PDF | On Jul 28, , Christopher Richard Mwashinga and others published VATICAN COUNCIL II: DID THE CATHOLIC CHURCH CHANGE ITS POSITION. Vatican Council II. By B. B. Beach. Departmental Secretary. Northern European Division. [Dr. Beach is in Rome as an accredited journalist covering for REVIEW. This lecture to inaugurate the Vatican Council II Chair of Theology will 2Joseph Cardinal Bernardin, “Vatican II's Pastoral Constitution on the.
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Second Vatican Council. DOCUMENTS OF THE SECOND VATICAN COUNCIL. Vatican Council II. Constitutions. Dei Verbum [Byelorussian, Chinese, Czech. Constitutions, Declarations and Decrees COUNCIL VATICAN SEC. Declarations s DECLARATION ON CHRISTIAN EDUCATION. GRAVISSIMUM. Council of Jerusalem 50 AD. ▣ held to decide the entrance of Gentiles into the. Church. ▣ Prior to this council there was division in the. Church between Jews.
The catholic- ity means the potency to spread out the message of the salvation among all human beings in their diversity. Congar worked day by day on sev- eral documents of the Council. On the other hand, Vatican I was rather an attempt to build an enclosed Catholic fort and constitute Christian life inside its walls and promote opposition mentality against the whole world. Ecclesiology Catholic Church. They had primarily to obey and live according to the laws.
Although the majority of bishops received the news with great surprise, since no one saw the urgency for an ecumenical council, at the end of the council in , the church was full of life to the fulfilment of many.
Lamb and Matthew Levering, eds. Renewal with Tradition New York: Oxford Universty Press, Robert Appleton Company, , s. In breaking from the previous councils that were mostly concerned with dogmatic definitions, Vatican II was essentially a pastoral council.
The pre-Vatican II pastoral activities were more legalistic, less pastoral, centralized to the local pastor and highly dependent on the inflexible Vatican Curia. The Church remains an institution guided by the Holy Spirit from its origin although it has an opportunity to adapt to new ways. Elizondo, Christianity and Culture Indiana: Our Sunday Visitor, Inc, Blackwell Publishers, For this to happen, the Church must update herself in order to be alive in facing the challenges of the world today.
It is difficult to define with precision pastoral theology partly due to its ambiguous nature of its boundaries and due to lack of a universal definition among theologians.
The Conciliar and Post Conciliar Documents, ed. Austin Flannery Leominster: Fowler Wright Book Ltd. AAS 57, no. Available online: Furthermore, from the earliest times, the mass was celebrated while the pastor faced the tabernacle leaving the laity only to imagine the physical expression of the ritual. The council fathers were keen at bringing the church closer to the people by promoting their full participation in terms of language, singing and assisting the pastor.
The constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, Sancrosanctum Concilium, made the sense in which the Church should be oriented. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, AAS 56, no. Although the Sancrosanctum Concilium does not use the term inculturation explicitly, it does acknowledge the need to allow for "legitimate variations and adaptation to different groups, regions, and peoples, especially in mission lands". Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. The Great Grace: Receiving Vatican II. Nigel Zimmermann.
These include two senior Cardinals, one of whom is the head of the Congregation of Bishops and the other a member of Pope Francis new advisory body on reforming the Roman Curia, as well as Prefect of the Secretariat for the Economy. Together with thinkers from North America, the UK, Rome and Australia, they take up key themes from the Conciliar documents and assess the reception of the Council half a century on from its inception.
In doing so, they open up new avenues for thinking through the authentic witness and teaching of the most important ecclesiastical event of the twentieth century. These avenues include discussion of themes such as the liturgy, communio, the Council in its historical context, the role of the laity, communicating the Council in a social media world, and the task of mission in the future.
He is author of Levinas 1. He has published in 2.
A Council for the Laity? From Correlationism to Trinitarian Christocentrism: Some of these bishops sought new ways of addressing those challenges.
The First Vatican Council had been held nearly a century before but had been cut short in when the Italian Army entered the city of Rome at the end of Italian unification.
As a result, only deliberations on the role of the papacy and the congruent relationship of faith and reason were completed, with examination of pastoral issues concerning the direction of the Church left unaddressed.
Reaction to the announcement was widespread and largely positive from both religious and secular leaders outside the Catholic Church,  and the council was formally summoned by the apostolic constitution Humanae Salutis on 25 December Acceptances came from both the Eastern Orthodox Church and Protestant denominations as internal observers, but these observers did not cast votes in the approbation of the conciliar documents.
Pope John XXIII 's announcement on 25 January of his intention to call a general council came as a surprise even to the cardinals present. The Pontiff pre-announced the council under a full moon when the faithful with their candlelights gathered in St. Peter's square and jokingly noted about the brightness of the moon. He had tested the idea only ten days before with one of them, his Cardinal Secretary of State Domenico Tardini , who gave enthusiastic support to the idea.
Actual preparations for the Council took more than two years, and included work from 10 specialised commissions, people for mass media and Christian Unity, and a Central Commission for overall coordination.
These groups, composed mostly of members of the Roman Curia , produced proposed constituting sessions, making it the largest gathering in any council in church history. This compares to Vatican I, where attended, mostly from Europe. In addition, a varying number of periti Latin: Seventeen Orthodox Churches and Protestant denominations sent observers. What is needed at the present time is a new enthusiasm, a new joy and serenity of mind in the unreserved acceptance by all of the entire Christian faith, without forfeiting that accuracy and precision in its presentation which characterized the proceedings of the Council of Trent and the First Vatican Council.
What is needed, and what everyone imbued with a truly Christian, Catholic and apostolic spirit craves today, is that this doctrine shall be more widely known, more deeply understood, and more penetrating in its effects on men's moral lives. What is needed is that this certain and immutable doctrine, to which the faithful owe obedience, be studied afresh and reformulated in contemporary terms.
For this deposit of faith, or truths which are contained in our time-honored teaching is one thing; the manner in which these truths are set forth with their meaning preserved intact is something else. That day's agenda included the election of members of the ten conciliar commissions.
Each would have sixteen elected and eight appointed members, and were expected to do most of the work of the Council. He asked that the vote be postponed to give all the bishops a chance to draw up their own lists. German Cardinal Josef Frings seconded that proposal, and the vote was postponed.
The bishops met to discuss the membership of the commissions, along with other issues, both in national and regional groups, as well as in gatherings that were more informal. The schemata Latin for drafts from the preparatory sessions were thrown out, and new ones were created. More than bishops from Africa, Asia, and Latin America were Dutch or Belgian and tended to associate with the bishops from those countries.
Eleven commissions and three secretariats were established, with their respective presidents: After adjournment on 8 December, work began on preparations for the sessions scheduled for These preparations, however, were halted upon the death of Pope John XXIII on 3 June , since an ecumenical council is automatically interrupted and suspended upon the death of the Pope who convened it, until the next Pope orders the council to be continued or dissolved.
In the months prior to the second period, Pope Paul VI worked to correct some of the problems of organization and procedure that had been discovered during the first period. This included inviting additional lay Catholic and non-Catholic observers, reducing the number of proposed schemata to seventeen which were made more general, in keeping with the pastoral nature of the council and later eliminating the requirement of secrecy surrounding general sessions.
Pope Paul's opening address on 29 September stressed the pastoral nature of the council, and set out four purposes for it:. During this period, the bishops approved the constitution on the liturgy, Sacrosanctum Concilium , and the decree on social communication, Inter mirifica. Work went forward with the schemata on the Church, bishops and dioceses, and ecumenism. This exchange is often considered the most dramatic of the council Cardinal Frings' theological adviser was the young Joseph Ratzinger , who would later as a Cardinal head the same department of the Holy See, and from —13 reign as Pope Benedict XVI.
The second period ended on 4 December. In the time between the second and third periods, the proposed schemata were further revised on the basis of comments from the Council Fathers.
A number of topics were reduced to statements of fundamental propositions that could gain approval during the third period, with postconciliar commissions handling implementation of these measures.
During the third period, which began on 14 September , the Council Fathers worked through a large volume of proposals. Schemata on the life and ministry of priests and the missionary activity of the Church were rejected and sent back to commissions for complete rewriting.
Work continued on the remaining schemata, in particular those on the Church in the modern world and religious freedom. There was controversy over revisions of the decree on religious freedom and the failure to vote on it during the third period, but Pope Paul promised that this schema would be the first to be reviewed in the next period.
Pope Paul closed the third period on 21 November by announcing a change in the Eucharistic fast and formally reaffirming Mary as " Mother of the Church ". Eleven schemata remained unfinished at the end of the third period, and commissions worked to give them their final form. Schema 13, on the Church in the modern world, was revised by a commission that worked with the assistance of laymen.
This more permanent structure was intended to preserve close cooperation of the bishops with the Pope after the council. The first business of the fourth period was the consideration of the decree on religious freedom, Dignitatis humanae , one of the more controversial of the conciliar documents. The vote was 1, for to against, a margin that widened even further by the time the bishops finally signed the decree. The principal work of the other part of the period was work on three documents, all of which were approved by the Council Fathers.
The lengthened and revised pastoral constitution on the Church in the modern world, Gaudium et spes , was followed by decrees on missionary activity, Ad gentes and the ministry and life of priests, Presbyterorum ordinis. The council also gave final approval to other documents that had been considered in earlier sessions. They included the Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation Dei verbum , decrees on the pastoral office of bishops Christus Dominus , the life of persons in religious orders expanded and modified from earlier sessions, finally titled Perfectae caritatis , education for the priesthood Optatam totius , Christian education Gravissimum educationis , and the role of the laity Apostolicam actuositatem.
One of the more controversial documents  was Nostra aetate , which stated that the Jews of the time of Christ, taken indiscriminately, and all Jews today are no more responsible for the death of Christ than Christians. True, the Jewish authorities and those who followed their lead pressed for the death of Christ; still, what happened in His passion cannot be charged against all the Jews, without distinction, then alive, nor against the Jews of today.
Although the Church is the new people of God, the Jews should not be presented as rejected or accursed by God, as if this followed from the Holy Scriptures. All should see to it, then, that in catechetical work or in the preaching of the word of God they do not teach anything that does not conform to the truth of the Gospel and the spirit of Christ. Furthermore, in her rejection of every persecution against any man, the Church, mindful of the patrimony she shares with the Jews and moved not by political reasons but by the Gospel's spiritual love, decries hatred, persecutions, displays of anti-Semitism, directed against Jews at any time and by anyone.
A major event of the final days of the council was the act of Pope Paul and Orthodox Patriarch Athenagoras of a joint expression of regret for many of the past actions that had led up to the Great Schism between the western and eastern churches. On 8 December, the Council was formally closed, with the bishops professing their obedience to the Council's decrees. To help carry forward the work of the Council, Pope Paul:. The first matter covered by the council was the liturgy, to emphasize "the primacy of God" and "the primacy of adoration", according to Pope Benedict XVI.
He said that the most important essential idea of the Council itself is " Paschal Mystery Christ's passion, death and resurrection as the center of what it is to be Christian and therefore of the Christian life, the Christian year, the Christian seasons, expressed in Eastertide and on Sunday which is always the day of the Resurrection.
The matter that had the most immediate effect on the lives of individual Catholics, was the revision of the liturgy. The central idea was that there ought to be lay participation in the liturgy which means they "take part fully aware of what they are doing, actively engaged in the rite, and enriched by its effects".
SC 11 In the mids, permissions were granted to celebrate most of the Mass in vernacular languages, including the canon from onwards. In its first chapter, titled "The Mystery of the Church," is the statement that: The document adds, "Nevertheless, many elements of sanctification and of truth are found outside its visible confines" Lumen gentium , 8. According to Pope Paul VI, "the most characteristic and ultimate purpose of the teachings of the Council" is the universal call to holiness: In his plan for the new millennium, Novo millennio ineunte , John Paul II said that "all pastoral initiatives must be set in relation to holiness" as the first priority of the Church.
The council sought to revive the central role of Scripture in the theological and devotional life of the Church, building upon the work of earlier popes in crafting a modern approach to Scriptural analysis and interpretation. A new approach to interpretation was approved by the bishops. The Church was to continue to provide versions of the Bible in the " mother tongues " of the faithful, and both clergy and laity were to continue to make Bible study a central part of their lives.
The role of the bishops was brought into renewed prominence, especially when seen collectively, as a college that has succeeded to that of the apostles in teaching and governing the Church. This college was headed by the Pope. The questioning of the nature of and even validity of the Second Vatican Council continues to be a contending point of rejection and conflict among various religious communities, some of which are not in communion with the Roman Catholic Church.
The most recent edition of the Code of Canon Law states that Catholics may not disregard the teaching of an ecumenical council even if it does not propose such as definitive. Accordingly, it also maintains the view that the present living Pope alone judges the criterion of membership for being in in communio with the Church.
Although not an assent of faith, a religious submission of the intellect and will must be given to a Doctrine which the Supreme Pontiff or the College of Bishops declares concerning faith or morals when they exercise the authentic Magisterium , even if they do not intend to proclaim it by definitive act; therefore, the Christian faithful are to take care to avoid those things which do not agree with it.