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Classical myth by Barry B Powell · Classical myth. by Barry B Powell; Herbert Marshall Howe; Pearson. Print book. English. 8th ed., global ed. Boston [ etc.]. Classical Myth PDF eBook, Global Edition, 8/E. View larger Classical Myth, Global Edition, 8/E. Powell. ISBN • ISBN Classical Myth By Powell 4th Edition - [PDF] [EPUB] Classical Myth By Powell 4th Edition Free. Download Classical Myth By Powell 4th Edition.
Argument against the theory that myth derives from ritual. The same polarity is echoed in Greek social life. His story quickly becomes a description. And when it came time to create these. Achilles tries to persuade King Priam of Troy to eat at a time when Priam is heartbroken for his son Hector.
So the Harpies who rob Phineus of his food are really prostitutes who ruin young men through their high fees. This higher world is accessible to us through our minds. By virtue of that connection. We have already seen a crude example of it in the explanation of the story of Apollo and Daphne as exhorting young women to remain chaste.
Although Plato himself rejected traditional myths. An intellectual movement linked loosely to Platonism dealt with myth more positively and gently. Both myth itself and the various methods devised for interpreting it were part and parcel of the cultural heritage taken over by the church.
The moral truths are obvious: The material world. Augustine AD began as a dualist believer in two opposed principles. The cave. Although some church fathers rejected allegory on the ground that it was a way of holding onto pagan myth.
The increasing interest of neoplatonists in such allegories reflects an effort to rehabilitate myth and to establish its value for revealing higher truths in face of the growing threat from Christianity. The allegorical method whereby moral meanings were drawn from old stories was also applied extensively to the Bible. In the end Christianity swallowed neoplatonism: The interpretation is supported with typical etymological explanations: Euhemerism was a useful method of analysis for the Christians because it served to justify the authority of the church by proving that pagan religion was idolatry.
The ancient methods of interpretation lived on. Agave is insanity because she cut off her son's head. The myths were now known principally through handbooks.
The story of Daphne transformed into a laurel tree to escape the lustful Apollo is explained as an allegory for the moral that chastity. Ovide moralize "Ovid Moralized".
The story may also be understood as a botanical allegory the warmth of the sun. Interpretation had become more complex and important than the myths themselves.
On reading his account of some god. One of the most influential was the Mythologies of Fulgentius ful-jen-shus. Such material reappeared in other handbooks over the next centuries and for a long time made up the basic source of myths available in the West.
Such interpretations reached a wider public through Christian sermons. Allegory continued to focus on acceptable moral meanings. Odysseus' wanderings reflected those of the patriarchs. Myth had virtually become a language for talking about timeless truths. Atalanta was identified with "volatile" mercury. Accepting neoplatonic ideas about the relationship between matter and spirit.
Scholars gathered evidence intended to show that many details in Homer were muddled versions of events in the Old Testament. Together with such specialized esoteric texts. The Platonic conviction that myth contains profound symbolic truth concerning higher spiritual realms was attractive to Christian culture and led to a vogue for even more elaborate allegory that combined pagan and Christian elements.
The siege of Troy was explained as a recasting of Joshua's attack on Jericho. Building on a long tradition. Only those who earnestly sought the truth would not be put off by repulsive surface appearances. The golden apples that Hippomenes cast to slow Atalanta's flight are another ingredient retarding the process. Repeating arguments made earlier by the neoplatonists. The medieval and Renaissance alchemists.
As the institutional power of the church waned in response to political and social. Greek myth. Information about the cultures of the American Indians and other preliterate peoples coming in from missionaries or colonial administrators was a source for Fontenelle's ideas. Some scholars date the modern meaning of myth as a fanciful tale.
This view was unlike that of his contemporaries. Such information justified his distinguishing the "primitive" mind from the enlightened and his finding of parallels between the "primitive" cultures of his day and that of the early Greeks. In the next phase. Fontenelle shifted the emphasis of theory from interpreting myth to explaining the origin of myth.
We may also view the modern definition of myth as a "traditional tale" as a refinement of Fontenelle's approach. In the Age of Gods human activity is limited to a struggle for physical survival. Myth was rooted in the ignorance of humans living at earlier stages of cultural development.
Vico argued that history moves in great cycles. This radical. Instead of seeking deep. This seminal book paved the way for many of the central ideas of the Enlightenment. Fontenelle took a detached.
The first phase in each cycle is the Age of Gods. In our own cycle this was the period immediately after the flood. Because few things were so traditional as myth. Bernard Fontenelle's book De l'origine des fables. People live close to nature. From this phase comes the image of God and of gods as terrible and wrathful beings and what we in this book call "divine myth" for the categories of myth.
What was really needed. Vico avoided two common pitfalls associated with evolutionary schemes: He did not simply idealize preliterate culture. Excellent on allegorical interpretations in the ancient world and their transmission to the medieval world. This is why myth is so personal and dramatic. Survival of the Gods: Classical Mythology in Medieval Art Providence.
At that time language. The Greek Philosophers. Good on the postclassical uses of mythology. Surveys the use of allegory in the Renaissance. The earliest critics of traditional explanations of the world. Emerging social institutions are connected with personified gods and heroes about whom stories are told.
Vico's theory is one of the earliest of many efforts to understand myth as part of an all-embracing history of ideas. By recognizing that ways of thinking change fundamentally. Mysteriously Meant: Vico thought.
Myth originated in the earlier phases of culture. Philosophy arises in this phase. The Presocratic Philosophers: Lucid condensation of how philosophy emerged from myth in the Archaic and Classical Periods..
Based on an exhibition. Homer the Theologian: Scholarly description of how the Greek gods were recast and reinterpreted in European literature and art after the triumph of Christianity—the most useful book on this topic.
The Survival of the Pagan Gods: Introduction to Fontenelle. The counterview of myth as valid and understandable in its own terms. Whereas thinkers of the Enlightenment attacked myth as a product of primitive mental and emotional states.
Opposing the Enlightenment's confident rationalism. Both approaches are closely related. He interpreted all myth. The different mythologies of the Indo-European peoples are those colors. But whereas truth is ultimately rational and abstract. Beginning in the fourth millennium BC. Creuzer's explanation wa one of several to emerge from the great intellectual discovery of the IndoEuropeans in the late eighteenth century.
Most of what is known about them is inferred from a reconstruction of the language they spoke. Europe's colonies in the Americas. Most European languages except Basque. According to Creuzer. Especially the Greeks The spread of the Indo-European language family is one of the most remarkable events in the history of the human race.
As the Aryans— that is. Although we have no written record or other direct evidence for this longextinct hypothetical language. An explanation of how this could be. Creuzer thought. Such ideals were expressed mostly in poetry. According to Bachofen's explanation. On the other hand.
Much of his evidence for this claim came from classical myth.
Apollonian phase. The myth must. Although Bachofen described favorably the early "mother right. His scheme. The eminent Russian folklorist Vladimir Propp Another imaginative. In a later phase. All modern theories of a matriarchal phase in early human social development go back to Bachofen. According to Propp.
Friedrich Engels. Here the older. This is the same cosmic energy described as a thread of pearls in the Sanskrit classic. Myth was indeed. Technologically primitive communities still intact in Australia and the practices and beliefs of European peasants were sources of information.
Thus societies that represent earlier stages can exist. One of the most influential of these formulations was advanced by the British Edward Tylor. Myth and religion. Animism is the belief that everything has a soul. During the second half of the nineteenth century. From such studies emerged what is now called anthropology. A number of other theories were advanced about the primitive state through which all human societies must pass.
The model for the evolution of human societies was drawn from the biological evolution of a species. Tylor explained the "quaint fancies and wild legends of the lower tribes" in terms of an original stage that he called animistic.
Oedipus' age-mates reflect some early collective. Trained as a classicist. Sir James Frazer. If he broke a taboo. Greek Adonis. The king must die that the people might live. The stories of Phrygian Attis.
The origin of myth is thus closely tied to religious ritual. When his waning power threatened the well-being of the people. Before the duel could take place. Frazer attempted to account for much that we find in myths and religions worldwide.
As embodiment of a fertility or "corn"5 god. Frazer's celebrated book. With immense industry Frazer gathered evidence from all over the world. On the basis of this hypothetical primordial rite.
Because the old king must die. Egyptian Osiris. The king's life was hemmed in by an elaborate system of taboos. Frazer searched the world over for evidence of his thesis that the story of the golden bough is a late survival of a primordial human social and religious institution in which the King of the Wood embodied and ensured the fertility of the realm. Frazer started by inquiring into the ancient tradition that a "King of the Wood" ruled at Aricia.
These stories. Faced with examples of what seemed to be ethical monotheism among "savages. The King of the Wood. This is the ritual theory of myth. Frazer argued. The Golden Bough. To most scholars. It began as two volumes published in and reached twelve volumes in the edition. The propitiation of quasi human gods replaced coercion through magic.
Frazer wanted to formulate a comprehensive theory of cultural development. Europeans of the late nineteenth century were preoccupied by the concept of progress. This is the charter theory of myth. He integrated into his master scheme a vast body of data. Objecting to the evolutionary understanding of myth as protoscience.
Malinowski is usually considered the founder of functionalism. Influenced by French sociological thought. Frazer ignored the possibility that change may not always bring improvement. Like others influenced by evolutionary thought. Like writers on myth during the Enlightenment. Especially in England. Myth is not to be explained according to hypothetical patterns of cultural evolution at all.
When humans realized that magic was often ineffective. Frazer himself did no field work. According to Malinowski. Myth is associated especially with the religious phase of development because myth is characterized by a belief in personal forces that act in stories. In the twentieth century. To that end he replaced Tylor's animism with "magic. Malinowski held that its purpose was to serve as a "charter.
The theory was wittily parodied in a learned article by Andrew Lang that proved. Endymion "Diver". She fell deeply in love with him and bore him many children. In this he differed from his many predecessors in the long history of allegory. Because the Greek enduein originally meant "to dive. Like many ambitious theories of myth. Hence this method of interpretation is called solar mythology. Midas was the sun gilding everything it touches.
If it is possible to elucidate the origin. Muller's theory. It is easy to ridicule Muller's theories. The two were separated when Zeus allowed Endymion to choose anything he wanted: He chose to sleep forever.
The original meaning of enduein faded and was misunderstood to refer to a person. Solar mythology. We could thus infer the existence of an original Indo-European story about a man who sacrificed his hand for the good of all. Athena stands for the warrior class. The Norsemen. Because the three choices represent the three fundamental activities in Indo-European society: Hera stands for royal authority.
The first four kings. They seek a common "grammar. This story becomes a patriotic tale among the Romans. The division of the first function into rulers and priests is also reflected in myths about early Roman history.
Indo-European speakers like the Romans.
Creuzer had argued something similar. Such a grammar ought also to reveal something characteristic of Indo-European social traditions. Indo-European comparative mythologists maintain that myths accompany language as it is passed on. These classes are rulers and priests. It is striking how few traces of Indo-European culture we find among the Greeks.
Why does Hera attempt to bribe Paris with an offer of royal power. While biting off Tiu's hand. They do. The son wishes sexual contact with his mother. Freud formulated rules by which translation from symbolism in dreams to everyday reality takes place. An example in myth of dream condensation would be the mythical Centaurs. Sigmund Freud advanced a view of myth based in the individual rather than in society.
Freud thought. Freud also held that neuroses and their symbolic expression in dreams go back to the infant's experience of his or her personal sexuality. Sigmund Freud developed his notion that adult male psychology arises from the infant boy's sexual attraction to his mother and his hostility and jealousy toward his father. Freud's theories of myth began with his thinking about the dreams of individuals.
How do the dreams of individuals result in myths. Dreams are symptoms of psychological tensions that can affect the waking world of those suffering from mental disease. Sociology and anthropology led to functionalism. He emphasized the Oedipus complex. Displacement occurs when something in a dream stands for something quite different in the waking world.
At the time when anthropological approaches were developing. From this story. The mind of a sleeper works by different rules from the mind of the wakeful. Condensation and displacement are necessary to the dreamer because the true thought is morally or emotionally repugnant to the waking consciousness. Freud did not seek the origins of the legend in social history.
Because the thought is still there. The imagery of myths can therefore be translated into that of sex. Cronus castrated Uranus because sons wish to deprive their fathers of sexual power. Freud explained not merely how. Critics of Freud starkly complain that Freud's true intentions in his fantasies about human psychology were to denigrate human nature.
Freud saw myths as arising among a race in the way that dreams arise in the individual.
To make his point Freud ignored inconvenient parts of the legend. The myth of Oedipus. Only by overcoming such hidden. He resents the father's sexual demands on the mother. Freud says.
But like Max Muller. Mythical kings and queens represent parents. Critics have also asked whether Oedipus himself had an Oedipus complex. In Freudian interpretation. The individual's dreams reflect the same primitive mode of consciousness that we find in myth. He wishes to kill the father. Like Oedipus. Freud also ignores Oedipus' exposure as an infant and his great intelligence. His theory is yet another that connects the mythical with the primitive and the irrational.
A Freudian reading of myth is allegory in yet another guise. Into the bay swim. Like Freud. Although the source of individual consciousness and of life itself. Jung discerned a complex symbolism that both conceals the unconscious and. Most widely read is The Hero with a Thousand Faces. New York. The myth. The dragon represents the collective unconscious. In this sense myth can never be discarded from human life.
Erich Neumann used Jung's method to explain the common myth of the dragon-combat. At some point the monster may actually swallow the hero as the whale swallowed Jonah. Whether we know it or not. Jung did not believe. These are the archetypes a Greek term also used by neoplatonists. Campbell's works have limited value to scholars because of his failure to distinguish between myth and religion and because of his eagerness to find a central hidden meaning like so many before him in all myths from all cultures.
The mandata. The collective unconscious is also represented by the Great Mother goddess. The psychological truth represented by the hero's ultimate victory over the dragon is the emergence of personal identity. For him the consciousness of the individual is like a bay or an inlet on a great ocean of psychic activity.
For this reason.
Certain groups of archetypes may dominate the consciousness of entire cultures for periods of time. Although interesting. Jung spoke of such different archetypes as the Wise Old Man. Jung's theory resembles Eastern religious teachings in some respects. Structural relationships are often so subtle that they can be made clear only by means of diagrams. Far from confining himself to "traditional tales.
In this most rationalistic and abstract of theories. Although life and death are opposites. Because by nature we cannot tolerate opposition for which intermediaries do not exist. Our binary perception of the world derives. The hero's reward—princess or treasure—represents the devouring collective unconscious in a tamed-down form. Homer's Odyssey. The irreconcilable opposites are brought together by telling a story in which the same creature both generates and consumes his progeny. The combat myth is really a description of an individual's psychological destiny.
Because of this binary structure. The meaning of a story. Meaning in a traditional story is not conveyed by the content. Despite its obscurity. Hestia is the fixed point. Only then can one understand the conceptual universe of the Greeks.
According to Vernant. In this he follows the ancient tradition of commentators wishing to prove that secrets about human nature and human destiny are hidden in traditional tales. As an anthropologist. We can take as an example of their method their treatment of the Greek pantheon. Hermes represents transition. Thus Oedipus. The "overvaluation of blood relations is to their undervaluation as the attempt to escape autochthony is to the impossibility of succeeding in it.
More specifically. In spite of its limitations. The Thebans claimed to be autochthonous. Hestia and Hermes embody the contrary but complementary aspects of the Greeks' apprehension of space. Therefore the myth of Oedipus is said to bridge. These authors. The usual way of studying the pantheon is to examine each god in isolation. As Hestia is to Hermes.
An example of a cultural program of action can be found in the hunting practices of Paleolithic man. The same polarity is echoed in Greek social life. Cultural and historical context must always. Neither Hestia nor Hermes. The complexity of the enterprise points to both its possibilities and its hazards. To us this single concept is represented by the word space. Burkert insists. After killing an animal. Burkert accepts the importance of structure in the study of myth.
The In fact several words in Greek do roughly correspond to our space. Forced to kill his prey in order to survive. Burkert argues that the structures that inform myth reflect biological or cultural programs of actions. This program of action can explain details in the myth of the hunter Actaeon.
Interplay between details and larger patterns yields fascinating insights. The universal claims of structuralist theory. The woman stays at home. Reviving in part the ritual theory of myth. The existence of this constant. In one version of this myth. No doubt one reason that ancient hunters reconstructed their slain prey was to ensure.
His conviction that ancient hunters felt "guilty" about killing their prey is also open to criticism. The contextual approach to myth is complex.
Although hunters undoubtedly respect their prey. Such criticism must also work with literary material generated by and for males. But what validity do these systems of interpreting myth have for our understanding of myth. Feminist critics may also apply a contextual approach. Surely many ritual elements are reflected in Greek myth.
We cannot be mechanical. One cannot help but be impressed by the abiding fascination that the Greek mythical tradition has exercised over the human mind. Myth is one such alternative world.
If myth embodies the tensions. The grand theorizers about myth like to pick out this or that story. In the history of myth interpretation we can watch and study ever-changing intellectual fashions in relation to an unchanging body of material. Applied to the next myth. Modern psychological theories. With careful selection any theory will work well in particular instances.
Later methods have worked much the same way. Although the nineteenth-century theory of myth as a "disease of language" centering on natural phenomena was encouraged by scientific linguistics. We need to be aware that the scientific model of reality. The power of humanistic studies. The interchangeable use of the words myth the story itself and mythology reflection on myth in English usage unintentionally points to this critical confusion. But myths are so different from one another. They saw in myths allegories for philosophic descriptions of the physical world or.
The scope of Greek myth both invites and refutes the fatal tendency to comprehensive claims. The strength of science lies in defining ideas precisely and treating them within strictly controlled guidelines. A sketch of the history of myth interpretation turns out to be a sketch of the history of ideas. The New Golden Bough. No one method of analysis will dissolve the endless mysteries of classical myth.
Indo-European mythology. Gathers important essays by major scholars on myth interpretation. The place of the Grimms' collection in the Romantic movement. Discusses "five monolithic theories"—nature myths. Greek and Near Eastern mythology. The complexity of myth is bound up with the complexity of human consciousness itself and with the special role that the Greeks.. The Brothers Grimm and Their Critics.. Argument against the theory that myth derives from ritual.
To understand it. Essays on modern schools of myth interpretation. Gaster New York. Approaches to Greek Myth Baltimore. Sacred Narrative: Readings in the Theory of Myth Berkeley. A modern condensation of this seminal work. The Ritual Theory of Myth Berkeley. Interpretations of Greek Mythology London. Concise review of theories on the interpretation of myth.. Folktales and the Quest for Meanin Athens. A Symposium Bloomington. Structuralist essays by M.
Vidal-Naquet Cambridge. Religion and Society. Vernant and P. A classic. An important contribution to the "Paris School. Hull Princeton. Comparative Mythology Baltimore. Jung and his followers expound the theory of unconscious archetypes. Neumann analyzes the story of the dragon-combat in terms of unconscious archetypes.
Ereud London. Myth and Complex. Comparative Mythology: An Essay. An Introduction to Jung's Psychology. Writings from the "Paris School. Margaret Cook Chicago.. Man and His Symbols New York.. An up-to-date review of Indo-European elements in Greek myth. An introduction to Freud's thought for the beginner. A witty account of the rise and fall of Max Muller's theory of nature mythology. A student of Carl Jung.. Excellent presentation of the Straussian analysis of myth. The anthropologist sets forth his charter theory of myth.
Smythe Palmer London. The Origins and History of Consciousness. An expanded version of this book with many illustrations and selections from ancient literature. Major statement by a leading member of the "Paris School. Classical Myth. Volume 1 of his four-volume Mythologiques and a good introduction to his method and theories.
Lloyd New York. The Raw and the Cooked. An influential modern contribution to theoretical approaches to Greek mythology. Myth and Society in Ancient Greece. Weightman Chicago. They cannot be separated from the physical. A towering range. The Greek landscape is dominated by high mountains that occupy about three quarters of the land. Unlike the rich river valleys of Egypt and Mesopotamia. In this chapter we consider the background of the Greeks and. Its rivers are too small to be navigable.
Pindus is intersected by other ranges that cut across the peninsula. Between these ranges lies a series of small. Under high pressure. The olive. The pictures painted on these pots provide us with vivid illus-. The source for tin. Once fired. Important deposits of marble were found on Mount Pentelicus near Athens and on the islands of Naxos and Paros.
Greek civilization developed. There were a few deposits of silver one at Laurium in Attica contributed to Athenian economic and military power.
The Greeks did have access to excellent deposits of limestone and clay. Most iron had to be imported. Argos and Corinth. There was some gold in Thrace far in the north. As cultivable land was limited in Greece. Exquisitely decorated Greek pots that imitated precious exemplars in silver and gold now lost. Horses were also scarce.
Farther south. Wine grapes grew on vines planted on the slopes that surrounded the plains. On these small plains the ancient Greeks grew wheat and barley. Greece imported copper from Cyprus. The finest clay. All of these places figure importantly in Greek myth. To the northeast on the Balkan peninsula are the plains of Thessaly and Macedonia. Myths also reflect the fact that the Greeks were the greatest seafaring people of the ancient world together with the Semitic Phoenicians.
These peoples lived in settled. The geography of the Balkan peninsula influenced both the history and the myths of the Greeks. Many Greek legends told of the great deeds of these cities' founders and early rulers.
But perhaps the greatest Greek natural resource was the sea. From the Neolithic "New Stone" Age. The sea was also an avenue of communication with the world beyond the mountains that enclosed them. A mastery of the sea allowed them to transport goods to and from foreign lands. The extremely mountainous terrain discouraged communication by land and favored political independence. Several large islands dominate the others. Most of them lived near the sea and took from it the fish that was one of the staples of their diet.
There are two principal groups of islands: They exported wine. The paucity of cultivable land and natural resources led the Greeks to trade with other nations. Because of the islands scattered across the Aegean. From about the same time. The bull was important in their religious ritual. For the Indo-Europeans. The Origin of the Greeks We do not regard the inhabitants of the mainland during the Early and Middle Bronze Age as Greeks because their cultural traditions were very different from those of the people who eventually became known by that name.
As we have seen Chapter 3. The Minoan palaces were not encircled by defensive walls. We know nothing of their race or the language they spoke. They seem to have been modest farmers who worshiped goddesses of fertility believed able to increase the yield of their crops.
The exact date of the arrival of the Indo-European Greeks in the southern Balkans cannot be established. They also worshiped a goddess of fertility. Our evidence becomes richer with the advent of the Bronze Age around BC. From c. We are far better informed about the inhabitants of the island of Crete. Unlike the Minoan settlements. The kings and their retainers constituted a military and aristocratic elite. In the ruins we have found documents written in Greek in a nonalphabetic script called Linear B.
Immensely rich tombs from about BC prove its wealth and importance and provide a convenient date for the beginning of the Mycenaean Age. All these centers except Orchomenus figure prominently in Greek myth. Michael Ventris. Their greatest centers of power.
There were also a considerable number of Semitic words in Greek. Independent kings built impressive strongholds from which they supervised highly controlled and centralized. The basic vocabulary of Greek is derived from the hypothetical proto-Indo-European parent language.
About BC the Minoan civilization was destroyed and the palaces burned. Minoan art and religion made a deep impression on the Mycenaean Greeks and. Linear B. Pylos in Messenia. Mycenaean palaces were strongly fortified. Without the advantage of such. The palace was destroyed again aroundl BC by an unknown agency. Athens in Attica.
Hebrews who lived in the Near East. In the Mycenaean Age the Greeks were ruled by powerful kings. Sometimes non-Greek cities. Ventris proved that the writing consisted of about eighty nonalphabetic signs. Soon after BC. The Dorians. Later Greeks attributed this destruction to an invasion by Greekspeaking peoples from northwest Greece.
Greece sank into a Dark Age that lasted some years. Cnossus in Crete and Troy in Asia Minor. Most scholars associate the destruction of BC with the legend of the Trojan War although there is plenty of disagreement. Please visit our Technical Support site.
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