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This book is designed to provide information about the Troubleshooting and Maintaining Cisco. IP Networks (TSHOOT) exam for the CCNP Routing. % Valid and Newest Version Questions & Answers shared by Certleader Troubleshooting and Maintaining Cisco IP Networks (TSHOOT). PDF []. The Cisco Cisco Troubleshooting and Maintaining Cisco IP Networks (TSHOOT) Exam exam is an ultimate source for professionals to.

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of TSHOOT and a friend This routine can be hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, per quarter, or per. CCNP CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 Official. This book is designed to provide information about the Cisco CCNP SWITCH exam (). Activate CCNP Routing and Switching ROUTE Official. CCNP R&S TShoot pdf - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File . txt) or read book online.

When the impact on guests and guest services is minimal. Collects detailed information about device statistics c. If you do not know the answer to a question or are only partially sure of the answer. Time is valuable. Forgotten Enable Secret Password Issue 1: This would allow the troubleshooter to move on to the next step.

Based on the symptom reported. The problem seems to be related to a block of PCs. A computer lab at a university contains 48 PCs.

You will combine the dif- ferent methods to produce the most accurate picture possible. Spending more time on the important tasks can help reduce time spent on the urgent tasks for example. If the next-hop gateway is not reachable. As you can see from the analysis of the different methods.

Perhaps the switch has lost power resulting in this connectivity issue for the 24 PCs. It introduces us to standard network maintenance models. Because the 24 PCs are experiencing the same problem with- in a short time frame since yesterday.

This reactive approach is unavoidable. Defining Network Maintenance Network maintenance. It concludes by discussing several procedures that are a must for maintenance success. You could think of regularly scheduled tasks. The symptom seems to indicate that these 24 PCs might share a common switch.

This section begins by identifying several common network maintenance tasks that are seen in most organizations. If a previous troubleshooting method for example. You need to align your main- tenance tasks with your business needs. A structured maintenance approach also includes planning for future network capacity. Interrupt-driven tasks can never be completely eliminated. It reduces total network downtime because you are aware of problems and fix them before they become a major issue.

It may be your immediate attention. Time and money need to be spent wisely. Implementing a structured maintenance approach confers many benefits. Introduction to Troubleshooting and Network Maintenance 27 are necessary for the success of the business.

Proactive Versus Reactive Network Maintenance Network maintenance tasks can be categorized as one of the following: Performed as a predefined plan Interrupt-driven tasks are not planned.

Some examples of the tasks that fall under the umbrella of network maintenance are as follows: They result from something happening in the network that requires your attention.

It is more cost-effective because fewer major problems occur. If you do have an unplanned net- work outage interrupt-driven. Implement a change management system to alert relevant personnel of planned network changes.

Security vulnerabilities are more likely to be discovered through ongoing network monitoring. Well-Known Network Maintenance Models The subtleties of each network should be considered when constructing a structured net- work maintenance model.

As a result. Respond to incoming trouble tickets from the help desk. Example of Adapting a Network Maintenance Model The maintenance model you use in your network should reflect business drivers. Send an e-mail alert when processor utilization or bandwidth utilization exceeds a threshold of 80 percent. Configuration Require logging of any changes made to network hardware management or software configurations.

These phases are pre- pare. The following is a sampling of some of the more well-known maintenance models: FCAPS which stands for fault management. Once you choose the model. The Cisco Lifecycle Services maintenance model defines distinct phases in the life of a Cisco technology in a network. Table provides a sampling of tasks that might be categorized under each of the FCAPS management areas.

Use an authorization. Deploy appropriate quality of service QoS solutions to make the most efficient use of relatively limited WAN bandwidth. This routine can be hourly. In response to organizational changes. Routine Maintenance Tasks Regardless of the organization. Following is a listing of such common maintenance tasks: Businesses are dynamic environments.

Keeping track of what is being done on the network and when it is being done. By clearly outlining a maintenance methodology and defining actionable and measurable processes you can reduce network downtime and more effectively perform interrupt- driven tasks. Security management Deploy firewall.

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As you can see. Create a security policy dictating rules of acceptable network use. The key with all these tasks is that they are routine regardless of them being frequent. We cannot have a regular schedule for these types of tasks because they are infrequent and irregular. This sec- tion discusses common maintenance tasks that all organizations should be performing. Common Maintenance Procedures No two network maintenance models will be exactly the same. Managing Network Changes Making changes to a network often has the side effect of impacting the productivity of users relying on network resources.

After doing so. Through effective network moni- toring which might involve the collection and examination of log files or the imple- mentation of a high-end network management server. Other tasks can be scheduled. Some tasks will undoubtedly be urgent in nature and need a quick response when things go wrong for example.

New features are also commonly offered in software upgrades. As devices age. The collection and interpretation of traffic sta- tistics. By having such a schedule for routine maintenance tasks. Recovery from a major system failure can occur much quicker if network data and device configurations have been regularly backed up.

Scheduled Maintenance Take a moment and define the network maintenance tasks for your network. These processes are often referred to as moves. The updates often address perfor- mance issues and security vulnerabilities. These backups can also be useful in recovering important data that was deleted. Updates to operating system software for servers.

Some organizations have a formalized change management process. Of course. Those tasks need timely responses. When defining a change management system for your organization. Introduction to Troubleshooting and Network Maintenance 31 was installed to provide better security for a server farm. Other departments are then notified of this upcoming change. If a conflict is identified. Rather than taking a router down to upgrade its version of Cisco IOS during regular business hours.

The timing of network changes should also be considered. Making different organization areas aware of upcoming maintenance operations can also aid in reducing unforeseen problems associated with routine maintenance. While the specific components in a set of network documentation can vary. A classful IP address space either public or private might be subdivided within an organization. At a basic level. Keeping documentation current helps more effectively isolate problems when trouble- shooting.

For IPv6 the orga- nization might be manually assigning the interface ID to each device. These types of IP addressing specifications would be included in a set of network documentation. Circuit IDs for service pro- vider circuits might be included in this documentation. A logical topology diagram shows the interconnection Key Topic of network segments. The diagram reflects where various net- work components are physically located.

A listing of interconnections could be. Unlike a logical topology diagram. It is a good practice to name archival copies of previous configurations based on a certain format that makes sense to you. The hardware can be stored locally or it can be attainable through a supplier that can get you the device within a certain time based on a ser- vice level agreement SLA.

Planning and provisioning hardware and software for such outages before they occur can accelerate recovery time. Larger network environments often benefit from having step-by-step guidelines for troubleshooting a given network issue. Beyond having a backup of current configuration information.

To efficiently replace a failed or damaged device. Another network administrator within the same company configures Such a structured approach to troubleshooting helps ensure that all troubleshooting personnel use a common approach. Documents created during the initial design of a net- work might provide insight into why certain design decisions were made and how the original designers envisioned future network expansion.

Restoring Operations After a Failure Although most modern network hardware is very reliable. Aside from hardware failures. As a few examples. These older configurations could prove useful when attempting to roll back to a previous configuration state or when trying to duplicate a previous configuration in a new location.

These two approaches are not compatible. Although a net- work issue might be successfully resolved through various means. When a configuration change is made. With a copy of current configuration information. This example illustrates the criticality of having clear communication among IT personnel and a set of standardized procedures to ensure consistency in network configuration and troubleshooting practices.

During our coverage of the structured approach you might have noticed that documen- tation. Measuring Network Performance Network monitoring is a proactive approach to network maintenance. These statistics can forecast future issues. It is ideal to have a backup of the configuration files on a server in the organization. You do not want to be caught in a situation where you have no information related to the configuration of a device being restored. The Troubleshooting and Network Maintenance Relationship A structured troubleshooting approach provides step-by-step processes that offer a repeatable consistent plan that makes the troubleshooter more efficient and effective.

What happens if someone neglects to update the documentation or baselines based on changes that may have occurred during scheduled maintenance or some past issue?

What happens if we have difficulty communicating with others or they withhold information from us? These assets become liabilities as they are unable to address the question: What should be occurring in the network? As you have seen. When a failure happens. All of these are fundamental assets to your success as a troubleshooter.

Although you can get this from the manufacturer such as Cisco. Following are a few suggestions to help troubleshooters keep in mind the need to document their steps: By making documentation a component in the trouble- Key shooting flow. This knowledge often motivates troubleshooters to perform some level of documentation for exam- ple.

Maintaining Current Network Documentation A set of maintained network documentation can dramatically improve the efficiency of troubleshooting efforts. To assist with the auto- mation of backups. A structured maintenance plan could include a component that routinely requires verification of network documentation and when it was last updated based on timestamps.

Introduction to Troubleshooting and Network Maintenance 35 This interrelationship between maintenance and troubleshooting suggests that the effec- tiveness of your troubleshooting efforts is influenced by the effectiveness of your routine network management tasks.

Because manual checks of documentation might not be feasible in larger environments.

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The lack of follow-through when it comes to documenting what happened during a troubleshooting scenario is understandable. Because these tasks are so interrelated. Such a scenario is often worse than not having documentation at all.

Any difference in the configurations indicates that someone failed to update the backup configuration of a device after making a configuration change to that device. Although few argue with the criticality of maintaining current documentation. A danger with relying on documentation is that if the documentation is dated not main- tained. To determine what should be happening on the network. Collect information Some information collected might come from other parties for example.

Table describes how communication plays a role in each troubleshooting phase. Communication Each of the troubleshooting steps outlined in the structured approach requires clear com- munication.

As shown in Example Clearly communicating with those other parties helps ensure collection of the proper data. When troubleshooting a performance problem on a router. Introduction to Troubleshooting and Network Maintenance 37 Troubleshooting Steps The Role of Communication Examine collected information Because a troubleshooter is often not fully aware of all aspects of a network.

Last week. After clearly defining the problem. This consultation could provide insight leading to the elimination of a potential cause. This morning. Verify hypothesis Temporary network interruptions often occur when verifying an hypothesis. Because these troubleshooters might be focused on different tasks at different times.

As a side benefit. The process of change management includes using policies that dictate rules regarding how and when a change can be made and how that change is documented. Problem resolution After a problem is resolved. Change Management Managing when changes can be made and by whose authority helps minimize network downtime. Consider the following scenario. Eliminate potential causes The elimination of potential causes might involve consultation with others.

The previous scenario is an excellent example of how following a structured trouble- shooting approach. Even though the user was unaware of any changes. Chapter Table lists a reference of these key topics and the page num- bers on which each is found.

Cisco Lifecycle Services. Review All Key Topics Review the most important topics in this chapter. This sec- tion focuses on how to use the CLI to collect infor- mation for troubleshooting and maintenance.

This section reviews the ping. This section introduces you to the essential tools for troubleshooting and maintenance tasks. This sec- tion focuses on the steps and commands required to successfully document a network diagram.

This chapter introduces you to a sampling of Cisco IOS tools and features designed for network maintenance and troubleshooting. To be an efficient and effective trouble- shooter.

There is no argument that you will be collecting network information when there is an issue. Operating system and application software along with any applicable licensing for the device 2. Physical topology c. Backup of device configuration information b. Vlog c. Which three of the following are components that would be most useful when recov- ering from a network equipment outage? Blog b. Baseline information collection c. The types of information collection used in troubleshooting fall into which three broad categories?

Wiki d. Network event information collection 3. Podcast 4. Which of the following would be appropriate for a collaborative web-based docu- mentation solution? Troubleshooting information collection b. QoS information collection d.

Duplicate hardware d. IPS 6. Which of the following is the ping response to a transmitted ICMP echo datagram that needed to be fragmented when fragmentation was not permitted? Which of the following is a Cisco IOS technology that uses a collector to take data from monitored devices and present graphs.

NetFlow c. Which two of the following are characteristics of the NetFlow feature? Choose the two best answers. Collects detailed information about device statistics c.

Which command enables you to determine whether a routing loop exists? NBAR b. Collects detailed information about traffic flows b. Which command can be used to determine whether transport layer connectivity is functioning?

Uses a pull model d. Chapter 2: Troubleshooting and Maintenance Tools 43 5. Uses a push model 7. QDM d. What feature available on Cisco Catalyst switches enables you to connect a network monitor to a port on one switch to monitor traffic flowing through a port on a dif- ferent switch? SPAN c. RSTP b. What IOS command enables you to discover the Cisco devices that are directly con- nected to other Cisco devices? SPRT RSPAN d. If you look closely. Specialized maintenance and troubleshooting tools help a troubleshooter implement his fix for an issue.

The collection of information when troubleshooting a problem can often be made more efficient through the use of specialized maintenance and troubleshooting tools. As troubleshooters investigate the information they collected during the troubleshooting process. This information provides a frame of reference against which other data can be compared when we are troubleshooting an issue. Chapter 1. This is the information collected when the network is operating normally. Several of these steps involve the use of tools that will help gather.

By proactively monitoring network devices with specialized report- ing tools. This is the information collected while Key troubleshooting an issue that was either reported by a user or a network manage- Topic ment station NMS.

A relation- ship exists between the two. They can then contrast that normal behavior against what they are observing in their collected data. Specialized maintenance tools can be used in a network to collect baseline data on an ongoing basis so that it is available and current when needed.

A popu- lar example of a wiki is Wikipedia http: At From the Library of Outcast Outcast. Get free trials and work with them for a while. Because such a tight relationship exists between troubleshooting and network mainte- nance. Network Documentation Tools It is fitting that we start this chapter with a discussion on network documentation tools.

Just because it was reported in the past and already had a resolution does not mean you can skip the documentation process. This section focuses on tools that are necessary for trou- bleshooting and maintenance tasks. Many solutions are available on the market. The true power of documentation is seen during the troubleshooting process.

The big reason is time. To keep the documentation current is a chal- lenge for most people. Shop around and communicate with the vendors to see what they have to offer you and your business needs. That is the only way you will be able to determine whether the product will work for you. The features you want the tool to provide will determine the overall cost.

At some point. A couple of documentation management system examples are as follows: Several software applications are available for recording. During the troubleshooting process. A wiki can act as a web-based collaborative documentation platform. This is the information collected when our devices automatically generate alerts in response to specific conditions for example. This type of wiki technology can also be used on your local network to maintain a central repository for documentation that is both easy to access and easy to update.

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These alerts can be simple notification messages or emergency messages. Chapter 1 discussed the importance of network documentation. These applications are often referred to as help desk applications. Troubleshooting and Maintenance Tools 47 some point. External servers for example. Basic Tools Troubleshooting and network maintenance tools often range in expense from free to tens of thousands of dollars. Regardless of budget. You need to select tools that balance your troubleshooting and maintenance needs while meeting your budgetary constraints.

To illustrate. The debug command can provide real-time infor- mation about router or switch processes. The focus of this book is on those show and debug CLI commands that will assist us in solving trouble tickets. Depending on your network device. Figure provides a sample of the CCP home page. If you intend to routinely copy backups to an FTP server.

Destination filename [r1-confg]? Writing r1-confg! Compare this to the FTP configuration commands and notice the differ- ence. R1 config ip http client username cisco R1 config ip http client password cisco R1 config end From the Library of Outcast Outcast. Notice that the login credentials that is. In a production environment. Example illustrates a router configured to back up the running configuration every minutes to an FTP server with an IP address of You can view the files stored in a configuration archive by issuing the show archive com- mand.

The next archive file will be named ftp: Most Recent 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 The output of show archive indicates that the maximum configurations allowed is ten.

R1 show archive The maximum archive configurations allowed is If the archive list on the router fills up maximum ten. Troubleshooting and Maintenance Tools 51 Example shows the execution of the copy run start command.

The show archive com- mand is then reissued. This is not entirely true. Example Confirming Archive Configuration R1 copy run start Destination filename [startup-config]?

Building configuration. Note that this does not delete anything from the FTP server. Because the path is pointing to an FTP server. Only the entry in show archive is removed to make space in the list. Interfaces that were enabled do not have a no shutdown command in the startup configuration. This merge is easily witnessed with the interfaces.

Restoring a configuration backup requires copying the configuration file from its storage Key location to the running configuration on the router or switch. The Cisco IOS copy com- Topic mand treats this as a merge operation instead of a copy and replace operation. To fix this. This is illustrated in Example We can witness this with the password recovery process on a Cisco router. This means that copying anything into the running configuration from any source might not produce the result we desire..

R1 show start. Most Recent However. Once the startup configuration is copied to merged with the running configuration. You can change the maximum number of archives with the maximum command in config-archive configuration mode. During this process. In this case. Enter Y if you are sure you want to proceed. Y Loading R1-config-3! R1 On the bright side. For exam- ple.

Example Restoring an Archived Configuration Router configure replace ftp: Notice how the IOS warns you that this is a copy replace function that completely overwrites the current configuration. Example shows the restora- tion of an archived configuration to a router. Unlike the copy command. In most cases. If you are connected to a router through Telnet or SSH and want to see console messages.

By sending log messages to an external server. By default. Logging severity levels range from 0 to 7. You can also specify the severity level by name instead of number. As part of that command. Depending on the syslog server software. If you need to clear the logging messages in the buffer.

Notice that lower severity levels are more severe than those with higher levels. You can view the logging messages in the buffer by issuing the show logging command. After the buffer fills to capacity. A downside of solely relying on console messages is that those messages can scroll off the screen.

Another logging option is to log messages to an external syslog server. Example illustrates several of the logging configurations discussed here. The console is configured for logging events of the same severity level. Figure shows logging messages being collected by a Kiwi Syslog Server available from http: In Example The router can use a maximum of bytes of RAM for the buffered logging. This buffer can be viewed with the show logging com- mand..

Stratum 1 time sources are the most reliable and accurate. Example shows an NTP configuration entered on a router located in the eastern Key time zone. NTP will decide based on its protocol which is the most reliable. This implies that devices need to have a common point of reference for their time. In this example. Naval Observatory in Washington. Although you could individually set the clock on each of your devices.

Time-stamp accuracy is paramount when it comes to troubleshooting. Users are complain- ing that the network is slow at 5: The ntp server command is used to point to an NTP server. The problem ticket indicates that this happens every day. Is that really 2: You have just been assigned a trouble ticket. In such cases. Note that a configuration can have more than one ntp server command. You are browsing the logs to see whether anything abnormal is occurring on the network at that time.

The Topic clock summer-time command defines when daylight savings time begins and ends. You might have heard the saying that a man with one watch always knows what time it is. Reasons to monitor network traffic include the following: If you work for a service provider or are a cus- tomer of a service provider. You can then take the necessary measures to address them proactively before they become a major issue. In these instances. Advanced Tools Keeping an eye on network traffic patterns and performance metrics can help you antici- pate problems before they occur.

Performance issues can be difficult to trouble- shoot in the absence of a baseline. Monitoring resource utilization on your network for example. Because it is based on a hierarchy. By routinely monitoring network performance. This is in contrast to taking a reactive stance where you continually respond to problem reports as they occur. Several companies market NetFlow collectors. You need advanced tools to proactively monitor the health of your devices and the health of your network traffic.

Stratum 1 is the most reliable. Troubleshooting and Maintenance Tools 57 NTP uses a hierarchy of time servers based on stratum levels from 1 to Figure shows a topology using SNMP. For the NMS to change the information on the managed device. Table contrasts these two technologies. In the topology. To enhance the security available with SNMPv2c.

SNMP is primarily focused on device sta- tistics the health of a device. These statistics can be used. Before SNMPv3. This consistency is important when data is being collected for baselin- ing purposes. In addi- tion. A flow is a series of packets.

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NetFlow can keep track of the number of packets and bytes observed in each flow. Only NMSs permitted in access list 10 and 11 will be able to read. Contact and location information for the device is also specified. You can use the NetFlow feature as a standalone feature on an individual router. Flow information is removed from a flow cache if the flow is terminated.

Such a standalone configuration might prove useful for troubleshooting because you can observe flows being created as packets enter a router. After the NetFlow collector has received flow information over a period of time.

Figure shows a sample topology in which NetFlow is enabled on router R4. This command ensures that the SNMP interface index stays consistent during data collection. This information is stored in a flow cache. Because NetFlow does not have a standardized port number.

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Although not required. You should check the documentation for your NetFlow collector software to confirm which version to configure. The ip flow-export source lo 0 command indicates that all communication between router R4 and the NetFlow collec- tor will be via interface Loopback 0.

A NetFlow Version of 5 was specified. This ensures that all flows passing through the router. Although an external NetFlow collector is valuable for longer-term flow analysis and can provide detailed graphs and charts.

A troubleshooter can look at the output displayed in Example and be able to confirm. Troubleshooting and Maintenance Tools 61 R4 config-if exit R4 config ip flow-export source lo 0 R4 config ip flow-export version 5 R4 config ip flow-export destination If you only need to enable specific traps. These messages. These traps require the NMS to interpret them because they are not in an easy.

Although these protocols by themselves lack a mechanism to alert a network administra- tor for example. The Key snmp-server host You can view the enabled traps by using the show run include traps command. If an interface goes down. The redundant link can then be repaired. Both syslog and SNMP are protocols that can report the occurrence of specific events on a network device. The snmp-server enable traps command is used to enable all traps on the router..

The event command specifies what you are looking for in your custom-defined event. From this short list. The message reminds the administrator to update the network documentation and lists the rationale for clearing the interface counters.

Notice that entering the clear counters command triggers the custom-defined event. In response to a defined event. EEM can perform various actions. The action command is then entered to indicate what should be done in response to the defined event. To illustrate the basic configuration steps involved in configuring an EEM applet. The specific action to be taken is producing this informational message saying: Please update network documentation to record why the counters were reset.

SNMP trap. Note that the clear counters command would be detected even if a shortcut for example. Although this is a rather large collection of predefined messages and should accommodate most network management requirements. An event can be defined and triggered based on a sys- log message. To verify the operation of the EEM configuration presented in Example The skip no param- eter says that the CLI command will not be skipped that is.

Example Basic ping Command R1 ping This section discusses how ping. Three easy-to-use tools built in to the Cisco IOS can help you verify connectivity and further define the problem.

Some relatively simple tasks can confirm the issue reported and in most cases help to focus your troubleshooting efforts. R4 Cisco Support Tools Cisco has several other configuration. They are ping. If it is unsuccessful. Sending 5. The ping command does have several options that can prove useful during troubleshoot- ing.

Ping A common command. If you recall from Chapter 1. The same holds true in reverse with an unsuccessful ping. For every ICMP echo reply received from that specified desti- nation. The router did not wait before considering the ping to have failed and sending another ICMP echo message For example! These failures occurred because of the 0-second timeout Perhaps you suspect that an interface has a nondefault maximum transmission unit MTU size You can also use the ping command to create a load on the network to troubleshoot the network under heavy use..

Notice the M in the ping responses For example From the Library of Outcast Outcast.. Notice that all the pings failed To ver- ify your suspicion Traffic flowing across one path is successful Example shows the sending of pings with the do not fragment bit set Sending The df-bit option instructs a router to drop this datagram rather than fragmenting it if fragmentation is required Packet sent with the DF bit set M.

The extended ping feature enables you to granularly customize your pings. Consider Example M The challenge is how to determine the nondefault MTU size without multiple manual attempts.

This invokes the extended ping feature. Packet sent with the DF bit set!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Sweep range of sizes [n]: Type escape sequence to abort. Timeout in seconds [2]: Extended commands [n]: Type of service [0]: Set DF bit in IP header?

Data pattern [0xABCD]: An extended ping can help with such a scenario. Target IP address: This command causes router R1 to attempt a TCP connection with Such an approach might prove useful if you are using a divide-and-conquer approach. The telnet command is useful for troubleshooting Layer 4 that is. Example displays the output of a successful trace to the router that has the IP address Troubleshooting and Maintenance Tools 67 Telnet As you just read. The response of Open indicates that The second valuable piece of information is the path that the trace took through the network.

The result of using Telnet to test the transport layer shows that port 25 is not responding on the mail server as shown in Example The mail server uses SMTP port This is something that the ping command does not provide. Telnet uses TCP port The first is verified connectivity. If the trace completes successfully.

If you see a repeating pattern of IP addresses in the output of traceroute for example. Tracing the route to Because the collection of information can be one of the most time-consuming of the troubleshooting processes. We then use traceroute to get a better picture of where this ping is failing so we can focus our attention around that part of the network.

Time is valuable. I choose the magnet. Would you prefer to search for the needle in a haystack by moving one piece of straw at a time.

You do not want to spend your time looking for the needle in a haystack. Filtering the Output of show Commands Cisco IOS offers multiple show commands and debug commands that are useful for gath- ering information.

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Also included in this section are com- mands helpful in diagnosing connectivity and hardware issues. The output from the show processes cpu command generated approximately lines of output. Troubleshooting and Maintenance Tools 69 IOS commands useful in gathering information and discusses the filtering of irrelevant information from the output of those commands.

Because you know that the content of the one line you are looking for contains the text Check heaps. Consider the output shown in Example Throughout this book. The piping of the output causes the output to be filtered to only include lines that include the text Check heaps.

Similar to piping output to the include option. This type of filtering can help trouble- shooters more quickly find the data they are looking for. The exclude option can display all lines of the output except lines con- taining the string you specify.

If you go back to Example This allows you to place in descend- ing order those processes that are consuming the most CPU resources. Example Filtering the show processes cpu Command Output R1 show processes cpu include Check heaps 5 1. Now those interesting values have meaning because the column headers are included. If you want to only view information pertaining to interfaces with assigned IP addresses.

Example Filtering Output from the show running-config Command Using begin R1 show running-config begin router router eigrp network Piping the output of the show running-config command to begin router.

As stated earlier. Loopback0 O IS-IS level-2 ia. IS-IS summary. IS-IS level OSPF external type 1. Because we are trying to find a specific section in this case OSPF in the running configuration. Another command that often generates a lengthy output. R2 does not know how to reach the tunnel destination. The tunnel keep alive timer doesn't match on R1 and R2. Loopback IP address B. Serial IP address C. Fastethernet IP address Answer: The state of the tunnel interface is continuously oscillating between up and down.

What is the best solution to this problem? Create a more specific static route to define how to reach the remote router. Create a more specific ARP entry to define how to reach the remote router. Save the configuration and reload the router. Check whether the internet service provider link is stable.

Last edited: Mar 27, CEF should be enabled. CEF should be disabled. Packet with source 0. What is the problem? Implement dynamic routing in tunnel interfaces B. ACLs are blocking packets Answer: Which protocol needs to be allowed through on the firewall?

Create a firewall rule to allow IP protocol GRE B. Server-client B. Peer-to-peer C. Headend D. Backend Answer: The source interface is administrative shutdown.

The tunnel destination interface is flapping, which causes the tunnel to go up and down. The tunnel is configured with the wrong encapsulation. The tunnel destination is intermittently reachable via multiple routing protocols Answer: Joined Mar 4, Messages 48 Reaction score 5 Points 8.

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