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Joe Celko's Trees and Hierarchies in SQL for Smarties (The Morgan Kaufmann Series in Data Management Systems) · Read more. 1. 2 J O E C E L K O S TREES AND HIERARCHIES IN SQL FOR SMARTIES. 3 This page intentionally left blank. 4 J O E C E L K O S TREES AND. system, you will need SQL to do it. The Second Edition of Joe Celko's Trees and Hiera Joe Celko's Trees and Hierarchies in SQL for Smarties.

An adjacency list model Each More information. What are algorithms and how they are useful? The terms and concepts related to trees Section 5. When a node is removed, all of the subordinates are removed. IT Service Level Management 2. Generate and describe sequences As outcomes, Year 7 pupils should, for example:

We need to be sure that there is only one NULL in the structure, but the simple adjacency list model does not protect against multiple NULLs or from cycles.

A tree is a special case of a graph, so you need to restrict the adjacency list model a bit to be sure that you do have only a tree. These flaws in the simple adjacency list model can be overcome with a redesign of the schema.

First, the personnel list and the organizational chart could, and should, be modeled as separate tables. The personnel table contains the facts about the people entities who we have as our personnel, and the organizational chart tells us how the job positions within the company are organized relationships , regardless of whom if anyone holds what position.

It is the difference between the office and the person who holds that office. It makes reports look nicer; however, you have to add more constraints to handle this missing value marker. The information about the positions within the company goes into a second table, as follows:. The most obvious constraint is to prohibit a single node cycle in the graph. However, that does not work because of the dummy employee number of zero for vacant positions. We know that the number of edges in a tree is the number of nodes minus one, therefore this is a connected graph.

That constraint looks like this: That gives us the effect of having a constraint to check for one NULL: Consider this data, in which Donna and Eddie are in a cycle, and that cycle is not in the tree structure.

If the tree does not reduce to an empty set, then there is a disconnected cycle. We will deal with that problem in another section.

Although this is the most common representation, it is not the only way to model a tree. The alternatives include: Use NULLs for the subordinates of leaf nodes.

This leads to slightly different logic in many of the queries, reversing the flow of NULL checking. Disallow NULLs altogether. This will record only the edges of the graph in the table. Again, the logic would change. The root would have to be detected by looking for the one node that is only a boss who reports to a dummy value of some kind and is never an employee, as follows: This convention was not done for that reason; historically, the boss was considered an attribute of the employee in the data model.

There is no general way to extract a complete subtree Cursors and Procedural Code The practical problem is that, in spite of the existing SQL standards, every SQL product has slightly different proprietary cursor syntax. This makes going down the tree fairly simple; however, aggregation of subtrees for reporting is very slow for large trees.

This sample query produces this result table.

The paths shown are those that are exactly three levels deep. Notice what it produces: The pattern can be extended, but performance will also go down. Most SQL products have a point at which the optimizer chokes on either the number of tables in a FROM clause or on the levels of self-reference in a query.

Aggregation based on self-joins is a nightmare. You have to build a table with one column that has the unique keys of the subtree and use it to find the rows to be used in the aggregate calculations. One way to flatten the table is to use an auxiliary table, called Sequence, which contains the single column sequence of integers from 1 to n , where n is a sufficiently large number. All of the tree properties are preserved and no constraints will be violated.

The code for deleting nodes inside the tree is much more complex. First, you must make a decision about how to handle the surviving subordinates, by choosing from the following three basic approaches: The Ancient Egyptian school of management: When a node is removed, all of the subordinates are removed.

When a pharaoh dies, you bury all his slaves with him. Send the orphans to Grandmother: The subordinates of the deleted node became immediate subordinates of their boss s boss. The oldest son takes over the shop: One of the subordinates assumes the position previously held by the deleted node.

This promotion can cause a cascade of other promotions down the tree until a root node is left vacant and removed, or it can be stopped with other rules. Because the adjacency list model cannot return a subtree in a single query, the constraints will have to be deferred while a traversal of some kind is performed Deleting an Entire Subtree The simplest approach to delete an entire subtree is to do a tree traversal down from the deleted node in which you mark all of the subordinates, then go back and delete the subset of marked nodes.

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