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Also, it would be interesting to do a more comprehensive study focusing not only on students academic results but also on other variables that might help explain both similarities and differences in the two groups. Simple differential equations describe a real product. The University of Twente had already several education programmes which are more or less mono disciplinary, like physics, chemistry, mechanical and electrical engineering but a multidisciplinary technical bachelor closely connected to the more entrepreneurial disciplines was missing. Dode op sint-anneke boek - P. In designing this model we need to ensure that these programs engage students and thus help them to succeed. In each subject the foreign student had to pass examinations just like any other national student of the subject concerned.
A number of Portuguese universities are trying to implement PBL methodology, following the new laws related to Bologna statements that the Portuguese Government signed. However, several interpretations of that methodology are running. First of all, correct implementation of the PBL methodology requires increasing of costs of human and material resources more staff, larger student s labs and rooms larger space in libraries, etc.
However Government is reducing support to universities and does not allow the increasing of fees. In fact, experiences in Australia and elsewhere show that to have good results in PBL in Engineering, each class should not have more than 20 students divided in 4 or five groups.
This implies a large increase in the teaching staff. Second, correct implementation of the PBL methodology requires a large change in the curricula and in the staff, witch takes a number of years. Evaluation of their performance is done mainly on the base of paper examinations at the end of each semester. Regarding normal students, the PBL methodology process, in relation to evaluation of each student performance, seems to indicate self assessment by the student together with and peer examination.
The self assessment can be done, but should not enter in the final mark. The peer assessment is much time consuming and there is no staff enough for it.
Despite these difficulties, there is a point where the PBL methodology is being fulfilled: However, in some cases a number of perversions to Bologna PBL ideal methodology is happening: In some first years basic subjects the teachers, at the beginning of the semester; fix the maters to be read by the students and the corresponding literature.
Also fix the problems to be solved and the lab works to be performed, but there is little help in the search for solutions and the way to do the lab works. Evaluation is done on the base of paper examinations at the end of each semester. In other cases the responsible the teachers fix the maters to be read by the students and the corresponding literature.
Divide the students in working groups. Give each group a large problem or a set of problems to be solved or lab or drawing work to be performed. Again, little help and little orientation are provided and there is little or no discussion with the teachers during the execution of the works.
Evaluation is based on the final report of the accomplished results signed by the group. The mark for each student is the mark s group. The best students, those who actually do the works, get frustration due to lack of merit reward and complain about the time lost in writing lengthy reports, which could be employed in deeper study of other subjects. Misinterpretations of the PBL methodology stated as student-centered learning, are giving rise to a number of perverse situations, not only in Portugal but also in other European countries.
On arrival in Belgian University the student has been handled do a junior teacher for a program of work the teacher has designed. The program of student s work was just part of the work the teacher had to do for his PhD.
Remaining in Oporto Faculty of Engineering in the final semester, the student would have 4 subjects centered in practical design, very useful for the professional engineer in the future.
This does not mean that it was not good for the student to be in a foreigner country. She learned to speak fluently the French, made some friends, etc. In this case the student was not in the final year. Also he has some subjects in retard and did not know well the Portuguese language. On arrival the student asked for a special program of study that could match his position in his course and special examinations in Italian.
Of course the Minho University Engineering teachers could not accept those conditions. What could be done was to make a special plan for him to attend the running subjects in the 3rd and 4th years. In each subject the foreign student had to pass examinations just like any other national student of the subject concerned. The above examples, and others, show that an engineering student must have a senior teacher as tutor and, when going abroad for a program of study directed towards the future professional work of the student, his tutor must approve that program witch must have been in accordance with the teacher of the foreign university or other foreign appropriate entity , responsible for the provision of the facilities for the performance of student swork.
Concerning engineering student s stages in external companies, a similar kind of cares must bee put forward. An engineering student going to external company to do a final year stage must have a program of work usually an actual engineering design useful for the company and the company must provide for the student a senior engineer has supervisor. The program of the student s work must be approved by both, the university tutor and In many cases is useful the stage to be done by two students since they can help each other in doing field, design or computer work.
The company must provide working space for the students and complements computer access with appropriate software, drawing equipment, etc. A case can be referred were two Civil Engineering students of the University of Minho got a final year stage at a Municipal Authority.
It was agreed,for the student s work, the design of a short span bridge useful for the Municipality. Also it is necessary to have in situ borings to know the depth of the bed-rock. The Municipality did not like to spend any amount of money for those purposes.
The students had to find other place for their stage. There are also other cases with companies. In many cases the final year stage work done by Engineering University students is not understood by the Community as serious and useful.
In other cases companies take the student s work as manpower at zero cost, giving the students minor jobs such as budgetary calculations, etc. In Portugal the carrier of an Engineering teacher does not depends at all of his teaching skills and teaching dedication, but of the level of his research team, the number of papers he publishes in top journals of his specialty and from the importance of his professional works: Therefore, the Portuguese university teacher does not spend much time in searching for new methods of teaching and, as a rule, is not much interested in providing good guidance to the first cycle students.
Many of the teachers of the basic subjects such as Engineering Mathematics and Engineering Physics are much interested in research in Pure Mathematics, not in research in Mathematics Applied to Engineering Problems. Also, many of the teachers of Engineering Physics are much interested in research in Theoretical Physics, not in research in Physics Applied to Engineering Problems.
The Electricity teacher may even teach High Electricity that does not flow in the wires Of course, there are many exceptions, also. Most Engineering Teachers understand Teaching as a mission.
Those teachers look for the best way of, within the time available for his subject, lead their students to wok hard from the beginning of the semester in order to assimilate the fundamentals of the matter, to think deeply on the proposed problems to be solved or on the lab and filed works to be done by their students. Such teachers start to chose and prepare for their students a short list of text books to be read.
A good text book must have in each chapter: All the examples and problems should be related to actual engineering cases. Surely, in a student-centered and student-directed PBL Methodology the student can search in the internet bibliography for the subject at stake, but he would fail to get the best and would take him most of the time needed for the study itself. So, the advice of the teacher to the student in searching the right texts is fundamental.
Otherwise the engineering student gets lost. Concerning lab tests to be done by the students, the teacher must choose and prepare them carefully in advance and the staff must provide all pieces of equipment in good conditions for the tests. Furthermore, in many cases the full test would takes several hours or days. In that case the teacher has to choose the essential part of the test to be run by the students and the rest must be prepared by the staff.
However, the whole set of results must be provided to the students and they must organize the results and take conclusions on their reports on the work done. In all this again the role of the teacher is essential. The pretended student-centered and student-directed PBL Methodology would fail in this case.
The students would loose too much time in doing minor mechanical tasks not essential to the understanding of the phenomena concerned. The lost time might be better spent by the student in studding other parts of the mater.
The role of the teacher is always essential and cannot be discarded has it would be understood in a quick reading of the Bologna recommendations. Therefore, although Engineering Education must be student-centered it can not be studentdirected. It must be teacher directed. In the last two years, during the Easter Holidays, there must be planed study visits to site Works with a leading teacher. It is an opportunity for the students to contact the real world of their future profession, to ask questions about the Works going on, etc..
The students are divided in groups and at the end of the visit, each group must elaborate and produce a report to be discussed in a joint meeting. One important role of the experienced engineering teacher is to orientate his students for the reading and application of the best Standard Codes of Practice in Design and Execution, available in the world technical literature.
Codes of Practice are the repository of the best results of the world accumulated experience in the item concerned. Also the engineering teacher must guide his students in the analysis of history cases failures of works or equipments searched by the students in the world technical literature, since actual failures are the best actual experiments to learn from.
From the analysis of history cases the student must find what was done wrong for the failure to happen. Regarding evaluation of the knowledge of each student on a subject, again the role of the teacher is essential. The evaluation of each student s knowledge of a subject should be done not only through paper examinations at the end of the semester, but also along his work during the semester.
Each student should be asked to do oral presentation of a part of the subject in front of his colleagues and the teacher. Learning to speech and to reason in public, plays an important part in the formation of the future engineer. The author has used with success a kind of written-oral examinations. Three rows of about 5 students were seated far a way from each other in a quiet room with 3 three examiners, one for each row.
A written question was put to each student, the question being different from student to student in each row. The students were asked to think, calculate and write the solution they understood to be adequate. After time enough for the answer, each examiner were going to each student s place to dialog with him on the question, registering the level of knowledge the student showd on the subject. In this way a right mark could be given to each student.
It was also an opportunity for the teacher to correct faults on the way of the student thought and in the way the student approached the solution of the problem. In relation to works done in groups, the report of each group was discussed in a session assembling the teacher and the group.
Questions about the problems involved were put to each student, allowing in this way the teacher to give a right mark to each student of the group. At the University of Minho in the last session of a subject of a semester, the students fill a form with questions of evaluation of the work done by of the teacher and his performance.
The student himself has to evaluate his own work and the conditions of the learning process rooms, labs, equipments, libraries, etc. The forms are kept in sealed envelops and handled to higher instances. A final mark was secretly transmitted to the teacher responsible for the subject taught. Experience shows that every student is well aware of the teaching value of each teacher, regardless of the mark the teacher gave him, in the subject concerned.
There are strong similitude between the Engineering Practice and de Medical Practice. As Medical Schools, in the final years, resource to practical work done by the students in hospitals, in the middle of professional doctors and staff, the students of Engineering must do practical work in Works going on outside the University in the middle of professional engineers and staff.
Due to this, the Curricula of the Course for each Engineering Branch must be redesigned. The time tables of the subject must also be remaked. He also must select the best textbooks to be used. He and his collaborators must design each lab work to be performed by each group of students.
At the same time the stages of the students in those entities can be discussed and fixed. The group stages must start in the 3rd year using the large holidays and should be planed one year in advance. Stages may be done in a foreign entity or university, but the program of work to be performed by the student or the group, must be agreed with the students tutor.
At the same time, for each subject, the subjects preceding it, to be first attended by each student, must be assigned.
Otherwise the student will not be in conditions to learn the matter. The paper examinations or the paper oral examinations referred above are quite important, because students in this way practice retrieval of memorized concepts. Researchers in Cognitive Science Roediger, H. Nevertheless, every good Engineering Teacher, other than to have skill in Teaching, should be a reasonable Engineering Researcher, Designer and Builder.
This is so because nobody can teach what, he or she, does not know and do not uses in practice. How to develop them? Is inventive power an innate skill? Is inventive power developable? How to develop it? Can the innate skilnesses of a candidate to Engineering student to be accessed via psychological examinations? Is intuition instintictive knowledgment innate? Is intuition developable?
How to put internet in Practice helping in university Engineering Education? How to create student s motivation for Engineering Studies? Can marketing techniques be applied and useful in Engineering Education? How to apply them? Does the best method depends of the subject? All the Engineering senior university teachers might be Industry Professionals, rather then University Researchers? Assuming that part of the Engineering senior teachers must be Industry Professionals, what part, Greater or smaller part?
Engineering International Standards are repositories of accumulated world experience in the branch of Engineering concerned. How to fit the application of those Standards in Engineering Education? In the s at the Imperial College London the Science and Engineering students attended between 12 and 14 o clock lunch time and after An innovative course in undergraduate neuroscience: Experiment in problembased learning with "problem boxes.
Barrows, HS, The essentials of problem-based learning. Journal of Dental Education. Education and Research, Dec. Delft University, NL. Gibson I.
Reilly C. Taylor and Francis Ltd Heitmann, G. Jacques Rousseau, , Emile; or, on Education trans. Allan Bloom. Agreement on Quality Standards within University Networks: EU Tuning Project. Perspectives of European Engineering Education. The position of the Universities. Technical University Wien. Kirschner, P. Sweller and R.
Krishan, S, C Vale and R. Some Lessons to be Drawn,. UC Louvain. Concepts and experiences. Danish TU, Copenhagen-Lyngby. Ostlund, S.
Outcomes and Competence Curriculum Development. RTH Stockholm. Psychology of Intelligence. Routledge and Kegan Paul Piaget, J. Studies in Reflecting Abstraction. Hove, UK: Psychology Press. Private mail. Renato Morgado, , Teaching Engineering, in Portuguese. Renato Morgado, Comments on the draft of this paper, in Portuguese.
Rojiter, J, , PBL as means to better engineering education? TU Berlin. Venkatesan, S. It is describing the major problems the educational system of engineering is facing today and searches for some solutions.
An overview of how to change the learning process more interesting is given and a concept of the first PBL project is presented. Over the years our university has been facing the fact that mechanical engineering is one of the least favourite field of study.
This has two major reasons. First, there is a worldwide lack of interest in natural sciences among youth. Second, the background of today s students and the need of specialists in the economy of Estonia have changed. Historically our faculty trained maintenance engineers for agricultural machinery of huge collective farms.
Today the emphasis is on design and production engineering. Students used to come from rural families. Today the majority of students come from urban areas and they have less interest in farming machinery.
Currently we are facing the following problems in engineering education: Students are not very enthusiastic about their studies. There is a prevailing tendency to test what are the minimum requirements for getting a positive or desired grades; The percentage of bachelor students continuing their studies in the masters programme is too small.
The students of bachelor level have a little idea what is waiting for them in the master s programme. We consider bachelor level is not a separate degree but a part of 5 year studies. The tasks students solve during the machine design course are not connected to real life.
Young people are not used to doing something with their hands. It is affecting their ability to work as engineers in companies where it is expected that an engineer solves problems in a workshop as well. The high school students are not aware of possibilities of engineering education. Technical education has not been popular for years. Engineering education is not popular among high school pupils nor possible lecturers.
The main reason is that it does not look interesting. Our task is to find ways to make studies in our university interesting to the changed target group.
We see one of the ways through developing interesting project works for students. There are some national initiatives like the programme Techno Tiger which is focused on introducing schoolchildren to engineering. Every year there is a pupils contest of design and manufacturing.
This year the task was to design and manufacture an aero plane. There is an Engineering Students Club an initiative from the students of our university.
The faculty supports this club with premises and advise from staff. This year they took part in Fun vehicles contest during the students spring days event. The students initiative is more emphasized on having fun. These programs do not lead youth to the engineering education. It is necessary to create and present interesting example pieces to show what students are doing during their studies and thus make the option of learning in the Institute of Technology more visible to the high school youth.
The students graduating the Institute of Technology in majority go to work as designers, process engineers and maintenance engineers in local enterprises. The fields of occupation and tasks are different and changing. So it is impossible to teach our students how to solve problems which they face after graduating. What we can do, is to teach them to find ways of solving problems. Tools for solving technical problems: The best way to learn how to act in a certain situation is to simulate the situation during the learning process.
Description of a possible real life situation: A customer needs a solution to a problem that is relatively new to you, but is not too far from previous experience. The engineering company has to: For example in the subject of Machine Design students have made a lot of projects about transmission for a conveyor throughout years.
The majority of student projects have been just paper projects consisting of drawings and explanatory notes. The staff has been urged to involve students more into projects and to put these projects into reality.
Over the years involvement of students in projects has increased. The movement towards learning through projects has been stable but not very efficient and coordinated. As the objectives have not been set the results are not measured systematically and the output of those projects is not very obvious. This leads to the need of formulating the objectives of the projects of the students in the Institute of Technology.
It is necessary to establish the criteria how to: A project should involve several subjects of several levels so that students of junior levels would get a hint what is waiting for them in the future. This should also give students a good opportunity to learn the skills of supervising the work of others. The planned project should be multidisciplinary in a way that different grades have to complete different tasks. Our approach to change the learning process is an evolutionary not revolutionary way.
We will try the approach in a subject in which the evaluation of work of students has based traditionally on a project. Starting with relatively small changes in process it should have two advantages: If the first project will be successful it is easier to encourage staff resisting change. If the first attempt should have setback the damage made is not so big and it is possible to make some adjustments.
Make learning process more interesting and rewarding for students so that they will acquire knowledge better. Teach them what is waiting for them after graduation. Use the output as a sample of promoting studies in the Institute of Technology. To introduce bachelor level students what is waiting for them in masters programme. Creating a project for a specific course should consider the following criteria: It must be related to the course. It must be attractive and challenging. It should be presentable to wider public.
It should be completed through several subjects by different grades of students. Introduction of PBL has to overcome some obstacles: The equipment of school workshop may limit the realisation of the ideas of the students. Some students may be difficult to motivate. The ability and motivation of staff to lead and supervise the projects.
Limited budget for the projects. A project starting during the autumn semester must be described and have the necessary equipment and materials for the coming spring semester. Students involved in this project will have to design and build a multigear transmission for a racing car that is equipped with 1,3 kw chainsaw combustion engine and an axles from a passenger car. They will also have to take part in a race with this transmission.
The criteria for evaluating the project are: The transmission is designed and manufactured to suite the car. Every less performed or additional round will give penalty points All phases of the project are finished and handed over in time.
Extra points will be rewarded for original design and low weight As it is a pilot project, only two subjects and students learning it will be directly involved in this project. These subjects are: Design of Machine elements for the first year students of masters programme. This subject is scheduled to the autumn semester; Technology of mechanical engineering for the second year students of bachelor programme, which is scheduled to the spring semester.
There are some subjects that will be involved indirectly: Theory of automobiles and tractors Engineering graphics The project will be announced during the first weeks of autumn semester. The deadlines and the date of completion will be announced. The workgroups for autumn semester courses will be assembled by cast lots, which helps to equalize the level of workgroups. Each design group of As there are some problems to solve with this car prior to fitting a transmission to it, every group will have their unique task.
Those tasks are: Design of a safety cage and frame of the car; 2. Design of controls and drivers compartment. Placement and connection of axles and engine to the transmissions. The task for the students in spring semester is to manufacture all the transmissions and their parts. Steps to be taken Getting more information about project based learning Starting and carrying out the first project Making conclusions of the first project Improving the methods and spreading it to subjects not involved during the first year.
Benefits from the project Second grade students who have to manufacture parts for the project will have a real life experience of information necessary on a drawing Designing and manufacturing a real product should be rewarding enough to stimulate students to be more enthusiastic about their studies. References Mohamed S. John W. Thomas, There have been many attempts to solve this problem. Many of the proposed solutions get freshmen involved in design projects assuming that this will motivate and inspire them to stay in engineering while they take math, science and general education courses.
The solution proposed here is a sequence of three, 1 unit courses taken during the student s first three quarters at the university. The first course introduces the product development life cycle and gives students the opportunity to design simple robots. The remaining two courses team freshmen with senior engineering students who are working on capstone projects.
The freshmen are given tasks by the seniors that are commensurate with their abilities. This is a work in progress and only limited results are yet available to prove or disprove the effectiveness of the approach. Attracting students to engineering disciplines and retaining students in the programs are long standing problems. There have been almost as many attempts to solve these problems, as there are engineering programs.
Many of the proposed solutions attempt to get freshmen students involved in design projects assuming that this will motivate and inspire students to stay in engineering while they take math, science and general education courses. The conference stressed defining projects for freshmen that relate to contemporary issues. Integration of just freshmen and seniors in capstone design courses is not entirely new.
A few universities have developed programs that focus on getting engineering students involved in meaningful project starting in the freshmen year. The EPICS program focuses on service learning projects that give students at all levels, freshen through seniors, the opportunity to get involved in project that benefit the community.
However, they are not required to take it any given semester. The UWT program requires enrollment all three quarters of the freshman year. The EPICS program does not guarantee that freshmen will see the entire product development life cycle but the UWT program does give the freshmen this exposure. The UWT program focuses primarily on attracting and retaining freshmen students whereas the EPICS program has broader objectives that include attracting and retaining students but also stress service learning and working on large teams that can include students from disciplines other than engineering.
The Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University has also tried to integrate freshmen and seniors in the capstone design project. Their experiment seems to indicate that, contrary to the expectation fears, the quality of the projects was not compromised by the freshmen participation. It also indicates that the lack of engineering science background, which was a serious concern, did not prevent the freshmen to make significant contributions to the projects.
The main challenge at the time the paper was written was how to accommodate the desire of departing freshmen to continue their participation as sophomores and beyond. Other outcomes of this experiment included the improvement of the The three courses are taken during the engineering student s first year at the University and are described below.
The first course is just for freshmen but the second and third courses combine freshmen with seniors who are working on their capstone design projects 2. Students are also assigned simple construction projects that give them experience using breadboards and laboratory equipment.
A secondary goal of the course is to help attract freshmen students to the computer engineering discipline. To this end, a presentation describing the sequence of courses is included in the freshmen orientation program. The schedule and topics for the course are shown in Table 1. Table 1: Senior students are given the title and responsibilities of Project Engineers and the freshmen are given the title and responsibilities of Interns.
With the help of the instructors, the Project Engineers define tasks for the Interns that are commensurate with their abilities. During the first combined class, the Project Engineers are focusing on defining user needs, writing technical requirements and designing their projects. Typical tasks given to the Interns in this class include reviewing project concept documents from the users point of view, participating in status report writing and presentation, reviewing design documents for completeness, and evaluating any prototypes that maybe developed as part of the design process.
The Interns may also contribute by The schedule and topics for the course are shown in Table 2. Table 2: Schedule and Topics for TCES Wk Topic Assignments 1 Working on project teams 2 Review of Product Development Life Cycle Identify user needs 3 Components of requirements documents Inspection of the project concept document 4 Social impact of project 5 Environmental impact of project Inspection of requirements document 6 Components of design documents 7 Architectural design view Write sample design document 8 Static design view 9 Dynamic design view Inspection of design document 10 Project review Team performance appraisal 11 Team Presentation Quarter Progress Report 2.
Interns help with the construction of the projects by performing soldering and wiring tasks. They are also involved in verifying correctness of the construction wiring and mechanical assembly , testing components and the final project, and preparing and presenting project status presentations.
The schedule and topics for the course are shown in Table 3. Table 3: Schedule and Topics for TCES Wk Topic Assignments 1 Review of requirements and design documents 2 Project scheduling Review schedule 3 Component selection criteria Construct parts list and Help procure components 4 Construction techniques Help with project construction 5 Unit test process Help perform unit tests 6 Module test process Help perform module tests 7 Integration test process Help perform system test 8 Software testing techniques Help identify test requirements 9 Acceptance test process Help perform acceptance test 10 Project review and team presentation Team performance appraisal Team project presentation 11 Course Sequence Evaluation Course Evaluation At that time the seniors and freshmen students are introduced to each other and the seniors give brief presentations on the type of project they intend to develop.
The freshmen give the seniors their resumes and rank their preference of projects on which to work, then the team selection process begins. The seniors then review the selections the freshmen have made along with their resumes. The seniors then have the opportunity to interview the freshmen Interns and in conjunction with the instructor, teams are selected.
The freshmen are then extended offers to join the project teams. One of the services they provide is a session on team training. After the teams have been selected, one of the CELT consultants provides a class on teamwork dynamics. Both seniors the Project lleaders and freshmen the Project Interns attend the training.
Approximately half way through the quarter, the freshmen Interns are given an opportunity to evaluate how well the class is going for them and how the interaction with the Project Leaders is progressing. At the end of the quarter, Interns do a formal evaluation of the Project Leaders and Project Leaders do a formal evaluation of the Interns. The faculty teaching the freshman class and teaching the senior class meet with each team to share the results of the evaluations.
If necessary, plans of action are prepared to rectify any problems that have been identified within the individual teams. Since the classes described in this paper are introductory, no attempt is made to assess mastery of the ABET outcomes.
However, students are given the opportunity to start developing skills that will help them demonstrate proficiency in several outcomes. ABET outcome d , An ability to function on multi disciplinary teams, is probably the outcome that is covered in the greatest depth. Students are given training described above in section 3.
ABET outcome g , An ability to communicate effectively, is another area where the freshmen are required to contribute along with the seniors. The freshmen are required to help prepare and deliver project status reports and the final project demonstration. ABET outcome k , An ability to use the techniques, skills, and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice, is also an area when the freshmen do work that will help prepare them for later assessment of the outcome.
In the first quarter course the freshmen are introduced to tools that are used to design and analyze both digital and analog circuits. In the third quarter class students are taught to use hardware tools such as meters, signal generators, and oscilloscopes. ABET outcome c An ability to design a system, component, or process to meet desired needs, is an area where the freshmen see how seniors accomplish this goal but they are not expected to perform any design work themselves.
The concept of mixing freshmen with seniors working on capstone projects has been tried before but is new, at least for our University and the approach taken at UWT is different from other attempts. Since our approach is new, we do not know for sure how effective it will be attracting new students to the engineering discipline or if it will aid in the retention of There have, however, been some encouraging preliminary results: We have identified some areas that we think can be improved for next year s classes.
We feel that the first class, TCES , was quite successful, based on student evaluations, participation and comments from students. However, the second class, TCES did not receive good student evaluations. The main problem with this class seems to be related to the fact that the seniors spend most of their time developing user needs, requirements, designs and project plans.
The Interns did make useful contributions to the user needs documents for the projects, but they did not have significant input to the more detailed requirements, designs, and plans. We have identified some way we think will improve the participation of the Interns in this class.
To help teams bond earlier, we will give the freshmen two laboratory exercises where they use laboratory equipment such as oscilloscopes, signal generators and multi meters.
The seniors will help the freshmen with a laboratory exercises and, if possible, explain how the exercises will relate to the capstone projects. One of the Project Leaders developed a simple blog to communicate with the Interns on his team and both the Project leader and the Interns felt this was a very effective way for the team to communicate. In the future we will require that all teams use blogs as one method of communication.
She intends to use the grand to broaden students perspectives of engineers social responsibility. These will serve as a platform for the students to develop a deeper understanding of their professional responsibility, organisational skills and teamwork capabilities which are essential for a productive and responsible engineer.
Hopefully, these endeavors will also keep the Interns more interested and involved in the TCES class. Since the third course, TCES , is still in progress, student evaluations are not available to help determine the effectiveness of the class and the interest level of the Interns in the class.
However, based on attendance and individual conversations with the Interns, they seem much more interested and involved in this class than in the TCES class.
References ABET Baiocchi, O. Embedded Assessment for Engineering Programs. Wear, L. Designing an Assessment Based Engineering Program. The evaluation indicators used are the ratio of students assessed and those enrolled in the course, the ratio of students approved and those enrolled in the course, the ratio of students approved and those assessed in the course, the arithmetic mean and the standard deviation of student grades.
Findings suggest that PLE students, in average, have better results than the non PLE students at all courses and for the three academic years analyzed.
However, these results need to be understood in a broader perspective which includes other variables such as student background, student engagement of given tasks, etc. In these kinds of approaches to teaching and learning, assessment of student learning has been subject to several discussions.
Different concerns emerge when designing student centred assessment methods, as the emphasis is not only on the assessment of the outcomes but also on the process of learning. As the literature on the implementation of project and teamwork in engineering curricula shows, this approach to learning intends not only to deepen students learning in regard to the technical competencies required for an Engineering profession, but also to improve students ability to work and cooperate with others, as this is an important issue which is not enhanced or either assessed in traditional learning environments.
Nowadays, engineers are, indeed, expected to demonstrate skills related to problem solving, project management, leadership and decision making, amongst others. Formative assessment plays an important role in the learning process as it provides students with feedback about their performance, allowing them to improve their work. However, the effects of formative and summative assessment in learning, from students point of view, are relatively different Boud, It seems that the influence of formative assessment is subtler than summative assessment and that the latter seems to drive out learning at the same time it seeks to measure it.
Students usually see assessment as the most important result of their learning process. Assessment practices that enable students to grow and develop tend not to fit in with the kinds of tests and examinations that are set, mostly due to university guidelines and professional Therefore, different attitudes towards assessment may be found ranging from those who believe that assessment is about measuring competence and improvement through tests that are seen to be reliable and valid, to those who see assessment as a means of demonstrating effective learning in the curriculum, and to those who see it as a means of ensuring that students have learned Savin-Baden, Students academic achievement is an important indicator of the quality of a given program or project.
This is particularly relevant when implementing new approaches to teaching and learning, in so far as both teachers and students are quite concerned with assessment results. Previous empirical studies, based on qualitative and quantitative data collected in the context of problem and project based learning experiences, stress the importance of understanding the impact of assessment on students Sambell, et al. For instance, Verhoeven et al.
Findings suggest that there were no systematic differences found in the two administrations of the Progress Test. The test scores indicated that the effects of PBL and non PBL instructional methods on medical factual knowledge were very similar. However, when analysing test scores split into three categories basic, clinical and social sciences , the results show that the basic sciences favoured the non-pbl curriculum and the social sciences the PBL curriculum.
Besides this, an interesting conclusion of this study was that medical students, at the end of their curricula, master the same kind of knowledge, it is only the moment in time that they learn it that differs.
Students argue that, at the end of the semester, they get a relatively low return in terms of marks, feeling unrewarded in regard to the heavy workload and study effort which the project-led education entails. For this reason, some students stated that they prefer traditional lectures and assessment procedures, as they are not dependent on a group component and the effort required to achieve the intended learning outcomes is much less.
In this way, assessment is perceived as fairer and more appropriate in non PLE approaches, as it allows students to achieve higher grades which are exclusively focused on individual performance. By studying harder, some students claim to master the courses main topics and to be successful in sitting exams.
The main goals of this paper are to analyse grades of students in PLE and non PLE teaching and learning approaches, and to discuss the main findings arising from the data analysis. For this purpose, comparable assessment elements will be used which, in this case refer to the final specific content assessment results from involved courses.
In other words, for PLE students, academic final results for each course before adding the interdisciplinary project grade component will be used. In order to analyse the major differences in academic results between project and non-project students, it is important to understand that student s profile and background have influence on the learning success and students outcomes in each of the learning approaches.
Being a working student or being repeating a course are some aspects that could influence students results, learning tasks, assessment methods, etc. However, these aspects will not be considered in this paper. Every year approximately 40 students have enrolled in PLE, forming teams of 6 to 7 students.
The first semester of the first year of IME includes five courses: In this Masters degree there is no course dedicated to the project content. So, the interdisciplinary project acts like an interconnection pedagogical mechanism amongst all PSC courses. Most of the teachers involved in these courses have been the same over the last few years, being Calculus the only exception.
Since the first semester of IME is based on an innovative project approach, the stability of teaching faculty has helped faculty staff involved in this approach to apprehend the methodology concept and to develop pedagogical materials and strategies, as changes in course contents and learning outcomes must be re adapted in order to meet the projects goals and students needs.
The teaching faculty allocated to this programme is represented in Table 1. The larger variation can be identified in CC, where a new teacher T6, T7 and T8 is chosen every year, by This paper focuses upon an analysis of students grades, so a description of the grading model is necessary to contextualize the results. Students receive grades for each PSC course and these are based on PSC specific content assessment and project interdisciplinary assessment.
This group grade has an individual correction factor that depends on intra-group peer assessment. All courses have a complementary optional assessment opportunity for students to pass, which can be, for instance, a written test. Most of the impact on PSC specific content final grade in each course is related, as mentioned above, with continuous assessment activities. This is true both for PLE and non PLE students assessment that is based mainly on individual performance, by completing the same courses assignments.
So, course s specific content assessment grades will be the core element of analysis. In this analysis, two groups of students are included those who participate in PLE, where the assessment method itself contributes to the students final classification in the different courses involved, and those students who do not participate in the PLE process NPLE students.
Table 3 represents a set of evaluation indicators that were selected for this study. Max indicator represents the higher grade of each set of students. Min indicator represents the lower grade of each set of students. A student is considered approved with a grade higher The Average and Standard deviation are other two indicators computed in each set of students.
Three others indicators are the ratios between approved and assessed, approved and enrolled, assessed and enrolled students in each set. Table 3 shows that in almost all cases the set of PLE students have better results than the other set of students. The only exception was identified in PC1 course with a similar average for both set of students. All these values were obtained using the Approved students, so the sample dimension varies from course to course each year see Table 3.
For NPLE students, this ratio is placed between For NPLE students, all values for this ratio are below Figure 1 represents averages of students grades for each course in the three academic years.
However, there are 4 cases out of 12 where this is not true: The highest and the lowest results are also presented limits of the vertical lines.
It can be observed that, though the minimum values practically coincide for both cases 9. The NPLE group of students presents lower amplitude, i. Figure 2: Download Coco's Secret book - Niamh Greene. Download De wereld van de vroege kerk - Simon Jones pdf.
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