Michael Boyle's soundofheaven.info two downloadable books, “Designing Strength Training Programs and Facilities” and. “Advances in Functional Training ”. Editorial Reviews. Review. In the seven years since the publication of his first book, Functional Training for Sports, new understanding of functional anatomy. Download FUNCTIONAL TRAINING FOR SPORTS- MICHAEL soundofheaven.info
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Those photos spurred a trend that is now probably a multimillion-dollar business in the manufacture and sale of these simple tools. Elite-level athletes take great pride in their fitness and physical strength. The key may lie in performing static stretching near the beginning of the workout. Many female athletes will not be able to make this type of progression. A training program built around actions that do not occur in sport simply does not make sense..
After analyzing the demands of the sport. Athletes in training are not necessarily powerlifters or Olympic lifters. Chapter 3 Assessing Functional Strength As stated in chapter 1. Does this mean you cannot bench-press in a functional program? A good functional strength training program employs both tried and true strength exercises such as the bench press and less conventional exercises such as a single-leg squat.
The key is to develop functional strength. A typical strength test requires the athlete to move a predetermined amount of weight in an exercise for which there are readily available norms. Too often in the field of strength and conditioning. Remember too that raw numbers must be put into context. In most cases an athlete who can bench- press pounds kg would be considered strong. The key is to make the program more functional without throwing out the baby with the bathwater.
As strength is the goal. Please refer to chapter 8 for detailed chin-up progressions. In order to improve at chin-ups. Elbows must be extended after each rep is completed. Maximum Number of Chin-Ups or Pull-Ups Correct chin-up palms toward the face and pull-up palms away from face technique is essential for accurate assessment.
The maximum number of chin-ups or pull-ups may be used to determine the weights used for weighted repetitions. Most athletes who claim they can do large numbers of pull-ups or chin-ups actually perform half or three-quarter reps. Most athletes will take up to one year to achieve even the high school level if they have not regularly performed chin-ups.
Kipping using momentum to move the body is not allowed. Athletes who cannot do a chin-up are not functionally strong and may be more likely to be injured. Using this type of testing and training progression. We have adapted our standards and now require athletes to move to a weighted chin-up once they can do 10 chin-ups. Generally this brings the reps down from 10 to 3. Once an athlete does 10 reps at body weight. Count only the reps in which the thumbs touch the body while the body remains straight see figure 3.
If athletes cannot perform a suspension inverted row. The thumbs must touch the chest. The suspension apparatus should be set at about waist height. Figure 3. Make sure there is full extension of the elbow and the body is kept perfectly straight. This is of particular importance to athletes prone to rotator cuff problems such as swimmers.
As with the chin-up. The athlete places the feet on a bench or plyo box and grips the handles or rings as if to perform a bench press. With the entire body held rigid. Maximum Number of Suspension Inverted Rows The suspension inverted row is the reverse of the bench press and primarily works the scapular retractors.
The test is over when the athlete fails to do another push-up or cannot keep pace with the metronome. The athlete should keep pace with the metronome. For each push-up. As in the previous two tests. For further progression. The head must stay in line with the torso. Maximum Number of Push-Ups This is a much more accurate test for larger athletes than the bench press. To prevent cheating and make counting simple.
Do not count reps in which back position is not maintained. We have found that functionally strong athletes can perform sets of five single-leg squats while holding 5-pound 2. The athlete places the back foot on a conventional exercise bench or a specially designed stand. The test is relatively simple. The athlete selects a load in the 5RM range and then performs as many repetitions as possible until technical failure i. Kettlebells are preferred because they are easier to hold.
Athletes unfamiliar with or unaccustomed to single-leg strength work should progress through three weeks of split squats both feet on the floor or three weeks of rear-foot-elevated split squats back foot elevated before beginning single-leg squats..
We have begun using maximum reps. Another possibility is to test single-leg squats. Rear-Foot-Elevated Split Squat Over the past five years we have attempted to develop and administer a valid. The conventional double-leg back squat has been used for many years to test lower body strength. Loads typically entail two dumbbells or two kettlebells. Failure in a back or front squat position could result in unsafe.
Weighted repetitions can get difficult for males because multiple layers of weight vests are needed. Our elite females can do 10 repetitions with 40 pounds 20 kg of total weight pound vest and pound dumbbells. This side loading is preferred to a back or front squat position for safety reasons. Failure with dumbbells held at the sides will simply result in a pair of dumbbells on the floor.
Assessing Functional Lower Body Strength Safely and accurately assessing functional lower body strength is significantly more difficult than assessing upper body strength. Vertec is an adjustable device that measures both reach height and jump height. If this is not possible. The athlete must jump and land in the same place. Increases in leg power will be at least partially attributable to increases in leg strength. The Just Jump System and Vertec are the best devices for evaluating the vertical jump.
With Vertec. Just Jump is a device that measures time in the air and converts it to inches. All these factors may influence the score. Both devices are distributed by M-F Athletic Company and can be purchased at www. Double-Leg Vertical Jump A simple alternative is to use the double-leg vertical jump see figure 3. The vertical jump test is relatively safe to administer and has readily available norms.
Consistency among testers and in test administration is essential. At this point you should better understand the demands of the sport and have an idea of your strength level or the strength level of your athletes. This is strong evidence for the injury prevention benefits of a balance of pushing and pulling movements against resistance in training.
Although I somewhat agree. They are not the program and should not be the program. It is also worth noting that we had very few collision-related shoulder injuries on our BU teams. The next step is to develop the plan. But the numbers obtained from testing are helpful in motivating and monitoring subsequent strength development. Testing only shows what areas are in need of training and what areas may be prone to injury.
Some coaches may criticize the testing protocols presented in this chapter because some of the tests can be construed as tests of muscular endurance. Our average 1RM in the chin-up was pounds 45 kg when we tested. The evaluation of functional strength is an important step in developing a training plan to improve. The idea is to develop a plan that makes sense for the sport and strengthens areas that are key to performance or to injury prevention.
In our gym it is normal to see everyone performing weighted chin-ups. I would rather you copy my program than attempt to add bits of the recipe in this book to the recipes of others.
Some people can really cook. They also understand that the plan should be followed. They understand that ingredients can be altered but that there should be a plan. What I should. Just make sure you understand the rules first. The better choice is to choose a recipe created by an experienced chef and then do a great job of making the meal.
Instead of using the program that was so successful for them. One noted strength and conditioning coach used to say. In previous writings I have warned that it is a mistake to simply copy programs. At this point you can contemplate bold changes to the recipe because you have extensive experience cooking and baking. Some people write cookbooks. Then they email me the program and say.
The same thing happens when coaches develop their performance training programs from a mixture of sources. They have developed the ability to alter the recipe without spoiling the meal. The sous-chef is the second in command in the kitchen. Even in the restaurant world. A combination of recipes if you will. I have athletes who have trained with me for years and eventually become coaches themselves. If you have been developing programs for a few years. Many third. The programs in this book are provided for just that purpose.
Cooks follow the recipes. Chapter 4 Designing a Program I talk frequently with coaches about sport performance programming. I would encourage you to copy rather than to mix. If you were cooking something for the first time. Find a good recipe that meets your needs and follow it exactly.
Would you add ingredients from one of the recipes while subtracting ingredients from the other? If you did this. Most baked foods require flour. So are you a cook or a chef? If you are creating your first program for yourself or for a team. My experience suggests that most coaches need more direction in performance training program design. Often the conversation starts something like this: When it comes to developing new performance programs or adopting all or parts of existing programs.
But if you are not confident or prepared to create a program. So be informed. Cookbooks were created for a reason. Program Basics Once you have honestly assessed where you fit on the program design proficiency continuum, the next step is to ensure you understand the underlying concepts.
This chapter will familiarize you with the concepts of program design, the tools used to implement those concepts, and how to properly progress a functional training program. Programming for Conditioning and Fitness Every program must start with a two- or three-week base-building period.
For athletes in great shape already, this preparatory period keeps their fitness from declining.
For athletes with any significant deficit in their baseline fitness, it will sound an alarm. The preparatory period should consist of tempo running to develop a base of sprint-related conditioning.
Tempo running is neither sprinting nor jogging. It consists of runs of various distances generally or yards or meters interspersed with walking recovery.
At our training facility, athletes frequently stride the length of our yard turf, turn, and stride back. A stride is in that middle ground between a jog and a sprint. We also do tempo runs on our treadmills, picking a moderate stride pace 9 to 10 MPH , and do intervals such as 15 on, 30 off or 20 on, 40 off.
After ensuring an adequate fitness base you can start designing a functional exercise program.
The emphasis is not just on improving strength but also on creating strength that can be used in sport or in life. To begin, review these basic questions posed in chapter Is your sport a sprint-dominated sport that emphasizes speed and power? How long does a play, point, shift, or routine last in your sport? After analyzing what actually happens in a game, choose conditioning activities that attempt to mimic the energy systems and style of the game.
Then be specific: Athletes need to be told how far to run, how fast to run, and how much rest to take between runs. Athletes allowed to run at their own pace usually run too slowly. Athletes allowed to control their own rest periods most often rest too long. Soccer, field hockey, lacrosse, basketball, and ice hockey, for example, are all sprint-dominated sports in which athletes stop and start frequently.
It makes sense, then, that training should feature stop-and-start conditioning activities, such as the yard shuttle run. Programming for Strength From a strength standpoint, most sports are the same. One of my favorite quotes was provided by Marco Cardinale, high-performance director for London , at a seminar I attended in Boston. All the coaches believed their programs needed to be different because their sport. The truth is that the basic strength training needs are pretty much alike across sports.
And, even if they were different, it would not drastically change the way you strength-train. The conditioning aspect of practice might be different, but strength training probably follows the 80—20 rule, or the Pareto principle.
Eighty percent of what we do in the weight room will be the same for every sport. Every athlete has the same sets of muscles, and strengthening those muscles will be amazingly similar. Strength is needed to facilitate power and speed.
Think of strength as the base on which everything else is built. A strength program is as simple as a push, a pull, a knee-dominant exercise, a hip-dominant exercise, and some core work. I have had the pleasure of coaching or training Olympic medalists and world champions in basketball, football, ice hockey, soccer, judo, rowing, and a host of other sports. Essentials of Program Design To properly design a functional strength training program, keep the following principles in mind.
Learn the basic patterns first. Master the movement basics before considering progressions to make an exercise program more functional. The biggest mistake is for athletes who are not competent in a basic movement, such as the squat, to attempt to load or advance the movement. An athlete must first master the body-weight versions of every exercise before loading the exercises.
Then and only then should you follow the recommended progressions. Begin with simple body-weight exercises. The number one way to destroy a strength program is by attempting to lift too much weight too soon. If an athlete can perform an exercise with body weight but struggles with an external load, then obviously the external load is the problem.
Either reduce or eliminate the external load. For upper body pulling or rowing movements, many athletes are unable to begin with even body-weight resistance. In this case, machines or elastic assistance may be necessary. Progress from simple to complex.
The progressions in this book were developed over many years. Follow the progressions. For single-leg exercises, the athlete should master the simplest exercise, such as the split squat, before progressing to a more complex exercise such as the rear- foot-elevated split squat.
The exercises follow a functional progression and add increasing levels of difficulty at the appropriate time as needed. Use the concept of progressive resistance. Progressive resistance is the key to success. In the simplest sense, try to add weight or reps every week. If an athlete does the same weight for one or two more reps, she has made progress. If an athlete uses a weight that is 5 pounds 2. We have built Olympic and world champions with these simple principles. Progressive resistance is credited to Milo of Crete, who eventually carried a bull by beginning with a calf and carrying it every day as it grew.
This is the simple basis for strength training. For body-weight exercise, the progression is simple. Begin with three sets of 8 repetitions in week 1, move to three sets of 10 in week 2, and finish with three sets of 12 in week 3. This is simple progressive resistance training utilizing just body weight. By the fourth week, you can generally progress to a more difficult exercise or add external loads.
External resistance can be a dumbbell, a kettlebell, a weight vest, a sandbag, or a medicine ball. These more difficult exercises can then be progressed by the same method or through basic resistance concepts. Simply adding 5 pounds per week to an exercise can theoretically result in an increase of pounds kg per year. Most athletes dream about gains like this, and in reality, most athletes eventually plateau on this type of program, but beginners can progress for a long time with basic resistance progression.
One word of advice in program design: Periodization Periodization might be the most overstudied subject in the training world. Tens of thousands of. Higher-volume, lower-load periods should be alternated with higher- intensity, lower-volume periods.
Dan John, another giant in the field, recommended between 15 and 25 reps for major exercises. That means you have the choice of accumulating volume with three sets of eight 24 reps or exercising more intensely with three sets of five 15 reps. The big takeaway is to write simple programs and coach them. A well-coached bad program will beat a poorly coached good program every time. The devil is in the details of the execution. Exercise Classifications Our upper body, lower body, and core exercises are classified according to one of three terms:.
We identify subsequent exercises as either progressions or regressions. Athletes perform the baseline exercise for three weeks and then move to a progression of the exercise. However, athletes who experience difficulty with the baseline exercise, either because of injury or technical issues, are immediately regressed. This system of progressions and regressions is the key tool for proper exercise performance. Progressions are steps forward from the baseline exercises and are numbered consecutively from easy to difficult.
Progression can be as simple as adding load via progressive resistance, but progressions in difficulty can also be achieved by altering how body weight is used. A progression 3 exercise will be fairly difficult. Regressions are numbered also, but in reverse order on the scale, from easy to easier to easiest.
Therefore, a regression 3 exercise will be very simple. The key is understanding that every exercise must be mastered before progressing, and mastery may entail the use of regressions from the baseline.
I love this quote from legendary track and field coach Boo Schexnayder: Your eyes will tell you. Our program is a simple periodization cycle of sets of 8 to 10 accumulation , followed by sets of three intensification and then sets of five. There is nothing fancy about what we do, but we do strive to add weight or reps every week. Our athletes have used these techniques to develop incredible strength.
Ed Lippie is a former collegiate football player, a strength coach, and a personal trainer, and he was a model for many of the pictures in the first edition of Functional Training for Sports. More relative to this sidebar, Ed used the techniques described in this chapter to perform three chin-ups with pounds 60 kg , the best I have seen in our facility. Ben progressed to pounds kg for five reps in the rear-foot-elevated split squat, again using a simple periodization approach.
Whether you are an Olympic athlete, a coach, or a trainer, the basics of progressive resistance and periodization produce dramatic results. Training Tools Many coaches and athletes think that functional training consists of cute exercises done with stability balls and balance devices.
This could not be further from the truth. True functional training revolves around body-weight training and progressive resistance exercise. Athletes should master body-weight exercises and then add progressively heavier external loads to these exercises. Watch a novice attempt to split-squat with just his body weight; the lack of balance is evident.
What we call balance is really stabilizer strength. In most cases, additional external resistance is not initially needed as the athlete learns the patterns.
What is needed is to master the pattern and then add resistance. Think of functional training as being the opposite of dysfunctional training, or as physical therapist and Functional Movement Screen cofounder Gray Cook is fond of saying, adding strength to dysfunction. Essential to the concept of functional training is learning to move before you load. Evidence of dysfunctional training is seen in every gym in the United States as people attempt to simply move a load from point A to point B with technique that varies from questionable to unsafe.
Following is a brief overview of some key pieces of functional training equipment and some simple guidelines for how and when to use them. One of the best tools available for power development, the medicine ball has enjoyed a huge resurgence in the past decade. Although medicine balls see figure 4.
The medicine ball can be used for upper body power work through exercises such as chest passes, overhead throws, and slams, and it can be thrown for distance for total-body power work.
The medicine ball, when combined with a masonry wall, is hands down the best tool for power training of the core and hip musculature. An entire section on training with the medicine ball is included in chapter 9. Common sense must be used to prevent injury with the medicine ball. Athletes at our training facility do not perform partner drills that require catching the ball, nor do they perform any single-arm. Catching a medicine ball can result in hand injury, while single- arm overhead activities may be too stressful on the shoulder joint.
Balls come in bouncing and nonbouncing varieties and various weights and sizes. The most useful balls tend to be between 2 and 8 pounds 1 to 3. There may not be a better tool for functional training than a weighted vest or belt. Weighted vests and belts are available in numerous styles and have come a long way from the old canvas fishing- style varieties. Some coaches may think that using a weighted vest or belt is redundant if athletes are already training with bars or dumbbells. However, a weighted vest adds an external load with minimal disruption of the movement of the body.
Athletes do not need to change the position of the upper body to hold an external load; they simply need to put on a weighted vest or belt. Vests and belts are excellent ways to add additional resistance to what were formerly viewed as body-weight exercises.
Exercises such as push-ups, single-leg squats, and inverted rows can now be safely progressed well beyond body-weight resistance. In addition, for sports such as ice hockey and football, weighted vests and belts allow athletes to simulate the weight of equipment during conditioning workouts. Foam rollers see figure 4. Rollers come in various colors, lengths, and densities but are all used for self-massage.
The terms self-myofascial release, self-massage, and soft tissue work all apply to the act of foam rolling. Chapter 5 covers the use of the roller in great detail. The stability ball see figure 4. The overuse of the stability ball alone has caused many strength and conditioning coaches to view the entire area of functional training negatively.
Coaches and athletes need to remember that it is simply one tool and may be inappropriate for many beginning trainees. The stability ball is excellent for a few specific exercises e. Videos showing athletes standing on a ball are negligent.
Athletes should never stand on a stability ball. The risks far outweigh any potential benefits. If you desire an unstable surface for additional balance training for the lower extremity, use another tool.
Coaches and athletes should also be cautious about sitting on a stability ball during barbell or dumbbell exercises or using the stability ball as a substitute for a bench for pressing movements. Stability balls should never be used for support when using dumbbells or a bar. Caution should even be used with so called burst-resistant balls. There have been reports of burst-resistant balls tearing in the same manner as conventional balls and causing serious injury. Our current policy is body weight only and no standing on stability balls for safety reasons.
From a functional conditioning standpoint. Slide Board The slide board was initially developed as a training device for speedskaters. Athletes can develop conditioning while also developing appropriate muscle patterns.
The slide board allows the athlete to work all the extensor muscles of the lower body as well as the hip abductors and adductors.
Figure 4. It is the only piece of conditioning equipment that can provide energy system and muscular system work in this position. The slide board allows the athlete to perform energy system work while standing and. No other piece of energy system conditioning equipment can provide all these benefits. Agility Ladder The agility ladder may be one of the best pieces of functional training equipment available.
The agility ladder provides benefits to both the muscular system and the neuromuscular system while increasing muscle temperature. It is not a slide board in the conventional sense because you cannot perform energy system work on it. Valslides Invented by L. Like the mini slide board. Until the advent of the agility ladder. Mini Slide Board The mini slide board has no bumpers but can be used for lower body exercises such as slide- board lunges and slide-board leg curls and for a wide range of core progressions.
It allows a dynamic warm-up that can emphasize any number of components. The TRX is the most popular commercial model. It is an excellent tool for adding upper body instability to the push-up and offers an excellent progression from feet-elevated push-ups.
Suspension trainers make inverted rows better for two major reasons. I have become a fan of rings for suspension training more than the TRX. Suspension Trainers Suspension trainers have become very popular over the last decade. Its design is so unique that I would consider it an essential tool. This creates a very shoulder-friendly exercise. The AT Sports Flex see figure 4. We keep BOSU balls in the facility just for push-ups.
The Functional Continuum Given the importance of determining the functional properties of an exercise or drill when designing a program. I thought it would be useful to have a taxonomy to refer to in this regard.
The functional continuum see figure 4. The least functional exercise I could envision is a lying leg press. The continuum shown in the figure. The athlete has progressed up the functional continuum to a standing position. The next step in the progression is to work on one leg: At this point the athlete is standing and self-stabilizing.
The figure depicts the progression from the relatively nonfunctional machine-based exercises to highly functional exercises done on a single leg.
And it follows this sequence: Then it is on to the barbell squat. At this point the exercise is extremely functional. This chart is divided into lower body exercises both knee dominant and hip dominant. The muscles of the lower body and trunk are now engaged as. Next comes the standing machine squat.
In the leg press. What holds female athletes back is often the low expectations and preconceptions of those training them. Any differences really have no bearing on how a training program would be designed or applied. Comparing the body composition of athletes at other schools or in other programs done with different methods. Education and the promotion of positive role models are essential for female athletes.
Equipment Needs for Training Female Athletes. The only body fat information given to athletes should come from the coach. Athletes develop tightness and inflexibility based on the repetitive patterns of their sports. Female athletes need to be exposed to photos of athletes similar to themselves who have a body composition that is considered acceptable.
Functional Training and Female Athletes Trainers and coaches are always curious how training should differ between male and female athletes.
Although they may not possess the same upper body strength as elite male athletes. Female athletes are often no more flexible than male athletes in similar sports. Whether this is unintentional is not clear. All too often visual role models for women are fashion models or entertainers who do not have the attributes of the average female athlete. Women are more coachable and not as extrinsically competitive as men.
Most of what I was initially told about training female athletes proved to be untrue. Women tend to focus more on what they can do and less on what others are doing. By extrinsically competitive. I mean that women are not nearly as worried about what another athlete is lifting.
The solution is addressing the issues. The old theory that female athletes need to stay away from body-weight upper body exercises is particularly untrue. This is a unique societal influence that coaches must be aware of and work to overcome.
After training elite female athletes in basketball. This makes them easier to coach. Some athletic programs have adopted a head-in-the-sand approach to issues of eating disorders. Our elite female soccer players are not significantly more flexible than their male counterparts. All muscles and bones are the same. Female athletes must be reminded of what height and weight is normal for their sport and their body type. Women and girls may not be able to begin with a body-weight exercise such as the chin-up.
But body image is a huge issue for female athletes. Statistics about weight and body fat percentages are often fabricated. This does a great disservice to these women. At no point should coaches lower their expectations for female athletes. PlateMates are simply 1. If you have only 5-pound-increment dumbbells. One possible exception is the use of body weight as the initial resistance for upper body work. The male example again illustrates this point. Purchase full-size plastic plates that are the size of a regulation pound 20 kg plate.
Conventional dip belts can fall off small female athletes. Again most weight rooms are outfitted with weight belts. Dip belts. As your athletes gain strength. Many female athletes will not be able to make this type of progression. Moving from 45 pounds to 50 pounds is only a 5-pound jump. Five-pound 2. PlateMates are the solution. Although women and girls can develop excellent upper body strength.
Exercises such as push-ups and pull-ups may need to be modified for beginning female athletes. With proper equipment. This is one clear area of difference. Would you ask a stronger athlete to go from pound 30 kg dumbbells to pound 40 kg dumbbells in one week? Having dumbbells from 5 through at least 50 in 2. All the following recommendations also apply to training young athletes of either sex. Round PlateMates do not work well on hexagonal dumbbells and could pose a safety hazard.
Dumbbells in 2. Buy lighter Olympic bars that take Olympic plates. Younger and weaker athletes should look like everyone else in the weight room. Ask a male athlete to jump from to on the bench press in one week. The major differences for training women and girls actually center around equipment needs and progression.
Females generally have smaller waists than males. If you are a proponent of weight belts. Consider that when less-experienced athletes advance from two pound 7 kg dumbbells to two pound 10 kg dumbbells. Seeing themselves in the mirror with large- diameter plates provides a huge psychological boost.
Many companies now stock these new lighter.
Make sure to purchase the proper PlateMates for your style of dumbbell: Weight belts. The same logic described earlier applies.
These are not common but can be purchased. Many young and female athletes have little or no strength training background and may need lighter bars to begin with. Once your facility is properly equipped. This is only a 10 percent jump. Most personal trainers and strength coaches do not consider the unique equipment needs of female athletes. When you design a program. Little did I know that our programing would also be creating one of the most beautiful examples of what a female athlete can and should look like.
Women in general. When the first edition of Functional Training for Sports was published. Exercises should look smooth and athletic.
I have a simple rule: Everything has to look good. Technique comes before all else. If athletes are struggling to master an exercise. For too long female athletes were ashamed to list their actual weight for fear they would be perceived as fat. Since gaining 15 pounds to be at the top of my sport [for the Olympics]. Use body weight first. Knight was quoted as saying: These are the key points: Learn the basics. References Poliquin. Science Periodical on Research and Technology in Sport.
Variety in strength training. It will continue to change and improve as a more functional vantage point permeates sports training. Chapter 5 Foam Rolling. The old days of performing a series of the same static stretches for every sport. Physical therapist Mike Clark is credited by many. When the first edition of Functional Training for Sports was published in we had not even begun to use a foam roller in our preworkout sequence.
And yet. Those photos spurred a trend that is now probably a multimillion-dollar business in the manufacture and sale of these simple tools. Suddenly the warm-up was not literally about temperature think about the term warm-up but about muscle tissue quality.
It was a form of a self-acupressure. What turned a simple piece of foam into a must-have preparation tool? What happened was that strength and conditioning coaches and personal trainers began to realize that massage might be the fastest way to get healthy and stay healthy. Muscle tissue. We have hard rollers. The techniques illustrated were simple and fairly self-explanatory. Foam Rolling A degree of skepticism is warranted when it comes to new training equipment and gadgets.
The message from the elite levels of sport is clear: If you want to get healthy or stay healthy. This major change in the attitude toward injury prevention and treatment has been illustrated by a huge increase in the awareness that hands-on techniques such as conventional massage. How can we mass- produce massage or soft tissue work for large groups of athletes at a reasonable cost? Enter the foam roller.
Muscle tissue that is filled with knots. As strength and conditioning coaches and personal trainers watched elite-level athletes tout their successes and improvements from various soft tissue techniques.
We have moved away from the injury care modes of isokinetics and electronics that were popular in the s to a more European-inspired process that focuses on hands-on soft tissue care. Get a foam roller and use body weight to apply pressure to sore spots.
The array of soft tissue tools is amazing and increases every year. The success of physical therapists with soft tissue mobilization the physical therapy term for massage and MAT. What am I supposed to do with that? Today nearly every strength and conditioning facility contains an array of foam rollers. For every one useful innovation. What does all this have to do with foam rollers. Using the foam roller before stretching makes the tissue more pliable and extensible.
The key is to search for tender areas. Tissue that has been rolled can elongate properly. We are now encouraging our clients to find the sore spots and focus on them. Most athletes or clients. The roller is now used to apply longer. With the increased use of modalities such as ultrasound and electrical stimulation. Athletes or patients were simply instructed to use the roller to apply pressure to sensitive areas in the muscles. A Minute About Massage I believe that massage fell out of favor during the physical therapy boom of the s not because it was ineffective.
Why rolling works remains a controversial topic. Regardless of the name. In Europe and in certain elite-level sports. Using a Foam Roller A foam roller is simply a cylindrical piece of some type of extruded hard-celled foam.
Athletes now use rollers as well as balls. Think pool noodles but a little more dense and larger in diameter. Rollers come in various sizes. Depending on the orientation of the therapist. The use of foam rollers has progressed from an acupressure-type approach to a self-massage approach.
It is important to note that foam rolling is very counterintuitive. In the current state of health care. In simple terms. To me the answer is obvious. Rolling after a workout may aid in recovery from strenuous exercise. We most often see creep in the back side of the body. If cost were not an issue I would have a team of massage therapists on call for my athletes at all times. Most athletes struggle to afford the services of a qualified coach or the cost of a gym membership.
Stretch fascia quickly and it will tear the most frequent form of connective tissue injury. They become stiffer as they are extended due to the reorientation of collagen fibers Currier and Nelson With no ability to get reimbursed. The nice thing about the foam roller is that it can be used on a daily basis. If the stretch is applied slowly enough. The analogy I often use to describe creep involves slowly pushing a fist into a plastic bag.
Think about sitting. The foam roller can provide unlimited self- massage for under 20 dollars. In our setting we allow 5 to 10 minutes for soft tissue work at the beginning of the session before the warm-up. The result of creep is a change in the quality of the muscle tissue. Mechanical creep is defined as elongation of tissue beyond its intrinsic extensibility. Although there are no hard and fast rules. How long an athlete or client rolls is also individual. The important point about creep is that these constant low-load forces caused by sitting make muscle tissue or the superficial fascia longer and more dense.
Foam Rolling Techniques and Tips Rolling can provide great benefits both before and after a workout. You do the math. Clair and Amber Davies recommend trigger point work up to 12 times a day in situations of acute pain A foam roller cannot feel. These are also the areas that seem to benefit most from the foam roller.
Creep is a property common to extensible soft tissues. We see an increase in collagen and effectively tissue that is locked long.
If the pressure is slow and consistent the bag does not tear immediately but instead stretches from the constant load over time. Foam rolling before a workout decreases muscle density and sets the stage for a better warm-up. Hands are directly connected to the brain and can feel. Hands work better than foam.
Think of foam rolling as a way to combat creep. Often athletes or clients are encouraged to simply roll until the pain dissipates or disappears. To address the hip rotators more specifically. To roll the hips the athlete sits on the roller with a slight tilt toward the side to be rolled and moves from the iliac crest to the hip joint to address the glute max.
We have never had any issues with rolling the lumbar spine. Foam Rolling the Low Back After rolling the hips. If you have any concerns about spinal injury. Figure 5. When the athlete reaches the area between the shoulder blades.
Putting the elbows together places the shoulder blades as far apart as possible. Foam Rolling the Upper Back The athlete moves up the body.
After working the TFL. In the floor technique the user abducts the leg over the roller and places the roller at about a degree angle to the leg. The rolling action should cover three portions beginning just above the knee in the area of the vastus medialis and pes anserine. The first is a floor-based technique that works well for beginners see figure 5.
The secondary technique requires a training room table or the top of a plyometric box. The athlete does 10 short rolls. There are two methods to roll the adductors. Sitting with the leg dropped over the roller allows the athlete to shift significantly more weight onto the roller and work deeper into the large adductor triangle.
Foam Rolling the Adductors The adductors are probably the most neglected area of the lower body. Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Published in: Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Be the first to like this. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Book details Author: Michael Boyle Pages: English ISBN If you want to download this book, click link in the last page 5.
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