or admirable. Some other definitions or interpretations of sustainability or sustainable development are as follows: In its report "Our Common Future", presented in known as the Brundtland Report , sustainable development was defined as the "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generation to meet their own needs".

Sustainable development, therefore, implies protecting the environmental wealth, human capital stock, land, water and air, ecological living and non-living resources, and socioeconomic resource base. Energy problems of urbanised population: The details of energy demand clearly reflect that there is imbalance between demand and supply of energy. The demand of energy is more whereas supply is less. Demand is more because number of houses and vehicles are increasing day by day.

Besides this, consumers of energy are abundant in number. We were Every one nearly is having electrical appliance. The energy consumption is therefore shooting up. There is a global realization of the fact that single use of some of The important materials like metals, glass and paper would lead to scarcity of such materials since their feed-stocks would get exhausted.

In developed countries, resource recovery is a high technology area. In many developing countries like India, however city garbage is sorted out manually for the recovery of metals, glass, plastics, paper, etc. The reasons for waste utilization are: The engines of the other automobiles can be easily modified to run on CNG. In case of CNG the cost is low, wear and tear of engine is low and the environmental pollution is also low. The chemical process for the conversion of coke to methanol is as follows:.

Photovoltaic energy conversion is a direct energy conversion in the sense that the light energy is directly converted into electrical energy without intermediate involvement of mechanical or thermal energy. Photovoltaic energy converters are generally known as Solar Cells.

China clay is produced from Granite Rock for use in ceramic industries. The bulk of these materials is dumped. Coarse sand is used in road construction and in manufacture of building materials. Primary metal industries recover metals from municipal wastes. All natural features maintain ecological balance.

The movement in the same country from one occupation to another or from one religion to another is a kind of mobility at the national level. On the international scale, migration of people from one country to another is a very important type of mobility. In anv discussion of mobility, a distinction is usually made between the so called "horizontal" and "vertical" mobility. The horizontal mobility involves no change in the position of the individual or the group in the social hierarchy system of grades of status - When a worker moves from one factory to another, or when an engineer takes a position in another company, there is no significant change in his social status.

This is an example of horizontal mobility. The vertical mobility, on the other hand, involves a change of social level in the process of movement. If a worker becomes a wealthy businessman, his position in the class system changes quite radically. This is an example of vertical mobility, upward.

It may be noted here that vertical mobility may involve either upward or downward movement. An example of downward mobility is a member of an upper class who is dispossessed of his wealth in a revolution and is forced to enter into a manual occupation.

Modern sociologists have concentrated their attention mainly on the upward mobility. This is due to the fact that they have been preoccupied with the question of equality of opportunity. In recent years, it has been suggested by many social theorists that the degree of downward mobility might be a far better indicator of the "openness" of a particular society.

The reason is that downward mobility can clearly show the extent to which it is possible for the privileged special benefit or honour classes and groups to maintain their status and pass on to their descendants the advantages that they enjoyed. Though sociologists have been mostly preoccupied with the mobility of individuals, it is easy to see that whole families, groups, and even classes may, at certain times, change their position in the social structure.

One of the earliest writers to bring out the diverse aspects of vertical social mobility was the economist Joseph Schumpeter, who in analysed and illustrated what he termed the "rise and fall" of individuals, families, and whole classes within the class structure.

In studying the movement of individuals, sociologists distinguish between the following: The Mobility is said to be intra generational when an individual moves vertically upward or downward within his own adult lifetime. On the other hand, if vertical movement represented by a change in the social level occurs from the parental to the filial of or due from a son or daughter generation mostly from father to son , it is known as the intergenerational mobility.

In recent years, comprehensive national studies of mobility have been conducted in many countries, but such studies have dealt almost entirely with intergenerational mobility, investigating changes in occupation between father and son.

Another limitation of these studies is that they have concentrated heavily on the educational opportunity as a major factor influencing upward mobility. In contrast to the mobility of individuals, the rise and fall of families, groups or classes is relatively more difficult to study, but such movements can be documented in other ways. An important example of the upward mobility of families is the emergence of new ruling dynasties raajvansh.

Other examples can be found in the rise and fall of family business or politically influence. Such mobility of particular social groups usually occurs as a result of economic, political and cultural influences. The problem with historical studies of mobility is that they largely provide illustrations of various types of mobilities but do not show the extent of it due to lack of data.

Such historical studies do not give the actual number of individuals or families who change their position by upward or downward movement in the social hierarchy over a given period of time.

As a result, historical comparisons of mobility are quite difficult and largely speculative theorize, conjecture. Nevertheless, most sociologists agree that the vertical social mobility especially that of individuals is greater in modern industrial societies than it was in earlier societies.

On the other hand, modern social research shows that. Even in industrial societies. Mobility is limited and that there are no substantial differences between different industrial societies in the extent of mobility in spite of the general belief that social mobility is greater in the United States than in the European countries.

The movement of individuals from the working class into the upper class is generally rare in all societies. Comparisons among industrial societies show that the greater part of the vertical social mobility is a short-range mobility.

Modern investigations suggest that one should be cautious in the interpretation of historical accounts of social mobility and undue prominence clearly visible. Should not be given to exceptional cases of upward or downward movement. It is quite likely that, in all societies and at most times, there is considerable amount of stability. When this stability is not maintained by any formal or legal sanctions, it is ensured by the inheritance of property, educational advantages or political influences.

One universal factor is the occurrence of individuals with exceptional endowments something that is settled on any person or institution such as intelligence, physical strength, beauty, business acumen, etc. In the past, beautiful women rose to social eminence rising above others; conspicuous as the mistresses of kings and nobles, and in more recent times, as film stars.

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Similarly, men and to some extent, women too have risen in the social hierarchy body or organization classified in successively subordinate grades by accumulation of wealth, attainment of political or military power, and intellectual or artistic achievements.

Manifestations clearly shown of such personal qualities in exceptional amounts are quite limited and, so are the social advantages that they bring. Vertical social mobility resulting from exceptional personal qualities is governed by many social factors. In the first place, the open or closed nature of the class system in a particular society has a powerful influence on the vertical movement of individuals.

An individual in a close system encounters many obstacles if he seeks to escape from his social position as a slave, serf one bound to work on the land , or a member of a lower caste.