ENVE SOLID WASTE ENGINEERING. Prof. Dr. Barış ÇALLI http://mebig. soundofheaven.info Lecture 1. Evolution of Solid Waste. Management. waste. Solid waste can create significant health problems and a very Poor management of the collection and disposal of solid waste may lead to leachate .. Cairncross, S. and Feachem, R. () Environmental Health Engineering in the. Municipal solid waste, commonly known as trash or garbage (US), refuse or Municipal solid waste does not include industrial wastes, agricultural wastes, and .
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In other communities, all recyclable materials are placed in a single bin for collection, and the sorting is handled later at a central facility. Incineration is carried out both on a small scale by individuals and on a large scale by industry. Waste collection methods vary widely among different countries and regions. With rational and consistent waste management practices there is an opportunity to reap a range of benefits. Biosolids , waste , and waste management. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues.
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Chapter 3. George Tchobanoglous PH.
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This last step is the final resort for waste which has not been prevented, diverted or recovered. The hierarchy represents the latter parts of the life-cycle for each product. The life-cycle begins with design, then proceeds through manufacture, distribution, and primary use and then follows through the waste hierarchy's stages of reduce, reuse and recycle. Each stage in the life-cycle offers opportunities for policy intervention, to rethink the need for the product, to redesign to minimize waste potential, to extend its use.
Resource efficiency reflects the understanding that global economic growth and development can not be sustained at current production and consumption patterns.
Globally, humanity extracts more resources to produce goods than the planet can replenish. The polluter-pays principle mandates that the polluting party pays for the impact on the environment. With respect to waste management, this generally refers to the requirement for a waste generator to pay for appropriate disposal of the unrecoverable material. Throughout most of history, the amount of waste generated by humans was insignificant due to low population density and low societal levels of the exploitation of natural resources as well as industrial since few decades.
Common waste produced during pre-modern times was mainly ashes and human biodegradable waste , and these were released back into the ground locally, with minimum environmental impact. Tools made out of wood or metal were generally reused or passed down through the generations. However, some civilizations do seem to have been more profligate in their waste output than others.
In particular, the Maya of Central America had a fixed monthly ritual, in which the people of the village would gather together and burn their rubbish in large dumps. Following the onset of industrialisation and the sustained urban growth of large population centres in England , the buildup of waste in the cities caused a rapid deterioration in levels of sanitation and the general quality of urban life.
The streets became choked with filth due to the lack of waste clearance regulations. However, it was not until the midth century, spurred by increasingly devastating cholera outbreaks and the emergence of a public health debate that the first legislation on the issue emerged.
Highly influential in this new focus was the report The Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population in  of the social reformer , Edwin Chadwick , in which he argued for the importance of adequate waste removal and management facilities to improve the health and wellbeing of the city's population. In the UK, the Nuisance Removal and Disease Prevention Act of began what was to be a steadily evolving process of the provision of regulated waste management in London.
The Metropolitan Board of Works was the first citywide authority that centralized sanitation regulation for the rapidly expanding city and the Public Health Act made it compulsory for every household to deposit their weekly waste in "moveable receptacles: The dramatic increase in waste for disposal led to the creation of the first incineration plants, or, as they were then called, "destructors".
Similar municipal systems of waste disposal sprung up at the turn of the 20th century in other large cities of Europe and North America. In , New York City became the first U. Early garbage removal trucks were simply open bodied dump trucks pulled by a team of horses. They became motorized in the early part of the 20th century and the first closed body trucks to eliminate odours with a dumping lever mechanism were introduced in the s in Britain.
The Garwood Load Packer was the first truck in , to incorporate a hydraulic compactor.
Waste collection methods vary widely among different countries and regions. Domestic waste collection services are often provided by local government authorities, or by private companies for industrial and commercial waste.
Some areas, especially those in less developed countries, do not have formal waste-collection systems. Curbside collection is the most common method of disposal in most European countries, Canada , New Zealand and many other parts of the developed world in which waste is collected at regular intervals by specialised trucks.
This is often associated with curb-side waste segregation. In rural areas waste may need to be taken to a transfer station. Waste collected is then transported to an appropriate disposal facility. In some areas, vacuum collection is used in which waste is transported from the home or commercial premises by vacuum along small bore tubes.
Systems are in use in Europe and North America. In some jurisdictions unsegregated waste is collected at the curb-side or from waste transfer stations and then sorted into recyclables and unusable waste.
Such systems are capable of sorting large volumes of solid waste, salvaging recyclables, and turning the rest into bio-gas and soil conditioner. In San Francisco , the local government established its Mandatory Recycling and Composting Ordinance in support of its goal of "Zero waste by ", requiring everyone in the city to keep recyclables and compostables out of the landfill.
The three streams are collected with the curbside "Fantastic 3" bin system — blue for recyclables, green for compostables, and black for landfill-bound materials — provided to residents and businesses and serviced by San Francisco's sole refuse hauler, Recology.
The City's "Pay-As-You-Throw" system charges customers by the volume of landfill-bound materials, which provides a financial incentive to separate recyclables and compostables from other discards. In most developed countries, domestic waste disposal is funded from a national or local tax which may be related to income, or property values.
Commercial and industrial waste disposal is typically charged for as a commercial service, often as an integrated charge which includes disposal costs. This practice may encourage disposal contractors to opt for the cheapest disposal option such as landfill rather than the environmentally best solution such as re-use and recycling. In some areas such as Taipei , the city government charges its households and industries for the volume of rubbish they produce.
Waste is collected by the city council only if it is put in government issued rubbish bags. This policy has successfully reduced the amount of waste the city produces and increased the recycling rate. Incineration is a disposal method in which solid organic wastes are subjected to combustion so as to convert them into residue and gaseous products.
This method is useful for disposal of both municipal solid waste and solid residue from waste water treatment. This process reduces the volumes of solid waste by 80 to 95 percent. Incinerators convert waste materials into heat , gas , steam , and ash.
Incineration is carried out both on a small scale by individuals and on a large scale by industry. It is used to dispose of solid, liquid and gaseous waste. It is recognized as a practical method of disposing of certain hazardous waste materials such as biological medical waste. Incineration is a controversial method of waste disposal, due to issues such as emission of gaseous pollutants.
Incineration is common in countries such as Japan where land is more scarce, as the facilities generally do not require as much area as landfills. Waste-to-energy WtE or energy-from-waste EfW are broad terms for facilities that burn waste in a furnace or boiler to generate heat, steam or electricity. Combustion in an incinerator is not always perfect and there have been concerns about pollutants in gaseous emissions from incinerator stacks.
Particular concern has focused on some very persistent organic compounds such as dioxins , furans , and PAHs , which may be created and which may have serious environmental consequences. Recycling is a resource recovery practice that refers to the collection and reuse of waste materials such as empty beverage containers.
The materials from which the items are made can be reprocessed into new products. Material for recycling may be collected separately from general waste using dedicated bins and collection vehicles, a procedure called kerbside collection. In some communities, the owner of the waste is required to separate the materials into different bins e.
In other communities, all recyclable materials are placed in a single bin for collection, and the sorting is handled later at a central facility. The latter method is known as " single-stream recycling. The most common consumer products recycled include aluminium such as beverage cans, copper such as wire, steel from food and aerosol cans, old steel furnishings or equipment, rubber tyres , polyethylene and PET bottles, glass bottles and jars, paperboard cartons , newspapers , magazines and light paper, and corrugated fiberboard boxes.
These items are usually composed of a single type of material, making them relatively easy to recycle into new products. The recycling of complex products such as computers and electronic equipment is more difficult, due to the additional dismantling and separation required.
The type of material accepted for recycling varies by city and country. Each city and country has different recycling programs in place that can handle the various types of recyclable materials. However, certain variation in acceptance is reflected in the resale value of the material once it is reprocessed.
In July , the Chinese government announced an import ban of 24 categories of recyclables and solid waste, including plastic, textiles and mixed paper, placing tremendous impact on developed countries globally, which exported directly or indirectly to China.
Recoverable materials that are organic in nature, such as plant material , food scraps, and paper products, can be recovered through composting and digestion processes to decompose the organic matter. The resulting organic material is then recycled as mulch or compost for agricultural or landscaping purposes. The intention of biological processing in waste management is to control and accelerate the natural process of decomposition of organic matter.
See resource recovery. Energy recovery from waste is the conversion of non-recyclable waste materials into usable heat, electricity, or fuel through a variety of processes, including combustion, gasification, pyrolyzation, anaerobic digestion, and landfill gas recovery.
Energy recovery from waste is part of the non-hazardous waste management hierarchy. Using energy recovery to convert non-recyclable waste materials into electricity and heat, generates a renewable energy source and can reduce carbon emissions by offsetting the need for energy from fossil sources as well as reduce methane generation from landfills.
The energy content of waste products can be harnessed directly by using them as a direct combustion fuel, or indirectly by processing them into another type of fuel. Thermal treatment ranges from using waste as a fuel source for cooking or heating and the use of the gas fuel see above , to fuel for boilers to generate steam and electricity in a turbine.
Pyrolysis and gasification are two related forms of thermal treatment where waste materials are heated to high temperatures with limited oxygen availability. The process usually occurs in a sealed vessel under high pressure. Pyrolysis of solid waste converts the material into solid, liquid and gas products. The liquid and gas can be burnt to produce energy or refined into other chemical products chemical refinery.
The solid residue char can be further refined into products such as activated carbon. Gasification and advanced Plasma arc gasification are used to convert organic materials directly into a synthetic gas syngas composed of carbon monoxide and hydrogen.
The gas is then burnt to produce electricity and steam. An alternative to pyrolysis is high temperature and pressure supercritical water decomposition hydrothermal monophasic oxidation. Pyrolysis is often used to convert many types of domestic and industrial residues into a recovered fuel. Different types of waste input such as plant waste, food waste, tyres placed in the pyrolysis process potentially yield an alternative to fossil fuels. The rate of pyrolysis increases with temperature.
Pyrolysis of waste wood and plastics can potentially produce fuel. The solids left from pyrolysis contain metals, glass, sand and pyrolysis coke which does not convert to gas. Compared to the process of incineration, certain types of pyrolysis processes release less harmful by-products that contain alkali metals, sulphur, and chlorine. However, pyrolysis of some waste yields gasses which impact the environment such as HCl and SO 2.
Resource recovery is the systematic diversion of waste, which was intended for disposal, for a specific next use. Resource recovery as opposed to waste management uses LCA life cycle analysis attempts to offer alternatives to waste management. As an example of how resource recycling can be beneficial, many items thrown away contain metals which can be recycled to create a profit, such as the components in circuit boards. Wood chippings in pallets and other packaging materials can be recycled to useful products for horticultural.
The recycled chips can cover paths, walkways, or arena surfaces. The management of waste is a key component in a business' ability to maintain ISO accreditation.