Useful supplementary materials for the 5th edition of the book Second Language Learning and Language Teaching by Vivian Cook. the present paper reviews the role that second language acquisition research The relationship between SLA and language teaching is not by any means a. Second-Language Learning and Teaching. D.A. Wilkins. London: Edward. Arnold, Get That Job! A Job-Hunter's Guide. Mary Tay Wan Joo and Tan Kim.
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Second Language Learning and Language Teaching This page intentionally left blank of language teaching 2 What is second language acquisition research? in the British Isles (soundofheaven.info pdf). Second Language Learning and Language Teaching - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. PDF | After discussing the ties between language teaching and second language acquisition research, the present paper reviews the role that second language.
Indeed, some phonologists regard the syllable as the main unit in speaking or listening, rather than the phoneme, one reason being that the sheer number of phonemes per sec- ond is too many for the brain to process and so some other unit must be involved. Teaching materials similarly only present sentences that are possible in terms of the target language. The type of grammar used in SLA research has little to do with the tried and true collection of grammatical ideas for teaching that teachers have evolved. Each category may have many variations. But something has gone drastically wrong with the sentence. This site contains sup- port materials, notes, questionnaires, a glossary of keywords, samples of research techniques, further reading and lists of other related sites. Though the dis- cussion happens to concentrate on grammar, the same issues arise about the use of phonetic symbols in pronunciation teaching, the class discussion of meanings of words, or the explanations of language functions, all of which depend on the stu- dents consciously understanding the rules and features of language.
L2 learning is independent of L1 acquisition Teaching methods have often been justified in terms of how children learn their first language. We would not dream of calling a year-old adult native speaker an L1 learner. The new field did not blindly take over the concepts previously used for talking about L2 learning. In some cases a person is both user and learner — when an L2 learner of English in London steps out of the classroom.
The distinction is important for many countries where learners do not become users for many years.
It is dangerous to assume that words used by teachers every day. Language teachers. An L2 user is anybody making an actual use of the second language for real-life purposes outside the classroom. So our beliefs about how children learn their first language cannot be transferred automatically to a second language. People learning a second language already know how to mean and know that other people have minds of their own.
The explanation is that subjects may be omitted in Spanish. Though transfer from the first language indeed turns out to be important. Many teachers would see it as roughly the same as the native sentence. Spanish speakers may leave out the subject of the sentence when speaking English. There is no way that the L2 learner can become a monolingual native speaker by definition.
Nor is it usually difficult to decide from accent alone whether a foreigner speaking English comes from France. But the importance of such transfer has to be looked at with an open mind.
However strong the similarities may be between L1 acquisition and L2 learning. L2 learners. L2 learning is inevitably different in this respect from L1 learning. The first language helps learners when it has elements in common with the second language and hinders them when they differ. Some background ideas of SLA research 13 There is no intrinsic reason.
The similarities between learning the first and second languages have to be established rather than taken for granted. So this student is. Evidence about how the child learns a first language has to be interpreted with caution in L2 learning and seldom in itself provides a basis for language teaching. Learning a first language is. Learners have independent language systems of their own Suppose a student learning English says.
In other words. In some respects. Brazil or Japan. Various aspects of L2 learning need to be investigated before it can be decided how and when the first language is involved in the learning of the second.
Perhaps the student has not yet encountered the appropriate forms in English or perhaps he or she is transferring constructions from the first language. SLA research insists that learners have the right to be judged by the standards appropriate for them. But something has gone drastically wrong with the sentence. Even if they are idiosyncratic and constantly changing. This is what many students want to be. If a student. Their sentences relate to their own temporary language systems at the moment when they produce the sentence.
At each stage learners have their own language systems. It is judging the students by what they are not — native speakers. This is shown in Figure 1. Sometimes this comparison is justified. The nature of these learner systems may be very different from that of the target language. However peculiar and limited they may be. Their mistakes were minor irritants rather than major hazards. In my own view. But these languages coexist in the same mind.
Teachers could now use teaching activities in which students talked to each other rather than to the teacher. They could now work in pairs or groups. The next paragraph said. On the one hand. The lack of this concept has meant SLA research has still treated the two languages separately rather than as different facets of the same person. Hence we need a name to refer to the overall knowledge that combines both the first language and the L2 interlanguage.
Do your students share the language teaching goals you are practising or do you have to persuade them that these are right? Do you have a right to impose the goals you choose on them? Why do you believe in the teaching method you use? What evidence do you have for its success? Are there more similarities or dissimilarities between L1 acquisition and L2 learning?
What should an L2 speaker aim at if not the model of the native speaker? What factors in a teaching technique do you think are most important? If you were their teacher. Box 1. Have you ever checked to see if this is really the case? In what ways are coursebooks a good source of information about what is going on in a classroom. Italian c Everytimes I concentrate to speak out. Chinese 4 5 6 7 8. I wold like to give you my best congratulate.
Spanish Further reading Good technical introductions to L2 learning and bilingualism can be found in Myles and Mitchell. Arabic e I please you very much you allow me to stay with you this Christmas. Useful books with similar purposes but covering slightly different approaches to second language acquisition are: More information is available on the website for this book.
Glosses on language teaching methods audio-lingual method: Glosses on language teaching methods 17 d Raelly I am so happy. Learning and teaching different types of grammar 2 A language has patterns and regularities which are used to convey meaning.
Another aspect of grammar consists of changes in the forms of words. One important aspect of grammar in most languages is the order of words: However important the other components of language may be in themselves. In some ways. The glossary on page 44 defines some grammatical terms. This chapter first looks at different types of grammar and then selects some areas of grammatical research into L2 learning to represent the main approaches. According to linguists though psychologists often disagree.
Grammar is the most unique aspect of language. Many linguists consider grammar to be the central part of the language in the Lang5 sense of the knowledge in an individual mind.
Through help of gramarye. It has features that do not occur in other mental processes and that are not apparently found in animal languages.
How do you think it is learnt? How would you teach it? This is called prescriptive grammar because it prescribes what people ought to do. Prescriptive grammar is all but irrelevant to the language teaching classroom.
One area where prescriptive grammar still thrives is spelling and punctuation. Prescriptive grammar One familiar type of grammar is the rules found in schoolbooks. The grammarian has no more right to decree how people should speak than the physicist has to decree how electrons should move. Since the s people have believed that you should teach the language as it is.
Another is word. If L2 learners need to pander to these shibboleths. Students should learn to speak real language that people use.
What is grammar? Modern grammarians have mostly avoided prescriptive grammar because they see their job as describing what the rules of language are. While the parts of speech are indeed relevant to grammar. Languages like Tongan. Japanese students have said to me that they only acquired the concept of singular and plural through learning English. Too many modifiers. Even main coursebooks often rely on the students knowing the terms of traditional grammar. But Japanese does not have plural forms for nouns.
A third is journal editors. After reading the definition of a noun. The crucial question. Grammarians today do not reject this type of grammar outright so much as feel that it is unscientific. This is often called traditional grammar. In essence it goes back to the grammars of Latin. The answer is that we do not know without seeing the word in a sentence. A case in point is the stalwart Basic Grammar in Use Murphy. This definition comes straight from Tapestry Writing 1 Pike-Baky.
Goodness knows how the students are supposed to have learnt these technical. Analysing sentences in this approach means labelling the parts with their names and giving rules that explain in words how they may be combined. It explains: Grammar books for language teaching often present grammar through a series of visual displays and examples.
They I You can draw a black white red dog car rose Figure 2. Structural grammar Language teaching has also made use of structural grammar based on the concept of phrase structure.. A typical example can be seen in the Bulgarian coursebook English for the Fifth Class Despotova et al. This phrase structure is usually presented in tree diagrams that show how words build up into phrases and phrases build up into sentences see Figure 2.
Teachers have been using structural grammar directly in substitution tables since at least the s. Suppose we group the words that seem to go together: They are substituting different words within a constant grammatical structure. Substitution tables are still common in present-day coursebooks and grammar books. The man fed the dog Figure 2. Then these structures can be combined with the remaining words: A more recent definition is as follows: A parallel can be found in a teaching exercise that baffles students — devising instructions for everyday actions.
This view of grammar. We can all put on our coats or produce an English sentence. They can write and tell her. Structure drills and pattern practice draw on similar ideas of structure. This is very different from being able to talk about the sentence she has produced. There is one type of knowledge in our mind which we can talk about consciously.. He can come and ask you. A native speaker knows the system of the language.
He or she may not be able to verbalize this knowledge clearly. Try asking the students. Chapter 13 provides further discussion of such drills. You can go and see him. This is often called communicative competence by those who see the public functions of language as crucial Hymes.
Hence the more general term pragmatic competence reflects all the possible uses of language rather than restricting them to communication Chomsky. Box 2. She is an old woman. The grammar is the typical medley of traditional and structural items. Many linguists see language as having private functions as well as public — language for dreaming or planning a day out.
This gives some idea of the types of structure that are taught to beginners in most classrooms around the world. She lives in London. Do you have black or white coffee? You ask a woman in the street the time. As well as grammatical competence. Structure words. Sheer knowledge of language has little point if speakers cannot use it appropriately for all the activities in which they want to take part — complaining. A clear presentation of this can be found in Harmer The rationale for the paraphernalia of grammatical analysis such as sentence trees.
Many of these items are the basis for language teaching and for SLA research. Here is a quotation from a Theodore Sturgeon story that combines made-up content words with real structure words: So on Lirht.
Other words can be split into several morphemes: A new content word can be invented easily. In the s Heidi Dulay and Marina Burt decided to see how these grammatical morphemes were learnt by L2 learners. So kel Mars. Table 2. When the phrase structure of a sentence is shown in tree diagrams. The structure and behaviour of morphemes are dealt with in the area of grammar called morphology. Science fiction novelists. Suppose that at a low level. As can be seen. Only the first version is comprehensible in some form.
They made Spanish-speaking children learning English describe pictures and checked how often they supplied eight grammatical morphemes in the appropriate places in the sentence. But no writer dares invent new structure words. Content words have meanings that can be looked up in a dictionary and they are numbered in many thousands. It is virtually impossible to invent a new structure word because it would mean changing the grammatical rules of the language. A computer program for teaching English needs about structure words.
Some words can have morphemes added to show their grammatical role in the sentence. As well as words. In some SLA research.
Structure words are described in grammar books rather than dictionaries. How do they expand this rudimentary sentence into its full form? It does not even make much difference whether or not they are attending a language class LarsenFreeman. The first language does not seem to make a crucial difference: They were reacting in the same way to the shared experience of learning English.
Similar orders have been found for Japanese children and for Korean adults Makino. The other surprise was that it did not seem to matter if the learners were children or adults. There is a strong similarity between all L2 learners of English. While the first language made some difference. This research with grammatical morphemes was the first to demonstrate the common factors of L2 learners so clearly.
The interesting discovery was the similarities between the L2 learners. Learners from many backgrounds seemed to be creating the same kind of grammar for English out of what they heard. One of the best demonstrations of the independence of interlanguage came from a research programme that investigated the acquisition of five second languages by adult migrant workers in Europe.
While later research has seldom found such a low incidence. Muhammad Hannan This was quite surprising in that people had thought that the main problem in acquiring grammar was transfer from the first language. Clearly these children made a consistent progression for grammatical morphemes over time.
While grammatical morphemes petered out as a topic of research in the s. The sequence from 1 to 8 mirrors the order of difficulty for the L2 learners Dulay and Burt studied. It was not just Spanish-speaking children who have a sequence of difficulty for the eight grammatical morphemes. At the age of 5. Yet there are still things to learn from this area.. Researchers found a basic grammar that all L2 learners shared. L2 learners not only have an interlanguage grammar. During the s an attempt was made to create a broader-based sequence of development.
Grammatical morphemes structure words and grammatical inflections are learnt in a particular sequence in L2 acquisition. Why do you think you find some structures more difficult to follow than others?
Keywords movement: L2 learners acquire the same basic grammar regardless of the first and second languages involved. Stage 1 To start with. The core idea was that some sentences are formed by moving elements from one position to another. This is the only word order that the learners know. English questions. The learner ascends the structural tree from bottom to top. The multidimensional model sees movement as the key element in understanding the learning sequence. The learner starts with sentences without movement and learns how to move the various parts of the sentence around to get the final form.
Stage 3 Now the learners start to move elements to the beginning of the sentence. The processability model 29 John is nice John is where? John will go where? Is John nice? Where is John? Where will John go? Figure 2. In the next stages the learners discover how to move elements about. Stage 2 Next learners acquire the typical word order of the language. At this stage the learners are starting to work within the structure of the sentence. Stage 6 The final stage is acquiring the order of subordinate clauses.
The recent development of the multidimensional model has been called the processability model because it explains these sequences in terms of the grammatical processes involved in the production of a sentence. Their first grammar is just words. In addition. In English this sometimes differs from the order in the main clause. The multidimensional model stresses that L2 learners have a series of interim grammars of English — interlanguages.
At this stage the learner is sorting out the more untypical orders in subordinate clauses after the ordinary main clause order has been learnt. As with grammatical morphemes.
Stage 4 At the next stage. So teachers should teach according to the stage that their students are at. Subordinate clauses are not mentioned in Flying Colours. Certainly this early introduction of questions is a major difference from the processability model. In the early stages concentrate on the main word order of subject verb object SVO.
It may be that there are good teaching reasons why these suggestions should not be taken on board. Clearly subordinate clauses are not seen as particularly difficult. The processability model 31 In a sense. Unit 2. To take some examples from the above sequence: But these ideas are nevertheless worth considering in the sequencing of materials. Let us compare the sequence of elements in a typical EFL course with that in the processability model. While this is already late compared to courses that introduce the present continuous in lesson 1.
They conflict with the sequence in which the grammatical points are usually introduced in textbooks. Thus it starts with words rather than structures. Looking through the text. This processability model leads to the teachability hypothesis: If all students have to acquire language in more or less the same sequence. Introduce sentence-initial adverbials. Many teaching techniques.
Hence the classroom and the textbook can never fully reflect the stages that interlanguages go through. New Headway Soars and Soars. The student may temporarily produce sentences that deviate from native correctness. There is an implicit tension between the pressure on students to produce well-formed sentences and the natural stages that students go through.
Teaching materials similarly only present sentences that are possible in terms of the target language. Or should the teacher try to prevent them? New Cutting Edge Cunningham et al. When coursebooks make use of grammatical sequences at all.
Atlas 1 Nunan. For instance International Express Taylor. The coursebook omits some stages. The textbook goes against some aspects of the order.
Tapestry 1 Writing Pike-Baky. They differ over the settings for the parameters for particular languages. Principles and parameters grammar 33 Box 2. Sequences of teaching currently do not fit these six stages and may place undue demands on learners.
All these capture some aspect of L2 learning and contribute to our knowledge of the whole. All human minds are believed to honour the common principles that are forced on them by the nature of the human mind that all their speakers share. If you came from Mars. A radically different way of looking at grammar that has become popular in recent years. This is the Universal Grammar theory associated with Noam Chomsky. The overall implications of the UG model are given in Chapter Keywords Universal Grammar: Universal Grammar UG sees the knowledge of grammar in the mind as made up of two components: But so far no one has found clear-cut examples of learners breaking these universal principles.
It would be impossible for the L2 learner. The explanation again needs modifying to say: Interlanguages do not vary without limit. Tomorrow someone may find a learner who has no idea that questions depend on structure. I tested university-level students of English with six different first languages on a range of structures including locality.
Inversion questions in English. In short. Second language learners clearly have few problems with this deviant structure compared to other structures. From what we have seen so far. It is just an odd feature of human languages that they depend on structure. But if the students used this rule. Like any scientific theory. To patch it up. There is no particular reason why this should be so. And indeed no one has yet found sentences said by L2 learners that break the known language principles.
The obvious question for L2 learning is whether it makes a difference if the first language does not have subjects and the second language does. Chinese or Arabic. One attraction of this form of grammar is its close link to language acquisition. Another attraction is that it provides a framework within which all languages can be compared. Then those who are learning a non-pro-drop language such as English go on to learn that subjects are compulsory. This variation is captured by the pro-drop parameter — so-called for technical reasons we will not go into here.
Japanese can be compared to English in its use of locality unnecessary in Japanese questions because Japanese does not form questions by moving elements of the sentence around. The pro-drop parameter variation has effects on the grammars of all languages. Japanese do not have to. The parts which do not have to be learnt are the principles that all languages have in common. If the L1 setting for the pro-drop parameter has an effect. The same is true in Arabic and Chinese and many other languages.
Learning the grammar of a second language is not so much learning completely new structures. Lydia White compared how English was learnt by speakers of French a non-pro-drop language with compulsory subjects and by speakers of Spanish a pro-drop language with optional subjects. The parts of language that have to be learnt are the settings for the parameters on which languages vary.
English phrases have the order head noun phrase. Now the grammars of all languages are seen as variations within a single overall scheme. Children learning their first language at first start with sentences without subjects Hyams. The same is true for French.
It used to be difficult to compare grammars of different languages. Principles and parameters grammar 35 Parameters of variation How do parameters capture the many grammatical differences between languages?
One variation is whether the grammatical subject of a declarative sentence has to be actually present in the sentence. English learners of Spanish do not have as much difficulty with leaving the subject out as Spanish learners of English have with putting it in.
Oddly enough. English and Japanese. But in Italian. Language teaching will eventually miss out if it does not keep up with such new ideas of grammar Cook. If the syllabus that the student is learning includes grammar in some shape or form. But they will nevertheless understand better what the students are learning and the processes they are going through. L2 learners need to acquire new parameter settings for parameters such as pro-drop.
The SLA research category of grammatical morphemes. All L2 learners can be looked at within the same overall framework of grammar as it applies to all languages. For the moment we need to point out that the study of grammar and of acquisition by linguists and SLA researchers in recent years has been much more concerned with the development of abstract ways of looking at phenomena like pro-drop than with the conventional grammar of earlier sections.
Let us gather together some of the threads about grammar and teaching introduced so far in this chapter. Arabic or Spanish students all have problems with the subject in English because of their different setting for the pro-drop parameter.
The implications of this overall model for language learning and language teaching are described in greater detail in Chapter Principles and parameters theory puts grammar on a different plane from anything in language teaching.
Hence teachers will not find any quick help with carrying out conventional grammar teaching in such forms of grammar. It is an insightful way of looking at language which teachers have not hitherto been conscious of. What do you think is the best order for teaching grammar? The L2 learning of grammar has turned out to be wider and deeper than anyone supposed. Teaching has to pay attention to the internal processes and knowledge the students are subconsciously building up in their minds.
L2 Learning of grammar and L2 teaching 37 processes of sentence production. Of necessity. So the order of teaching should follow the order found in L2 learning as much as possible. This is typical of the sequences that have been developed for EFL teaching over the past hundred years. While it has been tested in practice. What should teachers do about this? Four extreme points of view can be found: Above all.
Teachers should therefore get on with teaching the thousand and one other things that the student needs. When language use and classroom tasks became more important to teaching. Grammar is also relevant to the sequence in which elements of language are taught. SLA research has often claimed that there are definite orders for learning language.
The conventional solution used to be to sequence the grammar in terms of increasing complexity. Nor does it encompass variation between people in one country. Teachers do not necessarily have to choose between these alternatives once and for all. A different decision may have to be made for each area of grammar or language and each stage of acquisition. Teaching must balance grammar against language functions. The fuller implications of the L2 order of learning or difficulty depend on the rest of teaching.
Traditionally for English the model has been taken to be that of a literate educated native speaker from an English-speaking country. Quebec and Central Africa? No one would probably hold completely to these simplified views. It has been claimed. Some might argue that. And similar issues arise in choosing a grammatical model for most languages that are used across a variety of countries: Obviously this depends on the definition of grammar: As with pronunciation.
And it treats English as having a singular genre. The students can best be helped by being given the extreme point of the sequence and by filling in the intermediary positions for themselves. Ignore grammar altogether. Mike Long makes a distinction between focus on FormS. Chapter 1 showed that the nineteenth.
One issue is the extent to which grammatical form and meaning should be separated. The role of explicit grammar in language teaching 39 Box 2. This section looks at some of the ideas that have been raised about using grammatical terms and descriptions with the student. Teach the last things in an L2 learning sequence first.
Though the discussion happens to concentrate on grammar. Follow the L2 learning order as closely as possible in the teaching. In what way? How aware are you of grammar when you are speaking a your first language b your second language? Keywords consciousness-raising: It is something else to say that the students themselves should be aware of grammar. Hence it has often been argued that the problem with teaching grammar overtly is not the method itself but the type of grammar that has been used.
Grammatical explanation is a way of teaching facts about the language — that is to say. Some people have questioned whether academic knowledge ever converts into the ability to use the language in this way.
The French subjunctive was explained to me at school. This does not mean the linguists can say a single word. Other types of grammar are hardly ever used. The pro-drop parameter. If the grammar content were better. But students who want to use the language need to transform this academic knowledge into the ability to use it. A linguist might object that grammar is a system for encoding and decoding particular meanings. The main issue is the connection between conscious understanding of a rule and the ability to use it.
Any linguist can tell you facts about languages such as Japanese or Gboudi that their native speakers could not describe. Grammatical explanation in the classroom has relied on the assumption that rules which are learnt consciously can be converted into unconscious processes of comprehension and production. After a period of absorption. Most linguists would regard these grammars as the equivalent to using alchemy as the basis for teaching chemistry.
If the aim of teaching is academic knowledge of language. The use of explicit explanation implies that L2 learning is different from L1 learning.
In their case this satisfies their needs. Explicit grammar teaching This revives the classical debate in language teaching about whether grammar should be explained to the students.
Usually the kind of grammar involved is the traditional or structural grammar described earlier. Stephen Krashen It is not the teaching of particular points of grammar that matters. This at least suggests that the conversion of conscious rules to non-conscious processes does take place for some academic students. Language awareness An alternative possibility is that raising awareness of language in general helps second language learning.
As Hawkins puts it. Raised awareness of language is in itself a goal of some language teaching. They invent their own labels for grammar. If the students know the kind of thing to expect in the new language. Convincing as these claims may be. I asked university-level students of English which explicit grammar rules they had found useful. Conscious knowledge of language rules in this view is no more than an optional extra.
It has no particular seal of approval from the types of grammar considered in this chapter. Philip Riley suggested sensitization of the students by using features of the first language to help them understand the second. The role of explicit grammar in language teaching 41 ability to use the language — unfortunately not so much enabling me to use it easily as making me freeze whenever I anticipated a subjunctive coming over the horizon.
Increasing awareness of language may have many educational advantages and indeed help L2 learning in a broad sense. This mirrors the traditional teaching assumption. Jessica Williams and Jacqueline Evans contrasted two structures.
None of them. The overall. As Mike Long The overall feeling is that judicious use of focus on form within other activities may be useful. In L1 research James Morgan showed that adults used pauses and intonation to provide children with clues to the structure of the sentence so that they could tell which noun was the subject of the sentence.
The focus on form FonF argument combines several different threads. Of course. I can only agree that explicit grammar instruction is hugely ineffective.
I cannot remember the differences she explained. Because we can help students by clearing up their confusions over past tense endings. One group heard language with many examples of these structures. The group who were given explanations did indeed do better than the other groups for the adjectives. Hence there seems to be a difference in the extent to which grammatical forms lend themselves to focus on form: The teaching applications of FonF are discussed at greater length in Chapter 13 as part of task-based teaching.
The minor problem is that italic and bold letter-forms are used for emphasis in English and.
L2 learners go through distinct stages of acquisition. Decide in the light of the various approaches in this chapter what the chief advantage or disadvantage may be for each What type of grammar does it employ?
How successfully? How important do you think that order of presentation is to language teaching? Discussion topics 1 Here are seven techniques for teaching grammar. Teaching can utilize the known facts about these stages in several ways Much teaching simply uses structural or traditional grammar without realizing that there are alternative approaches..
How much attention do they receive in teaching? How much should they receive? Nor does it answer the question of which type of grammar is appropriate for language teaching..
For example Conscious explanation of the L2 grammar is seen as beneficial in some circumstances. English has two numbers: Would this be a good idea? Further reading A good overview of grammatical morphemes research is in Goldschneider and DeKeyser Various viewpoints on grammar and language teaching are summarized in Odlin Pedagogical Grammar.
Otherwise the reader is referred to the books and articles cited in the text. English having present and past tenses but no future. Processability Theory. Some grammatical terms See also the glossary on the website. An Introduction. Some grammatical terms 45 wh-questions: SOV in Japanese. VSO in Arabic. Traditional syllabuses for language teaching usually include lists of the most frequent words. Would you teach them all to beginners?
Why do you think frequency is important? Keywords word frequency: Since the late s there has been a massive explosion in research into the acquisition of vocabulary. But there is far more to acquiring vocabulary than the acquisition of words. Learning and teaching vocabulary 3 The acquisition of vocabulary at first sight seems straightforward. While such research gives some hints. While word frequency has some relevance to teaching. Many of the nouns have vague. Frequency is taken to apply more to content words.
The first lesson of the elementary course Move Bowler and Parminter. Usually the teaching of structure words is seen as part of grammar. Now that vast collections of language are easily accessible on the computer.
Nevertheless we should not forget that the most frequent words in the language are mostly structure words: The 20 most frequent words in the BNC for three types of content word are given in Table 3. This list also has some surprises for teachers.
Word frequency 47 native speakers. The top words account for 45 per cent of all the words in the BNC. In a sense. Words vary extremely in how often they are used. The most frequent words do not differ greatly from one type of English to another. Any natural English the students hear will have the proper frequencies of words. It is true that you are more likely to remember a word you meet every day than one you only meet once.
Box 3. Influential as frequency has been in teaching. But it is unnecessary to worry about frequency too much. Knowledge of words 49 and module 1 of New Cutting Edge is far from frequent. If the students are getting reasonably natural English from their coursebooks and their teachers.
But there are many other factors that make students learn words. Frequency is only one factor in the choice of words to teach. When you teach students the meaning of a word. Frequency of vocabulary has been applied in teaching mainly to the choice of words to be taught. Maurice Gross found Like most nouns. Learning vocabulary means acquiring long lists of words with their meanings.
Each word is associated in our memory with a specific pronunciation and is tied in to the pronunciation rules of the language. The Universal Grammar model of language acquisition. The letter n in man. Words have specific spellings and are linked to the spelling rules of the language. Coursebooks often have vocabulary lists that organize the words in the course alphabetically.
If we can read. This dictates how it behaves in the structure of the sentence. Possible and impossible structures. It connects to the systems of phonology and orthography through the actual forms of the words. The pre-intermediate course International Express. To quote Noam Chomsky Nor does any individual speaker possess all the dictionary meanings for a word. Helping children spell.
Teaching spelling. Chapter 6 strategies for communicating and learning. We have ways of making you talk. The English are only Human. Compensatory Strategies in SLA. Transcript of info gap activity. Learning strategies: Learning Strategies Test Skeleton. L2 learning strategies.
Chapter 7 individual differences in L2 users and L2 learners. Key individual variables in classroom SLA. Motivation questionnaire. The L2 User. Definition of native speaker. Using L1 in Language Teaching. Going beyond the native speaker in language teaching. Do native speakers make better language teachers? Going beyond the native speaker. Basing Teaching on the L2 User. Central or atypical second language acquisition? Language user groups and language teaching.
Goals of EFL. Some assumptions in course design? L2 and Universal Grammar. Universal grammar and the language classroom. Multi-competence menu. Annotated MC references. Basing teaching on the L2 user. Multi-competence and UG draft. First and second language acquisition.
Comparing first and second language acquisition. Chapter 11 Second language learning and language teaching styles. Key terms for teaching techniques. Teaching style summaries. Teaching styles questionnaire. Technique analysis- a tool for teachers. Making up characters for roleplay. Reciprocal language teaching. This is a replacement for the old site at homepage.