Data from The Aluminum Association, Structural Design Manual, Note: All properties are in ksi. TS is tensile strength, YS is yield strength, and US is. DESIGN MANUAL. Nashville, tN / November , “Excellent course for anyone involved in aluminum design.” – Shane Davis, Status One. Aluminium Design Manual - The Aluminium Association - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. The Specification for.
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The Aluminum Design Manual includes an aluminum structural design The Aluminum Design Manual is offered as a guideline only and The. If so, you can't be without the Aluminum Design Manual -- an indispensable guide for anyone designing load-bearing structures using aluminum. Aluminum Design Manual Contents. The Aluminum Design Manual (ADM) provides aluminum structural design tools. Part I – Specification for Aluminum.
The ordi- nate in this figure is a rearrangement of Equation H. For sheet and plate. The determi. Light Tubes loaded in torsion are not as sensitive to the effect of initial imperfections in the geometry as are tubes loaded in axial compression. Heating conditions within an enclosure.
US units The Specification for Aluminum Structures is the first unified allowable strength design and load and resistance factor design aluminum Specification. It provides rules for determining the strength of aluminum structural components and minimum strengths for wrought, cast, and welded aluminum alloys and aluminum fasteners; Commentary: US units addresses structural design issues not included in the Specification for Aluminum Structures, including diaphragms, adhesive bonded joints, aluminum composite material, extrusion design, corrosion prevention, fire protection, sustainability, and design references for aluminum structural components in automobiles, bridges, rail cars, ships, pressure vessels, pipe, and storage tanks; Material Properties: US and SI units includes alloy and temper designation systems for wrought and cast aluminum alloys; comparative characteristics of wrought alloys; foreign alloy designations correlated with US alloy designations; and typical mechanical and physical properties, including thermal expansion, electrical conductivity, and density ; Section Properties: US units lists dimensions and section properties for aluminum channels, I-beams, angles, tees, zees, square and rectangular tube, round tube, pipe, and roofing and siding, as well as sheet metal and wire gauges; Design Aids: US units provides buckling constants, allowable stress tables for various alloys, allowable load tables for channels and I-beams in bending, tread plate, roofing and siding; fastener strengths, minimum bend radii for aluminum sheet and plate, wire, and rod, design stresses for groove and fillet welds, and beam formulas; Illustrative Design Examples: US units includes structural design calculation examples based on the Specification for Aluminum Structures.
Includes editorial changes - November, The strengths This Specification addresses only aluminum screws. Standards and Data Table 6. Standards for Aluminum Sand and Perma. Inspection Level 2 requires A.
Strengths given in Table A. This Specification addresses only aluminum rivets. Kaufman Figure 5. An example of a strength limit the sum of J for the open parts and J for the closed parts.
Formulas for calculating section proper- For building-type structures. For example. Specifications for Structural Supports for Highway Signs.
Resistance factors are less than or equal to 1. ASCE 7 Section 2. An example of a serviceability limit state is a deflection beyond which the c For shapes containing open parts and closed parts. The design strength fRn is the product of the resistance factor f and the nominal strength Rn.
The torsion constant J may be determined as follows: J is structure is unfit for service. Figure CB. The basis for load and resistance factor design is given by Ellingwood. The resistance of the struc- Figure CB. This is because safety or resistance factors account for the fact that actual dimen- sions may be less than nominal dimensions.
To do so. In Figure B. An out-of-straightness factor has not been applied LRFD. His The safety factor for column local buckling has been work is summarized in Tables CB. The stress-strain curve for arti- Solving for f ficially aged tempers those beginning with T5. This fore. Because a column out-of-straightness factor of 0.
The reli. This probability is a function of the difference between mean matches the AISC Specification for rupture and other value of the resistance and the mean value of the load effect member limit states. Parameters are: Table CB. Limit states are: Kim provided the method used in this Section for c Tapered thickness elements supported on both edges Fig- determining the slenderness ratio for members that have ure CB.
For The mid-thickness radius of curved elements is used to such elements. The tapered flanges of American Standard channels in heat-treatable alloys has a strength slightly less than the and American Standard I beams meet this criterion.
For this reason. The slenderness ratio can be approximated Figure CB. For B. The elastic buckling analysis by Sharp shows B. The provisions in this Section are based on Sharp Although some post-buckling strength may exist. Once the slenderness ratio has been determined. In columns buckling about a principal axis that is not an Stiffening bulbs and other complex shapes may provide axis of symmetry for example. The strength of elements with The denominator in each of Equations B.
Galambos Figure 4. The weld-affected zone for transverse welds that supported on both longitudinal edges Ra. Ra is greater than 6t. Simple support is assumed for all elements. Kim showed that Section B. Since elastic local buckling stresses January II The equivalent slenderness ratio Strengths determined using the provisions of this Sec.
The buckling strength of actual shells. Sections B. The zone. The resulting a more accurate assessment of element support conditions strength of the web is based on Bleich The effect of imperfections Section B. The coefficients in the formula for inelastic buckling When Section F. Tests indicate that this effect tends supported edge. Further study is required to and B.
This is the optimum location for Section B. When the neutral axis is at the the strength of a stiffened element need not be limited to the mid-height of the element.
Compression Edge Free B. The stiff- can be used to determine the compressive strength. The factor a accounts for the tion B. The equivalent slenderness ratio however. The coefficients in the formula for inelastic buckling strength are assumed to be the same as for solid rectangu- B. The elastic local buckling stress Fe for elements sup. Postbuckling strength is used in Sections B. This inter- of elastic local buckling stresses is provided in Chapter B.
When the stiffener B. Section C. Geometric imperfections could also be accounted for Bracing requirements given in Appendix 6 do not apply by applying equivalent notional loads to the structure to bracing that is included in the structural analysis per- that are a fraction of the gravity loads for nominally ver.
Since the Specifi. P-d effects must be cult to properly determine effective lengths. This can be addressed by using 0.
Most structural analysis programs that purport to the effective length method is appropriate. The 0. To determine if a program properly place of E in the analysis. The reason for factoring ASD loads by 1. This can be addressed by C. To produce the same overall result cation for Aluminum Structures does not establish erec. For ASD allowable stresses. The five factors listed in Section C. LRFD load level. To determine the eccentricities: Design- on the net section is not a limit state.
Yielding at a trans- verse weld is not a limit state. Hill and Brungraber showed c For angles connected only by one leg. Transverse the effect of the eccentricity is accounted for in the net effec- welds are welds with an axis perpendicular to the mem.
The of load. In Figure CD. This is accounted for by using the net effec- from yielding across the net section is small. For I beams connected only by gitudinally welded members is weld affected. The strength their flanges Figure CD. The eccentricity is the distance per- Figures CD. The eccentricity in member axis. A possible approach in this instance is to use tion and 1.
The eccentric- ity in the other direction is determined from a section D. If the entire cross section of the member is weld. The the weighted average thickness weighted by the length of the corresponding safety factors for bridge structures are 1. Usually only part of the cross section of lon. The net section area for the bar shown in Figure the fastener closest to the unconnected leg to the neutral CD.
This is because the net section stress distribution across the section at the connection for usually exists over only a short portion of the overall length angles. Figure CD. For sheet and plate. Chapuis and Galambos addressed the effective For point-symmetric sections such as cruciforms. For extrusions. The equivalent slender- E. Sharp are approximately the same. This is addressed in Section B. In the Specification. Since the flatness the buckling strength.
Such columns are sometimes Because column member buckling strength E. Sharp showed that has essentially the same strength as that for the perfectly the member buckling strength equations of Section E. Because the Specification includes the 0. Unlike member buckling. AISC addresses out-of-straightness in steel column member buck.
Sharp Figure 7. The effect of welding on element of a member is the sum of the local buckling strength of the strength is addressed in Section E. Transverse welds not at the ends of a column supported on both ends or in a cantilever column may appreciably decrease the member buckling strength.
Section E. Sharp showed that Section B. If a column has both longitudinal and transverse welds. Sharp devel- oped the strength equation given in Section E. Sharp showed E. These values can be quite conservative for test specimens ranged from 0.
The compressive strength of portions of a column at the intersection of elements for example. To account for the reduction in strength in Brungraber and Clark investigated the strength of the weld-affected zone. More research is needed to establish accurate design the reduced stiffness that accompanies local buckling may rules for circumferentially welded.
Compressive tests determine the strength in such cases. The flatness tolerance for the other shapes. Apparently the circumferential welds can elements may buckle elastically without causing failure of cause more severe geometric imperfections in the thin- the member. Inflection points are not brace points. For this reason rational analysis must be of the effect of bracing the tension flange.
Using must also be checked at the location where the smaller ry is very conservative for moderate and high slenderness flange is subjected to its maximum compression.
The formulas of Section F. A simple span beam restrained against movement lat- and F. For continuous beams there are no directly derived val- Winter showed a method for taking advantage ues of C1 and C2.
He derived the used in estimating the values of these coefficients for such elastic critical moment Me for pure bending for a singly applications.
The unconservative cases arise if the rate bending strengths for these cases. In the inelastic stress range the lateral-torsional buck- F.
This strength increase can be accounted for by erally and vertically at the supports. Cb should be taken calculations using rye shows that using rye is conservative. Cb is also to be taken as 1. If the moment varies over the Clark and Hill determined the lateral-torsional unbraced length. In equation CF. Because of this approximation. If the free end of a cantilever is torsionally braced. Tests have shown this curve to be conserva- between brace points. To compute more accu- Kitipornchai The when the unbraced length is factored by a ky less than 1.
It can be shown that for loading as shown in Figure CF. A Kirby and Nethercot If the distrib. Use the same equation between about the bending axis. Selection of the proper equation for rye is illustrated by Figure CF. The approximation may ally with the beam if it should buckle. At point B for both beams. Figure CF.
Use the same equation for point A if the distributed load is applied at the level of the neutral axis. The approach for checking the moment at ing axis. Sc and J as though both flanges were the same as tion F. Use Equa- ry. This approximation is quite conservative when the tom flange of the beam and the load is free to move later- smaller flange is in compression.
At brace points the Bending Axis of doubly symmetric beams use Equation F. Equation F. The magnitudes of yo. This expression considers non-symmetry of the section about the bending axis as well as the location of the laterally applied load with respect to the shear center.
The nominal strength expression was rearranged from the expression given in the Aluminum Design Manual but gives the same strength. The approximate formula for j given in Equation F. The orientation of the axes and the cross-sectional nota- tion are illustrated in Figure CF. If Cw is not small compared to 0. Venant torsion. Equivalent slenderness ratios from and 1. The determined shape factors for yielding of 1. In the intermediate slenderness ratio range.
Sharp Table 7. Cases 2. Clark and Rolf showed that the formula shown in Figure F. This is done to be consistent with Sec- Clark and Rolf showed that rectangular bars can tions F. Sharp variation in stress across the width of the angle leg. The F. The wall thickness need not be uniform. This Specification uses 1. The upper set of lines. Since The lower set of lines.
Formulas for determining bw are given in Part V. When is based on experimental work by Clark and Rolf The factor on yield was picked from curves of yield strengths at 0.
Yielding does not become apparent as soon as the calculated stress in the extreme fiber reaches the yield strength because the less highly stressed fibers near the center of the beam are still in the elastic range. For larger Angle Size in. This results from the non-linear distribution of stress in the inelastic range.
The constants 1. This is shown F. The shape factor on ultimate strength was deduced Figure CF. The higher Part V. See Section E. The distance c for a compres- Shape factors for aluminum are less than those for the rigid.
The distance c for The shape factors for flat elements in flexure are the same a tensile flange is the distance to its extreme fiber because as the shape factors for solid rectangular shapes in F. Kim improved the weighted average method accuracy for a variety of members. The effect of alloy on shape factor is not very large. For tubes with circumferential welds. Sharp tested beams with longitudinal and trans. These are given in Section B. Simi- sions of Section G.
This moment of inertia is multiplied by ture in the weld-affected area and the weighted average the ratio of the applied shear load to the shear load caus- shear strength of the welded and unwelded zones. The shear ing buckling to adjust the stiffener size for the actual load ultimate strength is divided by 1. These formulas were used in the specifications tor of 1. Shear yielding in comparison with the stiffener size theoretically derived by the weld-affected area is not considered to be a limit state, Cook and Rockey Hartmann and Clark and since the maximum shear stress would have to occur over Sharp and Clark provide further background.
Since torsion The buckling strength of unstiffened flat webs is for a is usually constant along the cylinder length but transverse web with partial restraint against rotation at the attachment shear usually varies along the length, the transverse shear to the flanges.
The corresponding value of the slenderness strength is taken as 1. This treat- Becker The buckling strength in the inelastic range ment is similar to AISC If the analysis is not performed in accordance with Chapter C, using the interaction equation given in Section H. Tubes loaded in torsion are not as sensitive to the effect of initial imperfections in the geometry as are tubes loaded in axial compression.
Battdorf, et. Fig- where ure CH. A coefficient of 2. A more accurate and less conservative value for long tubes is less than 2. The ordi- nate in this figure is a rearrangement of Equation H. The Since shear buckling cannot occur in a rod, Section H. Equations H. Examples of longitudinally loaded fillet welds that are not end-loaded include: Aluminum welded connection types include groove welds, Menzemer and Iasconne established the shear fillet welds, plug and slot welds, and stud welds.
Moore et al.
Nelson and Rolf and Sharp et al. They used the same test method to determine shear strength. Allowable stresses for fillet welds for various combina- J. The J. Groove welds are classified as either complete penetra- tion or partial penetration for the purpose of determining J.
The method of classifying a groove weld is Plug and slot welds are primarily used to transmit shear the same as that in AWS D1. Groove welds made with in the plane of the weld. An example is a cover plate attached permanent backing have less fatigue strength than groove to a flange with plug welds.
The definition of effective area welds without permanent backing. The base metal thickness provisions match those in AWS D1. Allowable stresses for groove welds for various com- binations of base metals are given in Part VI, Table , J.
The strength of a groove weld is usually governed by the The strengths for and lighting pole assem- strength of the base metal rather than the filler metal. Bolt dimen- End-loaded fillet welds are oriented parallel to the stress sions are given in Part VI, Table Examples include longitudinally welded T6, and T9 aluminum nuts. Nut dimensions lap joints at the ends of axially loaded members and welds are given in Part VI, Table Improper ings includes design rules for ASTM A, A, and installation may include over- or under-tightening, missing A steel bolts.
The Rockwell C35 hardness limit is nuts or washers, or presence of threads in the shear plane intended to avoid hydrogen-assisted stress corrosion when this was not the design condition. The root area term in equation J.
Menzemer et al. Sharp and the Department of Defense Edge distance requirements 2D for full bearing strength show that for ratios of edge distance to fastener diameter and a minimum of 1. So for a fastener diameter. Moisseiff et al.
The use of the root area for determining the tensile strength of aluminum fasteners rather than the slightly larger tensile J. The root area is based on the nominal minor diameter of external threads D - 1. Aluminum section In the US, use of high and T73 bolts and cap screws. The RCSC it is preferable for the connections to be stronger than the Specification addresses the use of these high strength steel members.
If connections have greater strength, it is more bolts to connect steel parts and so is modified here for likely that the structure will exhibit warning of an overload connections using aluminum parts. All parts of the RCSC e. Specification not modified by the provisions of Section J. Slip-critical and nuts galvanized by different processes may result in an connections are used when it is desirable to prevent move- unworkable assembly.
Such connections are useful for joints subjected to dynamic or J.
The design strength of slip- the sides of the hole. Bolt shear strengths are the same as in critical connections cannot be greater than the design the RCSC Specification. Bolt design shear strengths should strength of the same connection designed as a bearing con- be reduced appropriately in long connections since bolts nection.
The design strength of a slip-critical connection at the end of such connections bear a higher shear force is limited to the lesser of the design strength of the bolt in than bolts near the middle of the length of these connec- shear and bearing and the slip resistance of the joint. Since hot-dip galvanizing may embrittle A bolts and galvanizing is required to discourage galvanic corrosion J.
Slip coefficients are given for two contact surfaces: The RCSC Specification limits the bearing stress under roughened aluminum on roughened aluminum, and rough- the bolt head in steel to 64 ksi for steel with a yield strength ened aluminum on zinc-rich painted steel.
Kissell and Ferry less than 40 ksi by requiring such steel with A bolts to tested these surfaces in accordance with the test have washers. The Specification for Aluminum Structures method given in the RCSC Specification for both slip and requires the use of washers under bolt heads and nuts, and creep. Slip coefficients for other surfaces may be determined bearing stresses under the washer can reach approximately by testing in accordance with the RCSC Specification.
Therefore, aluminum Luttrell and Fortlin, et al. Thin parts, such as aluminum sheet and drawn tube, Tests of mill finish aluminum surfaces degreased and dried have generally achieved relatively low coefficients of friction.
A further requires Washers are required under all bolt heads and nuts. This that all components of a fastener assembly bolt, nut, and requirement is intended to minimize galling of the outer washer be coated by the same process, since mixing bolts ply of aluminum and creep relaxation of bolt tension. Table CJ. However, it is recommended that at least bolt, and a collar, which performs the function of a nut. The two screws should be used to connect individual elements. Lockbolts This provides redundancy against under torquing, over are available in carbon steel, stainless steel, and aluminum.
The safety factor Cold-Heading Wire and Rods, provides the strengths that are for screw bearing is consistent with the safety factor for used in Table A. Steel screws with a Rockwell hardness of C35 J. For this reason, steel screws with a Rockwell hard- J.
These effects are greater on tensile strength than shear J. Many can vary significantly. Installing blind rivets requires access to only one side J. Power tools with adjustable torque since the diameter of a hex washer head for a No. The equations for pull-out are derived from research Alternate pull-over strengths are given for screws in conducted by AAMA , including over pull-out tight-fitting holes based on tests conducted by LaBelle and tests.
These equations are based on three regions of behav- Dolby In these tests, screws had hex heads with ior: Screw nominal diameters were 0. For most cases they are less conservative than the the following nominal sizes: Drill Size parts thicker than 0. Pull-out strengths are a function of the type of thread: The average ratio of pre- machine thread screw types to develop Equation J.
The dicted strength using Specification equation J. Because both spaced threads and using 5 different flathead screw sizes, 6 sheet thick- machine thread pull-out strengths matched Equation J. Testing was limited to com- well, this Specification does not provide different strengths monly used screws with 82 degree nominal angle heads, for the different screw types.
Sharp provided the pull-over strength equation Caution should be used to avoid excessive oversizing of for non-countersunk screws. Screws may be placed through countersunk holes. Oversizing should be limited so that the the valley or the crown of corrugated roofing and siding. A coefficient of 0. The test strengths of such screwed con- VI Tables and Marsh also studied this issue. Screwed connections loaded in shear have limit states of screw shear, block shear rupture see Section J.
Therefore, testing is recommended to establish the bearing strength of screwed connections that are subjected to both J. Concentrated Forces. The shear force on the The crippling strength is a post-buckling strength. This Specification addresses bearing stiffener size by requiring that the stiffener be sized for the bearing load as a J.
If the stiffener is also being The shear strength of aluminum screws is given in Part used as a shear stiffener, it must also meet the requirements VI Tables and The resistance factor for shear yielding of connectors 1.
This is because shear yield- ing of connectors is unlikely to produce significant defor- J. In many cases, the primary, J. For exam. For structures exposed support glass or similar brittle materials.
The are not provided. See Section L. Wind on round tube members can cause motion of the members due to vortex shedding. Specific limits on parameters for example. If the compressive stress exceeds the elastic local buck. Sharp ple. The method used to account tube and sufficient damping is not provided. Some building to ambient temperature fluctuations. This may be achieved by measuring camber with a beam resting on a flat surface parallel to the camber L. Vibrations may be caused by cyclically Slip-critical connections are addressed in Section J.
This Specification only allows this if the ele. These radii are approximate and are a function cutoff lines are often scribed. The strength of tempered metal can be reduced by expo. Residual stresses from blasting or peening can curl thin M. Abrasion blasting can be used to clean material or fin- sure to elevated temperature processes such as factory paint ish the surface. The Aluminum Extrusions and Panels proper fillet radius varies depending on the part and its use.
Consideration should be given to the effect on hole diameter is to guard against break-out at the back side strength if the thickness is reduced by more than standard of the hole. Center punching and scrib- of the direction of the bend line with respect to the rolling ing should be avoided where such marks would remain on fabricated material if appearances are a concern. Since this Specification applies to is unsightly and difficult to remove. Section 4. Search form Search. The Aluminum Advantage.
Aluminum Advantage. Product Markets. Members Area. Buyer's Guide. The ADM includes: Provides rules for determining the strength of aluminum structural components, connections and structures using multiple methods. Commentary section includes additional background and research references.
Required for compliance with the International Building Code.