CSWIP Welding Inspector Level 3 study matrial is now available to download in our blog. It is exact study material of the CSWIP Senior Welding. Senior Welding Inspector - CSWIP srinivasa rao. Jayson makinano cv JayJay Makinano. Api study guide. JayJay Makinano. Need CSWIP course notes, preparation study materials and exam taking advises I am planning to take CSWIP course and exam. If any of you have appeared for the exam Attachments (1). CSWIP soundofheaven.info
|Language:||English, Spanish, Arabic|
|ePub File Size:||23.70 MB|
|PDF File Size:||8.52 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Regsitration Required]|
CSWIP Preparation Course Material - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf ), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. cswip CSWIP Course Material - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File ( .txt) or read book online. CSWIP Material. Dilution When filler and parent material do not have the same composition the resulting composition of the weld depends largely on the weld preparation.
Anonymous November 17, at 5: However the contract specification may reference supporting codes and standards and the inspector should know where to access these normative documents. Double U but weld increase in distortion b. Welding Symbols The different welding symbols that are used to symbolically represent weld joints. All weld tensile tests are also regularly carried out by welding consumable manufacturers to verify that electrodes and filler wires satisfy the tensile properties specified by the standard to which the consumables are certified.
Published on Jul 14, SlideShare Explore Search You. Submit Search. Successfully reported this slideshow. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime. CSWIP 3. Upcoming SlideShare. Like this document? Why not share! Assessments at the end of modules are designed to test your knowledge. But if you fail these, don't worry - when you relaunch the module, you can begin a 'new attempt' and try the assessment again.
The same applies to stand-alone assessment modules. A course will be marked as 'Complete' once all of its modules have been passed. You can also make a note of any topics you found difficult, and make a note to ask your tutor when you attend your full, classroom-based course.
When you have booked your online training, you will receive an email notification with your login details. Module 1: Introduction to Metallurgy General metallurgical principles, characteristics of hot and cold work, and the effects of heat treatment.
Module 2: Module 3: Weldability of Steels Definition of the term weldability, characteristics of steel alloys and their cracking mechanisms. Module 4: Module 5: Destructive Testing Destructive tests available to establish the mechanical properties and soundness of welded joints. Module 6: All of the questions from all of the sections are For candidates wishing to complete the RT supplementary generated individually from a large data base so no examination one student has the same exam.
Ferrous 6 Radiographs 1 Hour 30 specification. Copper 3 Radiographs 45 minutes General and weld symbol questions.
The Senior Welding Inspector will be expected to give advice. The attributes required by the Senior Welding Inspector are varied and the emphasis on certain attributes and skills may differ from project to project. The Senior Welding Inspector should. Essentially though the Senior Welding Inspector will require leadership skills. The role would certainly include leading a team of Welding Inspectors. Practical application and experience play a major part in the development of leadership skills and the Senior Welding Inspector should strive to improve and fine tune these skills at every opportunity.
The skills required for the development of leadership include a: Assessment of suitable personnel may require consideration of their technical.
See Section: Planning for more detailed information. The Senior Welding Inspector should be aware of the more widely used standards as applied in welding and fabrication. Other considerations would include availability of inspection personnel at the time required. Certain areas where additional knowledge is required are a: Specified normative documents specifications.
For example: To do this effectively he needs skills in man management. He will have to liaise with customer representatives. The SWI needs to be able to recognise these signs and others such as personnel not starting work promptly.
See section on: Low morale can lead to among other things. He may have to investigate non-compliances. Among them would be: Where there are serious breaches of company rules by one or two people the rest of the workforce should be informed of the matter so that rumour and counter-rumours can be quashed. He must have a clear understanding as to the limits of his authority — knowing how far he can go in disciplinary proceedings. A good supervisor should not allow his workforce to get into such a state.
Some matters of discipline may well arise because of incorrect working practices. The usual stages of disciplinary procedure are: The workforce will react accordingly. Rumours of impending redundancies or cuts in allowances etc will not make for good morale. He must keep them motivated by: In dealing with disciplinary matters the SWI must: It is of vital importance that the company rules are rigorously followed as any deviation could result in claims for unfair or constructive dismissal.
The SWI must have a good understanding of these requirements and be able to apply them in a fair and equitable manner.
Every Senior Welding Inspector will have personal skills and attributes which can be brought to the job. In all such cases the SWI will need to carry out an investigation and apply disciplinary sanctions to the personnel involved. The important thing for the individual to recognise is not only do they have unique abilities which they can bring to the role.
Some ways in which these goals may be achieved is through: If the personnel are employed by a sub-contractor then a meeting with the sub-contractor will be needed to achieve the same end. To do this: For simplicity these diagrams show an arc welding process that deposits filler weld metal in a single weld pass. The heat-affected zone HAZ is material that has not melted but whose microstructure has been changed as a result of the welding.
The fusion line is the interface between the weld metal and the HAZ. For the structure to function loads must be transferred from one plate to another and the features of welds that enable them to transmit loads are described.
A weld made between two faces that are approximately at right angles to each other is known as a fillet weld. This section introduces typical joint geometries involved in joining plates together and describes the types of weld used in these joint configurations with typical features of butt and fillet welds described. Typical features of a butt weld are shown in Figure 2. The weld or weld metal refers to all the material that has melted and re- solidified.
Figure 2. These are at each corner of both the weld face and weld root in a butt weld but only on the weld face in a fillet weld. The root is the bottom of the weld or narrowest part and the face is the top or widest part. At the corners of the weld cross section where the weld metal joins the parent metal are the weld toes.
Close to the fusion line the temperature in the HAZ has been sufficient to cause microstructural phase changes. Further away from the fusion line the parent material has been heated to a lower maximum temperature and the parent microstructure is tempered.
The application of heat naturally causes some changes to the microstructure parent material. The distance between weld toes is the weld width. When the distance is between the toes at the weld cap it is the weld cap width.
Solid-liquid boundary Maximum Solid temperature weld Grain growth zone metal Recrystallised zone Partially transformed zone Tempered zone Unaffected base material Figure 2. The height of the additional weld metal in the weld cap is the excess weld metal which used to be called reinforcement which wrongly suggests that increasing this dimension will strengthen the weld. If the excess weld metal is too great it increases the stress concentration at the weld toe and this extra weld metal is called the excess root penetration.
Figures 2. Other typical joint types are shown in Figures 2. An alternative to a conventional lap joint is to weld the joint using plug or slot welding, shown in Figure 2. The hole for a slot weld should have a width at least three times the plate thickness and not less than 25mm. In plate less than 10mm thickness, a hole of equal width to the plate thickness can be welded as a plug weld. Corner joints can be fitted and welded in a number of ways. The unwelded pieces can be assembled either with an open corner or closed together.
The weld can be on the external or internal corner or both in a double-sided weld. Throat size a is generally used as the design parameter since this part of the weld bears the stresses and can be related to leg length z by the following relationship: This is only valid for mitre fillet welds having similar leg lengths Figure 2. In concave fillet welds the throat thickness will be much less than 0.
The leg length of a fillet weld is often approximately equal to the material thickness. The actual throat size is the width between the fused weld root and the segment linking the two weld toes, shown as the red line in Figure 2. Due to root penetration the actual throat size of a fillet weld is often larger than its design size but because of the unpredictability of the root penetration area, the design throat size must always be taken as the stress parameters in design calculations.
The choice between mitre weld, concave and convex fillet weld needs to account for the weld toe blend. A concave fillet weld gives a smooth blend profile and a low stress concentration at the fillet weld toe. Convex fillet welds can have a higher stress concentration at the weld toe. If the fluidity of the weld pool is not controlled it is possible to obtain an asymmetrical fillet weld where the weld pool has sagged into the joint preparation and there is also a risk of undercut on the bottom weld toe see Figure 2.
Having a smooth toe blend is important to give better fatigue performance for fillet welds. The design throat is therefore less than the actual throat t 2.
The weld toe blend is important for butt welds as well as fillet welds. Most codes state that weld toes shall blend smoothly, leaving it open to individual interpretation. The higher the toe blend angle the greater the amount of stress concentration. The toe blend angle ideally should be between degrees Figure 2. The degree of dilution results from the edge preparation and process used; the percentage of dilution D is particularly important when welding dissimilar materials and is expressed as the ratio between the weight of parent material melted and the total weight of fused material multiplied by to be expressed as a percentage , as shown:.
Low dilutions are obtained with fillet welds and with butt welds with multiple runs. For a single pass better dilution is obtained with grooved welds, see Figure 2. A detailed representation shows every detail and dimension of the joint preparation with carefully written, extensive notes. It provides all the details required to produce a particular weld in a very clear manner but requires a separate detailed sketch time consuming and can overburden the drawing.
For a special weld preparation not covered in the relevant standards eg narrow groove welding ; it is the only way to indicate the way components are to be prepared for welding or brazing. In many welding and fabrication organisations use old drawings that reference out of date standards such as BS Pt 2. Symbolic representation can only be used for common joints and requires training to understand the symbols.
Symbolic representation of a welded joint contains an arrow line, a reference line and an elementary symbol. The elementary symbol can be complemented by a supplementary symbol. The arrow line can be at any angle except degrees and can point up or down. The arrow head must touch the surfaces of the components to be joined and the location of the weld. Any intended edge preparation or weldment is not shown as an actual cross-sectional representation but as a line.
The arrow also points to the component to be prepared with single prepared components. The symbols for arc welding are often shown as cross-sectional representations of a joint design or completed weld. Simple, single edge preparations are shown in Figure 2. Table 2. For a finished weld it is normal for an appropriate weld shape to be specified. So the correct size of weld can be applied it is common to find numbers to the left or right of the symbol.
There are a number of options and methods to specify an appropriate weld shape or finish. Butt welded configurations would normally be shown as a convex profile Figure 2.
Fillet weld symbols are always shown as a mitre fillet weld and a convex or concave profile can be superimposed over the original symbol's mitre shape. These simple symbols can be interpreted as either the joint details alone or the completed weld. For fillet welds numbers to the left indicate the design throat thickness.
The flag symbol for weld in the field or on site can be added to any standard symbol. Supplementary symbols can be used for special cases where additional information is required Figure 2. The weld all round symbols may be used for a rectangular hollow section RHS welded to a plate. A box attached to the tail of the arrow can contain or point to other information such as whether NDT is required.
Numbers to the right of a symbol or symbols relate to the longitudinal dimension of welds. For butt joints and welds an S with a number to the left of a symbol refers to the depth of penetration.
When there are no specific dimensional requirements specified for butt welds on a drawing using weld symbols. A closed butt joint is used in thick plate for keyhole welding processes such as laser or electron beam welding EBW. A square edged open butt joint is used for thinner plate up to 3mm thickness for arc welding in a single pass or in thick plate for welding processes such as electroslag welding. Square edge Square edge closed butt open butt Figure 2. Single-sided preparations are normally made on thinner materials or when access from both sides is restricted.
In a joint where both sides are bevelled the preparation is termed a V or vee preparation Figure 2. If there is access to both sides of the material then a double-sided edge preparation is used. Edge preparation design includes the bevel angle or included angle if both sides are bevelled and also the square edges root face and root gap.
Single and double edge preparations are shown in Figure 2. An alternative is a U preparation or J preparation if only one side has the edge preparation where the edge is machined into the shape of a U. Single-sided edge preparations are often used for thinner materials or when there is no access to the root of the weld pipelines. It is normal to use a bevel on the edges of the parent metal to be welded to allow access to the root for the first welding pass which is filled using fill passes.
J or U edge preparations also require a bevel angle and root face. Double-sided preparations are normally made on thicker materials or when access from both sides is unrestricted. Included angle Bevel angle Root face Gap Figure 2. This is used in thicker plate. V preparations are usually used for plate of mm thickness. If the included angle is too small there is a risk of lack of penetration or lack of sidewall fusion.
J and U preparations. The bevel angle must allow good access to the root and sufficient manipulation of the electrode to ensure good sidewall fusion Figure 2. In a single bevel joint the bevel angle might be increased to 45 degrees. High heat input processes require a larger root face but less weld metal which reduces distortions and increases productivity. This will depend on the welding process and heat input. Typical bevel angles are degrees in a V preparation 70 degrees included angle.
If the root gap is too wide or root face too narrow there is a risk of burn through. If the root gap is too narrow or root face is too deep there is a risk of lack of root penetration. Typical values for the root face are 1. If the included angle is too large then heavy distortions can result and more filler metal is required.
A balance must be found and designed for. The root gap and face are selected to ensure good root fusion Figure 2. If using gas-shielded processes then the size of the gas nozzle may limit the ability to use a J preparation for thick section material as it would be difficult to ensure good root fusion if the welding head could not access the bottom of the weld groove and a single bevel may be needed instead Figure 2.
If the components are to be joined by an arc welding process the selected bevels need to be adequately machined to allow the welding tool to access the root of the weld. This consideration would not apply for a procedure such as EBW as shown in Figure 2. Machining a J or U preparation can be slow and expensive. When using backing for aluminium welds any chemical cleaning reagents must be removed before assembling the joint. Separate from the design of the joint and weld access to weld locations and the order in which welds are made are important.
It is important to ensure that it is indeed possible to make welds as required by the drawing. Choosing between a J or U preparation and a bevel or V preparation is also determined by the costs or producing the edge preparation. Using this joint design also results in tighter tolerance which can be easier to set-up. Permanent backing bar rather than one removed after welding.
A bevel or V preparation can be flame or plasma cut fast and cheaply resulting in larger tolerances. A backing bar also gives a lower fatigue life. Backing bar or strip is used to ensure consistent root fusion and avoid burn through. J Double. Dependent on access Plasma and Electron Beam. Included angle Included angle Design. What determines welded joint design? Quality Quality Root penetration is guaranteed if backing is To ensure that root defects are minimised.
The smaller v is completed higher quality. Level of penetration Gas purging of pipes Small root face Large root face Full penetration Less penetration It is much easier to regulate the gas purge if the joint is closed. Distortion control Level of penetration Shrinkage Shrinkage Full penetration Partial penetration The U butt has significantly less liquid metal and a more even distribution of weld metal in the upper most regions than the V butt.
To compensate for loss in strength. Lap joint all other quality aspects. Fillet joint provide a much stronger joint when compared to a back c. The WPS shows all the In the case of a set on nozzle attachment which main barrel sections and dished end to barrel joints are full of the following joint preparations would be the penetration butt welds.
SAW welding would never be considered on any d. Open corner joint the root gap is greater than 3mm b. Single bevel butt joint gouged joint c. Which of the following The vessels main barrel thickness and dished preparations would be suitable when a full ends are 25mm wall thickness. SAW welding can be used from one side providing a.
Single bevel butt joint During the fabrication and welding your main b. SAW welding can be used from one side and would b.
Fillet joint concerns are distortion control. Would you agree with his suggestions? As long as there is access this would be d. Single V butt weld b. Question 4 Question 5 When considering distortion.
Raised heat input technique identification? Is this permitted in the main barrel section are in line with each accordance with TWI Specification? All options would produce the same amount compliant with the specification of distortion c.
The reduction in bevel angle may result in an a. The reduction in bevel angle would result in requalification of all the welders d. The reduction in bevel angle may result in a c. Back welds a. Double U but weld increase in distortion b. Single U butt weld greater risk of lack of fusion and would not be d.
Back skip welding the information is on both ends of the material d. Full penetration welds b. Which of the following barrel joints?
The TWI Specification makes no mention of specification this requirement d. Double V butt joints. Double U butt joints. Question 10 The fabricator wishes to reduce welding time and distortion on the longitudinal and circumferential welds.
Single V butt joints. Quality assurance comprises all the planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service will satisfy given requirements for quality.
Quality control describes the activities which monitor the quality of the product. These operational techniques include materials and dimensional checks. MD or Chief Executive of the company.
This framework generally comprises four tiers of documentation. The quality manual is usually the first indication a purchaser or prospective client has of a company's approach to quality.
This document should contain a statement of the company's total commitment to quality by means of a quality policy statement signed by the Chairman. A document setting out the general quality policies. The organisation structures. The quality manual and support procedures document an organisation's quality system. Quality control is described as the operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfil requirements for quality. This policy statement should be prominently displayed within the company.
Quality assurance therefore encompasses the plans and systems by which confidence in a product is provided. In order to satisfy this requirement. This can be achieved by planning and anticipating problems. This is best described as the fitness-for-purpose of a product.
In these circumstances. A procedure is not a detailed work instruction such as a welding procedure. Some contracts may well call for a combination of all three. It may comprise a project quality manual incorporating appropriate sections from the corporate quality manual which apply. Standards are normally used for the following purposes: A document that describes how an activity is to be performed and by whom.
Project procedures may include: It is generally a detailed document. A document setting out the specific quality practices. Quality records may also indicate the qualifications of personnel.
A quality plan is the corporate quality system suitably modified to reflect specific equipments. NDT results. Questions that need to be addressed include: This is achieved by auditing them and reviewing the results of the audit in order to implement any changes.
They are defined in BS Part 1 as: Systematic and independent examinations to determine whether quality activities and related results comply with planned arrangements and whether these arrangements are implemented effectively and are suitable to achieve objectives. Systems of control. The records and documentation generated by carrying out work in accordance with these systems provide the evidence that the systems are being followed by all.
Quality audits examine a quality system for adequacy and correct implementation. ISO requires the following elements of a business to have set procedures: In order to ensure that the systems are effective and being followed. Items to check in such an audit should include: For example. Auditing is carried out to provide objective evidence that the system is working in accordance with the procedures.
Remember that no job is finished until the paperwork is complete. There are two levels of audit: When an audit is complete the results are analysed by management who must ensure that the quality policy is satisfied and modify the quality system if necessary. It is perceived that these standards will serve as references for other application standards and be used as set criteria for the qualification of fabricators.
Customers will also frequently require access to carry out their own audits. There can often be a consequential financial penalty. Failure of a documentation audit carried out by a client will often result in a delay in payment. Standard quality system This standard can be applied where a documented quality system for the control of welding is required but will not be used in conjunction with ISO or Elementary system This standard provides criteria appropriate for the control of welding when either of the following applies: It is an increasingly common requirement for the fabricator to have a quality system compliant with ISO Quality requirements for welding.
This is to be specified as a condition of the customer contract. Part 4. Execution of steel structures. Guidance for use This describes how the standard works.
Comprehensive quality system This standard is suitable for use by a manufacturer or an assessment body. Fusion welding of metallic materials. Part 1. Unfired pressure vessels. Part 5. Part 3. Part 2. Railway applications — Welding of railway vehicles and components.
This approach offers a cascading qualification. The manufacturer should select one of the three parts specifying the different levels of quality requirements. Part 2 comprehensive also gives compliance for lower levels.
As previously stated. The technical knowledge required from the co- ordinator will obviously depend upon the complexity of the product. ISO defines these personnel and the technical knowledge that they require. This process. The IIW route is not mandatory. One or more personnel in a company may perform the welding co-ordination function. A company applying for certification to ISO will usually be required to complete the following stages: The standard defines three levels of knowledge and experience: It can be seen that the three levels of technical knowledge are defined to match with the three levels of quality requirements given in Parts of BS EN ISO In addition.
This activity is collectively known as validation. Where semi-automatic gas shielded processes are used. A requirement in many industries during the welding operation is the use of a calibrated meter s to check the welding current. One important point to note is the accuracy of meters and the repeatability of the machine's controls in relation to output performance. It follows that any equipment used in production.
Welding current connections and return leads on all arc welding equipment should be checked for tightness prior to commencing welding. The use of a written procedure for storage and handling of consumables is recommended and records of humidity and temperature may be required to be kept.
Typical examples would be: Such requirements are laid down in codes of practice and standards. A similar checking process is now widely practised in manufacturing and construction industries and inspection personnel will be involved in the carrying out of this operation. The latter may be international. Essentially all operations to be carried out within the organisation will have control procedures laid down.
Essentially what the QA manual sets out is how the company is organised. The QC manual will be the manual most often referred to by the SWI as it will spell out in detail how different departments and operations are organised and controlled. Company procedures are usually covered in quality manuals the scope of which may vary widely depending upon the size of company.
The manual usually covers all aspects of the company structure. In particular it will lay down how the Inspection function. Different types of audits may be performed: This is usually carried out to demonstrate the company has all the necessary facilities. However the contract specification may reference supporting codes and standards and the inspector should know where to access these normative documents.
Provides rules. The following is a list of definitions relating to codes and standards which the Inspector may come across whilst carrying inspection duties 4. An example of the latter case would be where a Senior Inspector is responsible for signing-off the data book or release certificate for a product.
A standard provides. The term normative document is generic and covers documents such as standards. After checking that all the necessary documents are in the package and that they have been correctly completed and approved where necessary. Normally the specification or more precisely the contract specification is the only document required. A specification could cover both physical and technical requirements ie visual inspection. Mechanical testing etc. Code of practice Document that recommends practices or procedures for the design.
A code of practice may be a standard. Procedure Specified way to carry out an activity or a process. Quality plan A document specifying which procedures and associated resources shall be applied by whom and when to a specific project.
Specifications are generally implied or obligatory. Applying the requirements of a standard. If in doubt the Inspector must always refer to a higher authority in order to avoid confusion and potential problems.
Confidence in applying the requirements of one or all of these documents to a specific application only comes with use over a period of time. Strength can be increased very cost effectively by retaining more carbon in the composition remember. Of all the alloying elements used in steels. To add to the confusion.
In a broad sense. Surprisingly though. Carbon is the single most important alloying element in steel and a wide range of properties is possible simply by changing its content. Carbon steel also called C-Mn steels. Many other elements can also be present in steels. A simplified terminology is used here which is widely used and is relevant to welding. AISI and carbon steels have target carbon contents of approximately 0.
As shown below.
Alloys specified based on element additions to increase hardenability to achieve designated strength. The microstructures of plain carbon steels are based around the thermodynamic equilibrium microstructures of ferrite and pearlite. Comparing with C-Mn steels however. In general. It has high strength and hardness but can be very brittle. This however comes at a cost. These are usually specified based on carbon content example.
Martensite is achieved with a sufficient level of carbon or other elements and a sufficiently rapid cooling rate. This is not always possible after welding and these steels require special precautions during welding to obtain good enough properties in the HAZ and to avoid hydrogen cracking.