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They are a minority and few are able to establish themselves as professional repentistas, as a consequence of the lack of respect they receive from the male cantadores and obstacles imposed by sexual roles in this social context especially the demands to comply with their roles as mothers and wives, and the risk of transgressing sexual morals by singing and traveling with men who are not their family. Anonymous I1rRq2D. Leidiane Carvalho. His argument considers the improviser to be alone in relation to his techniques, with his models and with his work. The final motifs of each phrase are often the same, repeated or transposed one step below in the scale. As a "mold," the toadas of the cantoria indicate more than the quantity of poetic syllables corresponding to pulses of each line. Rhyme, despite the rigidity of its rules, is considered the most simple foundation, and a well-informed poet is unlikely to err in this regard.

Normally, the cantadores learn the rules of rhyme from teachings that are explained in conversations with more experienced colleagues. Obviously, rhyme has a rhythmic dimension and therefore a metric one and helps to establish standards of duration within the stanzas by means of a regulated repetition of the phonemas. Nevertheless, upon speaking of rhyme, the cantadores pay more attention to the restrictions than to this essential dimension of the parallelism between phonemes for the poetic discourse.

Meter concerns the rhythm and is referred to as the quantity of verses per stanza, of syllables per verse and in some cases, includes the distribution of prosodic accents within them. Each style has its own standard meter. It is not by chance that many singers consider meter the essential dimension of poetry: According to Jakobson, "[in] poetry, any verbal element is converted into a figure of poetic discourse" The verse, as a "figure of sound," has as the principle for the combination of its elements, parallelism and equivalence of forms explicit in the symmetry of the verses, in the phonemic similarity of rhymes and alliterations, in the rhythm and in the redundancy of the pauses and accents.

The rules of the meter of the cantoria are exposed according to the promoted principles of the accentual-syllabic system of versification in the Portuguese language, according to which the rhythmic units are divided, based on the succession of the strong and weak syllables. Therefore, the counting of poetic syllables of a verse does not necessarily coincide with the number of grammatical syllables.

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The most common modality of the cantoria is the Sextilha, with which any presentation is begun. In addition, in the cantoria, the first line should accompany the deixa the last verse sung by the other , or that is, should rhyme with the even verses of the previous stanza sung by the colleague. This imposition helps to establish poetic dialog and makes the use of memorized verses more difficult.

The word mote [motto] refers to a phrase, usually with two verses, with which the poets should conclude their stanzas. It also indicates the stanzas composed with a basis on these phrases.

o jogo do anjo carlos ruiz zafon pdf

The hepta-syllabic verses common in various forms of traditional Iberian singing require the accent on the final syllable, but allow freedom for the disposition of strong and weak syllables throughout the verse.

Meanwhile the decasyllabic and endecasyllabic have a standard of distribution for the tonic syllables. In the decasyllabic, the third, sixth and tenth syllable should be emphasized. In the endecasyllabic, the accents fall on the second, fifth, eight and eleventh syllable. Although we have emphasized the restrictive power of the norms and rules, they have essential positive roles.

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Rhyme, for example, offers a clear restriction to the development of themes, but can also create suggestions and stimulate the poet to new associations of ideas. Todo dia, acorda cedo Preocupado com o destino. The entire story of the stanza is a function of the association of ideas that originated with the word "espanta," [scare off] that I thought of to begin the composition due to the rhyme with "canta" [sing].

The rules synthesize standards of order of poetry and of actions of creating it and singing it, and this order is much of what makes the cantoria something enchanting for those who take part in it, whether as listeners or poets. The identity of the repentista is related to an ability to express oneself within this order.

Thus the disdain for errors of rhyme and meter whether in improvised verse or those written by poets of the cordel and the detestation that many cantadores express for free verse of modern poetry. The standards synthesized in these explicit models go beyond the domain of poetry itself. They also have an ethical dimension Travassos , because the first inhibits the use of memorized verses, and the second makes it improper to escape the themes proposed by partners and listeners.

Therefore, more than poetic formalities, these norms express ideas and judgments about the standards of interaction of making poetry. They frame perceptions and guide collectively based action that is linked to ethic and aesthetic principles.

These models are both practical as well as cognitive, because they constitute frameworks that make the cantoria rituals recognizable and understandable. I do not mean to say that the explicitly formulated rules are the effective factor in the actions.

Discourse leaves unsaid all that which takes place without the need for speech or verbalized reflection. The exposition of some rules and configurations of cantoria presented above served to describe aspects of poetic improvisation, concerning both poetry as well as the dynamic of the social relations of the cantoria. My description was not detailed, but will be sufficient for understanding the abilities of the repentista, which I discuss below. First, I will address musical characteristics of the cantoria.

Although the cantadores consider themselves to be poets and not musicians , music in the cantoria is simultaneously secondary and essential, both an accessory and indispensable. On one hand, some affirm that to be a "good repentista" is to be good in poetic creation; the singing and the instrumental accompaniment are "a complement," something to emphasize the poetry and the sonority of the verses Ayala In fact there are cantadores considered to be weak in the tune of their singing and their abilities with the viola.

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Many poets and fans emphasize the beauty of the voice and singing in tune as essential requisites for the career of a successful cantador. Some good repentistas are not pleasing to audiences and colleagues because they do not sing in tune. Therefore, fitting into certain aesthetic and musical standards is a necessity recognized by cantadores and listeners.

The toadas always correspond to the extension of a complete stanza.

Poetic improvisation in the Brazilian Northeast

There is a repertorie of toadas that constitute a collective patrimony for the cantadores. The most common modalities such as the Sextilha and the Motes have a wide variety of toadas.

Less executed styles, or those that are never sung more than once in a cantoria or festival, tend to have less toadas or only one. The toadas have recognizeable melodic designs and are sung with "reasonable fidelity to the general melodic design of specific melodic segments" Travassos There is no need to precisely reproduce the sequence of notes of a toada, in part because reference versions for these melodies do not exist.

That is, the toada is the element that is repeated, but this repetition always implies a transformation and variation. The majority of the toadas have a descending melodic design with their final motif concluding on the keynote Oliveira They are sung within an octave and are characterized by a tense and nasal vocal expression. Each verse corresponds to a melodic motif, with the verses grouped in pairs or at times in triplets forming melodic phrases with the final note extended, nearly always in vibrato, before the cantador takes a breath Oliveira That is, the toadas are composed of motifs corresponding to the verses, grouped two by two in musical phrases analogous to the phrases of the two verses that compose the stanzas.

In addition to helping maintain communication between the singers and listeners in events that usually last a few hours, the melodies contribute to the construction of the meaning of the poetic texts Travassos Changes in theme are marked by changes of toada and their melodies are informally classified according to the melodic characteristics that link them to themes by the type of feeling that they convey.

Although there are no exclusive melodic characteristics that define types of toadas, some are considered "aggressive," destined, for example to the challenges in which the aggressive character is associated, with a high melody and strident timbre.

Meanwhile "painful" toadas suitable to sad themes such as heartbreak, longings for childhood and one's birthplace and posthumous homages , present a recurrence of the 3 rd and of the 6 th lower steps, "provoking a sensation of a lower tone" Travassos The viola is similar to a guitar, but is a bit smaller and has more strings.

The repentistas use a tuning with seven steel strings arranged in five orders: E, B,Gg, D and A with the last set of three strings, the bordao, which has the same note in three octaves.

The strings are quite taut, which produces a higher tessitura and a strident timbre. Usually only the thumb and index finger are used to pluck the strings. Many cantadores prefer to tune the viola a tone and a half lower, but name the strings as described above. Short melodic fragments are executed in the higher regions of the instruments.

The viola serves as a "tuning-fork," to tune the singing, and also as a "metronome" that guides the progress of the improvisation Oliveira The poets usually prolong the final syllable of a stanza for a cycle, even when they sing decasyllable verses.

It is also the rhythm of the viola that lets the poet know when to begin singing. In the breathing in the middle of a stanza, or in a pause to think, this cycle, or part of it, has the phatic function of preserving the rhythm of the repente and maintaining the intensity of the communicative relationship.

Meanwhile the decasyllables fit rhythmically into the composed measures Oliveira When one poet takes too long to "release" his verse, strumming the chords of the viola while he thinks about what to say, he breaks the progress of the poetic dialog and disperses the public's attention, which tends to understand that the cantador who delays is "getting whipped.

This is also looked down upon because it inhibits or covers up possible expressions from the audience applause, shouts, praise for the other's stanza. These communicative elements formally complement each other. In the cantoria, the characteristic of the poetry to create relationships of meaning through parallels, exposed by Jakobson, go beyond the plane of the linguistic message, and this semantic creation also occurs through a "fusion" of expressive modes Tambiah , principally language and music.

In the repente, there is also formal redundancy in the melody of the toadas which provides a poetic rhythm , in the melodic characteristics that suggest moods and feelings, in repetitive harmony and in required alternation between the two cantadores in the composition of the stanzas. The elements of a perceived standard are ordered one in relation to the others. Nevertheless, this description does not express how the cantadores create and sing the stanzas.

Many repentistas say that they compose the stanzas creating the verses two by two, or that is, based on phrases of two verses and also of three verses in some modalities. This is seen in the poetic rhythm with the prolonging of the final syllable of a phrase with two verses and with occasional pauses between two phrases.

Each phrase presents an idea that participates in the construction of the message of the stanza, as in these improvisations: What is it for]. In the same sense, Ramalho The toadas of Sextilhas are formed by three musical phrases corresponding to these sets of 15 syllables, but with a caesura that divides the phrases into two segments corresponding to verses with seven syllables.

To more precisely understand the importance of rhythm for the creation of the verses in the repente, a comparison can be made with studies about other traditions of improvised and sung poetry.

Each poet-singer knows a repertoire of traditional narratives that, although they have fixed plots and personalities, are not memorized and recited, but composed at each presentation.

The principal compositional device of the bard is the formula , a phrase or group of words that express the most common ideas and actions within the poetic narrative about the metric and rhythmic standards.

By means of memorization of formulaic expressions, the poet gradually and unconsciously incorporates the meter of the ten syllabic verse with a pause between the fourth and the fifth, and absorbs the tendency to distribute the accents and their possible variations according to the melodic line. The command of a repertoire of formulas also provides the bard a system of substitutions of words and a sense of construction of parallelism of phonemes rhymes and alliterations.

For this reason, I consider his analytical tools suitable for exploring the poetic-musical abilities in repente by means of identification of systematized elements of composition part of them unconscious and the way that the cantador understands and perceives the units and the totality of their compositions. The theory of composition by formulas postulates the existence of cognitive standards and models used by the artist in the composition of sonorous structures and or narratives in the process of their performance.

This model would be a starting point, a basis for the improviser, as are the formulaic expressions identified by Lord. Evidently, the cantoria of the Brazilian Northeast has fundamental differences with the epics of the Balkans. Mainly, the bards sing as they compose verses about predefined plots in which the use of the formula constitutes precisely the repetition and variation of expressions that are aggregated to these narratives.

For the repentista, a repetition of words or entire lines would be a gross error. Another reservation that should be raised in relation to use of the concept of formula for understanding the method of the cantador refers to the varied themes of the verses in this context, which impede the identification of lines that in the epic poems are systematically substituted or rearranged in the act of retelling a story.

Similar warnings are raised by White The concept of formula serves as an inspiration to understanding the relationship between rhythm and word in the construction of the poetic improvisation of the cantoria. The Northeastern cantador composes his verses by following rhythmic standards expressed not in recurring phrases, but in the toadas, in the melodies.

Raulino Silva, a young cantador, once told me that the toada is like a form of cutting dough to make pastry, which can be understood to mean that it allows the generation of regular and homogenous sonorous substances. He affirmed that most of the cantadores have command of concepts of versification. But no one uses this [when singing], no one counts syllables to make a stanza. We create meter with the toada, by the rhythm of the music that we sing. We chose the word and know that that word did not work because it does "not give a rhythm," does not give a rhythm while you sing.

So, all the cantadores use this mode of creating meter. Even those most tied to this technical business know that one thing rhymes with another, and the first rhymes with the second and the third rhymes with any old thing.

Even they use this form of creating meter: Because, when you use a word that "does not give rhythm", you know it. In the same sense, other poets told me that to sing repente is like "filling" a recipient: The quantitative metaphors of form and recipients add to the understanding of meter as something tied to musicality. An error in meter is perceived by the ear as a lack or excess of musical quantities, because the verses have a fixed quantity of syllables that correspond to musical tempos while the linguistic accents coincide with accents of melodic rhythm Oliveira The same idea is relevant for other traditions of repentismo.

For the Basque bertsolari , the melody governs the creation of the verse: Like the singers of the Brazilian Northeast, these poets do not count syllables when they improvise, because they base themselves on a correspondence between melody and meter. Singing that does not force the melody respects the meter. In cantoria, as well as in these other traditions of sung and improvised verse, the toadas, memorized elements, serve as a type of formula, guiding the composition of the verses, to the degree that the melodic designs fit the meter structure of the stanza and allow its internalization and its use without the need for a conscious counting of syllables and lines.

As a "mold," the toadas of the cantoria indicate more than the quantity of poetic syllables corresponding to pulses of each line. The Sextilha, like the other modalities of verses of seven syllables, does not have a fixed distribution of accents within the lines.

The only required accent is that of the seventh syllable. Their toadas are melodic motifs that coincide with the poetic lines. According to Oliveira , these motifs are composed of eight musical pulses, with a merger of the last two pulses in the acute verses or with the last one corresponding to the final syllable of a paroxytone in a "low verse", and the last two syllables in the proparoxytone verses.

Nevertheless, the tunes of a Sextilha are formed by three phrases of two motifs, analogous to the structure of the stanzas in three phrases of two lines. The final motifs of each phrase are often the same, repeated or transposed one step below in the scale. These motifs correspond to the paired lines of the stanza, which rhyme with each other, which forms a parallel between repetition or similarity on the plane of the phonemes and on the plane of the melody.

This correspondence between phonological similarities and melodic similarities is not as systematic in all the genres of cantoria, but it nevertheless assists in the composition of the verses, informing the sequence of rhymes of each modality.

In the modalities of 10 and 11 syllables, there is a fixed disposition of the accents in the verses. The toadas musically mark these accents. In the decasyllabic verses like the Mote in 10 and the Martelo Agalopado, the accents fall on the third, sixth and tenth syllables or pulses of each verse, as in this improvisation by Jonas Bezerra over a mote the tonic syllables are in bold.

I don't confuse love with appearance Love has completeness The concept of mother no one can change: A flower that transcends innocence. Love is always in the presidency, But doesn't put its name up for election. There is no ballot box being checked Or anyone looking to be an alternate.

Love is the only president Who governs the country of the heart. Inda tem um an jo para me aju dar. I know that Jesus in Heaven knows me Likes my verse, this propaganda. If I ask for a repente, Christ, sends me one, He sends it quickly, it descends from heaven.

Later, in my head, the verse appears, Descends through the mouth for me to pronounce. Even has an angel to help me. And there is a machine in my judgment: It doesn't do anything, just improvises The ten of us gallop along the sea. They thus form four regular tempos with three pulses each, which are preferentially sung faster than the other styles usually are. In the first verse of a stanza and in those that follow "acute verses", the first pulse of the first group is a pause or the prolongation of the tonic syllable that closes the previous line.

By conducting a scansion of the first verse of this stanza, it can be seen that it has only ten and not eleven poetic syllables. This is because, upon allocating the tonic syllable of an oxytone word in the third pulse of the second tempo the fifth syllable , the same process takes place as with any acute verse in a Galope: It is thus clear that the incorporated rhythm of the verse sung predominates as a practical foundation for the improvisation on the established norms of poetry.

The toada is an essential cognitive device in the repente, because the singer uses it to incorporate the rhythmic standards and gain a global perception of the stanzas he composes. Therefore, the toada performs for the cantadores a function similar to that of the formula for the bards of ancient Yugoslavia although it is more important in terms of the rhythm of the poetry than for the content of the verses. Other abilities and resources of presentation are relevant in the poetic improvisation. I emphasize "knowledge" or experience, which provide information about origin and various forms of content that the poet should accumulate to be able to use when improvising.

This respect does not imply appreciation for speculative thinking, but for the exhibition of illustration. Nevertheless, beyond exhibition, broad experience helps the cantador open routes during the improvisation, for example, by inserting original ideas in common themes or finding something to say about uncommon themes and difficult rhymes which offer few possibilities imposed by a mote or deixa.

In addition, given that cantoria is an agonistic art, the poet must be prepared to confront its clashes. It is important to have command of a wide range of knowledge and issues, because they can be raised by a companion, asked for by listeners or demanded at a festival. In the poetic dialog, a cantador seeks to compose his stanza, or at least plan it, at the time in which his partner is presenting his verses.

In addition, he first constructs the conclusion the last two verses of the stanza and later thinks of the middle and the beginning. Some try to compose the entire stanza during these 20 or 30 seconds that precede singing.

The purpose of this is to have the end of the stanza also be the climax, because that is when the public pays closest attention. The bertsolariak Basque repentistas first think of a distinctive conclusion for the stanza, or at least for the final rhyme. This has a methodological function, because the definition of a strong idea for the ending gives greater security to the composition of the remaining portions, and has a communicative function, because the stanza is constructed in a crescendo and its peak coincides with the conclusion, startling the public.

Reminds me of a trap and snare A bird nibbling fruits, But I don't forget the yokels With face snorting dust. Crazy to go to the dance, And dad doesn't want to let them, But it's impossible to break even: When he sleeps, they go.

These stanzas show a very common pattern. He then uses a recurring method of creation of images in cantoria, which is the comparison of actions of animals and phenomenon of nature with attitudes, inventions and human attributes. These figures express the place of man in a cosmology according to which nature represents the perfection of divine creation, while man, imperfect and small before this magnitude, can mitigate his imperfection and impose himself on nature by means of techniques and knowledge that he builds from the divine gifts of intelligence and free will.

As a function of the redundancy of ideas that they present, the recurring themes are a base for the composition of the verses. The themes carry collectively based references about feelings and social values and serve as a route for the composition.

They perceive that improvisation is not a merely spontaneous action or one that is strictly sudden. It requires method and planning. In addition, upon improvising, the singer establishes a relationship with a set of aesthetic models and cultural references. To give meaning to the ideas, values and collective dilemmas, the poet navigates this framework, collecting images, forms of construction of thoughts and forms of expression, to rearrange them in new stanzas, in specific situations.

It is fast, rapid reasoning, At times [singing repente], you say something without thinking, as a reflex, like a goal keeper when he defends a point blank shot.

Like when you are walking and you slip and you support yourself on the other leg to not fall. And it works.

But normally you think of something to say. So, improvisation is thinking rapidly. To illustrate this type of movement, he uses metaphors: Then, he concludes that poetic improvisation demands an agility of thinking to formulate what is to be said in response to situations.

What has been said until now about the abilities of the repentistas allows understanding that their improvisation does not come from nowhere. Even in the act of sudden repente, "without thinking," "without planning," the rhythm incorporated to the poetry, the recurring themes, the experience, the stored associations of rhymes and ideas are resources the cantadores use for their task.

In addition to requiring preparation for example the acquisition of knowledge and constant practice, the art of repente demands, at the time of presentation, planning for the composition of the verses.

Therefore, from a practical perspective, it does not make sense to speak of pure improvisation. This becomes clearer if we consider improvisation in cantoria and in other contexts as relational in two senses: Thinking about the relationship between the improviser and his cognitive models, Nettl ; criticizes the opposition established in Western erudite music between composition and improvisation, to the degree to which both involve the relationship of music with cognitive models of their art.

He prefers to understand these two practices not as opposites, but as two poles in a continuum , distinguished by the time between creation and presentation. O que ele faz? Poderes e habilidades secretas. De um lado.. Trilhas de Impureza e muito. Apesar de ter sido escrito tendo em mente o sistema Storyteller. Por muito tempo. A Trilha Impura. Bom proveito!

O Autor. Trilhas Impuras.. Mas do que exatamente trata este livro? Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Israel Fabiano. Lucas David. Rafael Ferro. Alexandre Pedro Campos Neto.

Leona Wolf. Ramon Amorim. Estefferson Torres. Victor H. Salubri Jhonne Santos. Jairo Figueiredo. Vinicius Farnel Sanchez. Mensageiro Obscuro.