Mini Project Report CLAP SWITCH - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. or read online for free. MINI PROJECT REPORT Sound operated switch using Timer IC it is full report. Download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd. Flag for Clap switch is an beginners project done using timer IC. PDF | In this paper the electronic circuit which is activated or turn on by the The NE based clap switch is cost efficiency Arduino based Clap Switch is 15+ million members; + million publications; k+ research projects LOCKER MENGGUNAKAN E-KTP BERBASIS ARDUINO PRO MINI.
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CLAP SWITCH A mini project report submitted in the partial fulfillment of Degree of Bachelor of Technology By soundofheaven.infoa: soundofheaven.info: This is a project on CLAP SWITCH which can switch on/off any electrical circuit The basic idea of clap switch is that the electric microphone picks up the sound. soundofheaven.info - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. This is a project on CLAP SWITCH which can switch on/off any electrical circuit by the sound of the clap. .. Mini Project Report CLAP SWITCH.
Under normal service conditions, they can be broadly divided into open-loop systems, each with a single opening, and tree systems with radial arranged lines. Since the invention of the first battery or "voltaic pile" in by Alessandro Volta and especially since the technically improved Daniel cell in , batteries have become a common power source for many household and industrial applications. The major disadvantage is that, it is generally cumbersome to have to clap one's hands to turn something ON or OFF and it's generally seen as simpler for most use cases to use a traditional light switch. Manbir Singh. Sudher Srinivas.
The output of the microphone is coupled to the base of the transistor using an electrolytic capacitor note: The top of the electrets microphone is at a few volts, the base conducts at around half a volt, so the leakages current of the capacitor all electrolytic capacitor here will not work. The top of the electrets microphone is at a few volts, the base conducts at around half a volt.
So the collector will have He times this leakage, which can usually be ignored.
The first time the microphone output goes positive, however, because somebody clapped this change gets coupled to the base entirely due to the action of the capacitor. This causes the current through the transistor to increase and this increase in current causes the voltage at the collector, which was sitting near the supply voltage at the collector, which was sitting near the supply voltage, to fall to nearly zero.
If you clapped loudly enough. This is not a high fidelity audio amplifier. Its function is to produce no output for slightly bigger sounds, so the customary biasing network can be omitted. Changing State: On a clap, the state of the bistable changes. The output of the amplifier is converted to a sharp pulse by passing it through a relatively low valued capacitor, of 0.
This is connected through streering diodes to the base of the transistor which is conducting. This transistor stop conducting, and the other transistor was not conducting anyway. So at a clap, both transistors become off. Then, those two capacitors across the base resistors come into action. The capacitor connecting to the base of the transistor which was ON has voltage across it.
The capacitor connecting to the base of the transistor which was OFF has no voltage across it. As the sound of the clap dies away, both bases rise towards the supply voltage.
But due to the difference in the charges of the two capacitors, the base of the transistor which was previously not conducting reaches the magic Until the next clap. Two Red Light Emitting Diodes have been placed in the two collector circuits so that this circuit can be made to work by itself. If you cover up one LED, and display the other prominently, you have it there - a clap operated light.
The major advantage of a clap switch is that you can something e. The major disadvantage is that its generally cumbersome to have to clap ones hands to turn something on or off and its generally seen as simpler for most use cases to use a traditional light switch. Pearson Education, Electronic Devices and Circuits T. Bogart Jr.
Beasley and G. Rico, Pearson Education, 6th edition, Electronic Devices and Circuits Dr. Lal Kishore, B. Publications, 2nd Edition, Rashid, Power Electronics: One of the ways through which the power loss occurs is by power theft so in order to conserve the power the power theft should be literally eradicated from the power system Power line communication PLC presents an interesting and economical solution for Automatic Meter Reading AMR.
In the detection system, the second digitally energy meter chip is used and the value of energy is stored. The recorded energy is compared with the value at the main kilo Watt-hour meter. So the remote detection of illegal power usage comes under Energy conservation. The detector and control system is proposed. The architecture of the system and their critical components are given. The measurement results are given. This paper describes detector system for illegal electricity usage using the power lines based on the research work-taking place at the Central Power Research Institute CPRI , Bangalore.
The target of this study is to discover new and possible solutions for this problem. If an Automatic Meter Reading system via Power line Communication is set in a power delivery system, a detection system for illegal electricity usage is possible. Power line communications PLC has many new service. India, the largest democracy with an estimated population of about 1.
Energy, particularly electricity, is a key input for accelerating economic growth. The theft of electricity is a criminal offence and power. Automatic Meter Reading AMR is a very important application in these possibilities due to every user connected each other via modems, using power lines. AMR is a technique to facilitate remote readings of energy consumption.
The following sections will describe the proposed detection and control system for Methods of illegal electricity usage: In illegal usage a subscriber illegally use electricity in the following ways, 1 Using the mechanical objects: A subscriber can use some mechanical objects to prevent the revolution of a meter, so that disk speed is reduced and the recorded energy is also reduced. A subscriber can use a fixed magnet to change the electromagnetic field of the current coils.
As is well known, the recorded energy is proportional to electromagnetic field. In this section the discussion is on how a subscriber can illegally use the electricity and the basic building blocks for the detection using power line communication.
This method gives subscribers free energy without any record. In this way, the current does not pass through the current coil of the meter, so the meter does not record the energy consumption. Although all of the methods explained above may be valid for electromechanical meters, only the last two methods are valid for digital meters. Therefore, this problem should be solved by electronics and control techniques. Fig 2: AMR communication setup Fig 1: Automatic meter reading The AMR system starts at the meter.
Some means of translating readings from rotating meter dials, or cyclometer style meter dials, into digital form is. In most cases, the meter that is used in an AMR system is the same ordinary meter used for manual reading but the difference with conventional energy meter is the addition of some device to generate Three main components of AMR system are: Meter interface module: Communications systems: Central office systems equipment: One such technique using optical sensor.
Power line carrier communications take place over the same lines that deliver electricity. This technique involves injecting a high frequency AC carrier onto the power line and modulating this carrier with data originating from the remote meter or central station. Power line communications has many new service possibilities on the data transferring via power lines without use of extra cables.
AMR is a very important application in these possibilities due to every user connected each other via power lines. In this power network, every user connected to each other via modems with data originating from the remote meter or central station. Electrical power systems vary in configuration from country to country depending on the state of the respective power sources and loads.
The practice of using medium-voltage tokV and low-voltage toV power distribution lines as highspeed PLC communication means and optical networks as backbone networks is commonplace. Under normal service conditions,. Additionally, in terms of distribution line types, there are underground cables and overhead power distribution lines.
Where transformers are concerned, they can be divided into polemounted transformers, pad-mounted transformers and indoor transformers.
Fig 3: The proposed control system for the detection of illegal electricity usage is shown in Fig. The system should be applied to every low-voltage distribution network. The system given in Fig. Although the proposed system can be used uniquely, it is better to use it with automatic meter reading system. In Fig. These units provide communication with each other and send the recorded data in kilowatt-hour meters to the PLC unit.
In order to detect illegal usage of electrical energy, a PLC modem and an energy meter chip for every subscriber are added to an existing AMR system. As given in Fig. The detector PLC s and energy meters must be placed at the connection point between distribution main lines and subscribers line. Since this connection point is usually in the air or at underground, it is not suitable for anyone to access, such that its control is easy.
The main procedure of the proposed system can be summarized as follows. The recorded data in kilowatt-hour meters for every subscriber are sent to host PLC modem via PLC modems, which is placed in subscribers locations. On the other hand, energy meter chips are located at the connection points and read the energy in. These two recorded energy data are compared in the host PLC. If there is any difference between two readings, an error signal is generated. This means that there is an illegal usage in the network.
After that, the subscriber address and error signal are combined and sent to the central control unit. If it is requested, a contactor may be included to the system at subscriber locations to turn off the energy automatically, as in the case of illegal usage. The system model and simulation of the detection system of illegal electricity usage is shown in Fig.
It contains a host PLC modem, an energy meter chip and its PLC modem, an electromechanical kilowatt-hour meter and its PLC modem, and an optical reflector sensor system is loaded at the same phase of the power grid.
The energy value at the electromechanical kilowatt-hour meter is converted to digital data using by optical reflector sensor. Disk speed of the kilowatt-hour meter is counted and obtained data is sent to PLC modem as energy value of the kilowatt-hour meter. At the system model, an illegal load may be connected to the power line before the kilowatt-hour meter via an S switch.
While only a legal load is in the system, two meters are accorded each other to compensate for any error readings. If the S switch is closed, the illegal load is connected to the system, and therefore two recorded energy values are different from each other. Fig 4: System simulation and modeling of the detection system of illegal electricity usage for electromechanical kilowatt-hour meters.
The host PLC unit is generated when it received two different records from the same subscriber. This is the detection of the illegal usage for interested users. The protocol may also be changed according to the properties of the required houses. In the digital energy meter system, the recorded energy may be received in the digital form directly using the port of the meter. Therefore, there is no need for an optical reflector system in digital meters. The results of the tests show that this system may solve this problem economically because the budget of the proposed system is approximately U.
It is very economical and is a reliable solution when it is compared with the economic loss caused by illegal usage. The proposed detector system to determine illegal electricity usage via power line communications is examined in the laboratory conditions.
Results proved that if AMR and detector system are used together illegal usage of electricity might be detected. Once this proposed detection systems are tried in real power lines, the distribution losses in India can be reduced to a considerable level effectively. This bonus chapter covers the resistor types and helps with picking the right one for your project. All resistors are basically just a piece of conducting material with a specific value of resistance. For that piece of conducting material to be made into a practical resistor, a pair of electrodes and leads are attached so current can flow.
The resistor is then coated with an insulating material to protect the conducting material from the surrounding environment and vice versa. There are several different resistor construction methods and body styles or packages that are designed for a certain range of applied voltage, power dissipation, or other considerations. Capacitance is the measure of the amount of charge that a capacitor can store for a given applied voltage.
The unit of capacitance is the farad F or microfarad.
The capacitors used in the circuit are electrolytic-capacitor. In the circuit the electrolytic capacitor is used as a bypass capacitor.
Any noise variation in the circuit is removed by the capacitor. BATTERY In electricity, a battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy.
Since the invention of the first battery or "voltaic pile" in by Alessandro Volta and especially since the technically improved Daniel cell in , batteries have become a common power source for many household and industrial applications.
Batteries come in many sizes, from miniature cells used to power hearing aids and wristwatches to battery banks the size of rooms that provide standby power for telephone exchanges and computer data centres.
It is composed of semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current flowing through another pair of terminals.
Because the controlled output power can be higher than the controlling input power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used.
Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal, or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations.
A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an electric motor or other loads is called a contactor. Solid-state relays control power circuits with no moving parts, instead using a semiconductor device to perform switching. Relays with calibrated operating characteristics and sometimes multiple operating coils are used to protect electrical circuits from overload or faults; in modern electric power systems these functions are performed by digital instruments still called "protective relays".
The sound of clap is received by a small microphone that is shown biased by resistor R1 in the circuit. The microphone changes sound wave in to electrical wave which is further amplified by Q1. Transistor Q1 is used as common emitter circuit to amplify weak signals received by the microphone. Amplified output from the collector of transistor Q1 is then feed to the bi-stable multi vibrator circuit also known as flip-flop.
Flip-flop circuit is made by using two Transistors, in our circuit Q2 and Q3. In a flip-flop circuit, at a time only one transistor conduct and other cut off and when it gets a trigger pulse from outside source then first transistor is cut off and 2nd transistor conducts.
Thus output of transistor is either logic-0 or logic-1 and it remains in one state 0 or 1 until it gets trigger pulse from outer source. The pulse of clap which is a trigger for flip-flop which makes changes to the output which is complementary reverse. Output of flip-flop which is in the low current form is unable to drive relay directly so we have used a current amplifier circuit by using Q4 which is a common emitter circuit.
Output of Q4 is connected to a Relay Electromagnetic switch , works like a mechanical switch. With the help of a relay it is easy for connecting other electrical appliance.
Microphones are types of transducers, they convert acoustic energy i. Basically, a microphone is made up of a diaphragm, which is a thin piece of material that vibrates when it is struck by sound wave. This causes other components in the microphone to vibrate leading to variations in some electrical quantities thereby causing electrical current to be generated. The current generated in the microphone is the electrical pulse. The current generated by a microphone is very small and this current is referred to as mic level and typically measured in milli-volts.
Before it is usable, the signal must be amplified, usually to line level, with typical value within 0. So the signal produced by microphone is amplified by transistor Q1. The capacitance of the plates is inversely proportional to the distance between them for a parallel-plate capacitor.
These have been almost completely superseded by carbon or metal film resistor. Resistive Network In the active region of a common-emitter amplifier the collector-base junction is reverse-biased.
A capacitor made from a pair of parallel 1. Resistor R A component is used for its resistance. In the past. Capacitor C 2. A terminal P junction and a cathode K terminal N junction. When the cathode voltage is more positive than the anode. Transistors fall into twomajor classes: The structure of a semiconductor diode and it symbol are shown in Figure. Power diodes are usually constructed using silicon and germanium. Symbol of a Diode 5.
We used bipolar junction transistor BJT. When the anode voltage is more positive than the cathode. The term transistor was originally derived from the phase transfer resistor. Bipolar junction transistor Diode can be made of either two of semiconductor consists of a pnp transistor and b npn transistor. Silicon a pnp transistor diode can operate at higher current and at higher junction temperature. The arrow on the diode symbol shows the direction of convection current flow when the diode conducts.
Bipolar Junction Transistor A multi electrode semiconductor device in which the current flowing between two specified electrons is Fig The diode has two terminals. The spring holds the switch in one the coil. This is referred to as a tamping diode. If a tamping diode is used.
Before the advent of the mass As you can see. To counter this. You can use a very small amount of current to that is what you will get out of 87 or 87a. You can even use a separate power supply to who also happen to own Bosch Telekom and Blaupunkt. The Bosch 5 pin relay is the most widely usedand versatile relay. The 30 pin is set perpendicular to the other pins to let you know where each pin is at although.
You can connect30 up to positive or negative. When current is applied to switch. Note that each pin is numbered.
When a tamping diode is used. RELAY a wire out.
If the coil is not relays or vacuum tubes. A relay. This can allow you to completely isolate one circuit relay. Diagram of Relay Table 1: Items and Components Details: It's that matter. The relay we are going to look at is the Bosch 5 pin relay. Bosch is a German manufacturing conglomerate from another. Think of that small machine consisting of an electromagnet coil.
The coil connected to each other. A diode wall have a very high resistance in one direction. On first clap. Circuit Diagram of Clap Switch R5 3. On second clap. LED1 glows for this period. A 12 volts power supply has been used instead of the A free-wheeling diode D1 prevents damage of T2 when 9 volts power supply to get satisfied results. November ISSN here as a bistable.
This type the values or components had to be changed in order to get of device provides us with the working of NE timer more accurate result. In satisfied output. By using some modification it area of application can be extended in various fields. The relay is a type of switch which bread board and only after successful implementation and provides a conducting path only when current flows it. This is due to the tolerance of the components used in the circuit.
Each pulse applied at clock pin 14 A red LED is used to indicate the first clap. This circuit is very useful in field of electronic circuits. When the battery is connected This project gives us a great deal of knowledge about the During the practical implementation of the project. When the battery is not connected But the practical value of T in this circuit is 3. In the output. The relay can drive any common home electrical 4.
It can be used to raised alarm in security system with a noise. The high output at pin 2 drives glows. The time period of the pulse applied as the power supply of the IC 2 second NE timer is calculated by the formula: The circuit was first performed on chips and the relay. The frequency range of hand clapping is in between and Hertz. Electronics There is a further scope of work on this project. High Accuracy Web Help: This devices and circuit theory.
The primary application involves an elderly or mobility. But if a triggering and the switch should not be used in very simple bandpass filter is used then this problem could sensible applications.
Electronic Design. Electronics devices and circuit suit the practical use in our daily lives. But the major disadvantage of this switch is false triggering.
It is only for home uses. But nevertheless it is an excellent example of electronics evolution and how engineering and electronics have made Here the signal from the condenser mic is beta times our life easier. June 7. A clap switch is generally used for a light.
To add more sensitivity to the switch.