Aristotle's Art of Rhetoric | 𝗥𝗲𝗾𝘂𝗲𝘀𝘁 𝗣𝗗𝗙 on ResearchGate | Aristotle's Art of Rhetoric | Aristotle's art of rhetoric;greek rhetoric;modes of persuasion;character. Aristotle's Rhetoric, Spring ii deliberate, for which there are no arts ( Rhetoric a). What exactly is the nature of the reasoning rhetoric practices in this. Rhetoric by Aristotle, part of the Internet Classics Archive.
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Aristotle The Art of Rhetoric. 6 how to put the judge into a given frame of mind. About the orator's proper modes of persuasion they have nothing to tell us;. thymemes, which are the substance of rhetorical persuasion, but deal mainly with . Aristotle arts and sciences. But rhetoric we look upon as the power of ob-. the latter to beauty (cveTreta), of style. The birthplace of Rhetoric as an art was the island of Sicily. According to Cicero," Aristotle, no doubt in his lost history ofthe.
New York: Nonetheless, this model is introduced not in chapter I. In general, Aristotle regards deductive arguments as a set of sentences in which some sentences are premises and one is the conclusion, and the inference from the premises to the conclusion is guaranteed by the premises alone. Chapter 7 Aristotle expands on the use of appropriate style in addressing the subject. Loeb Classical Library. For Aristotle, there are two species of arguments:
Aristotle introduces these three genres by saying. Chapter Six This is a continuation of Chapter Five. Chapter Two Aristotle's famous definition of rhetoric is viewed as the ability in any particular case to see the available means of persuasion.
Chapter Seven Introduces the term koinon of degree. Some attention is paid to delivery. Here he introduces the term enthymeme Bk. Chapter One Aristotle first defines rhetoric as the counterpart antistrophos of dialectic Bk. The five most common are finance.
Of the pisteis provided through speech there are three parts: He introduces paradigms and syllogisms as means of persuasion. Chapter Three Introduces the three genres of rhetoric: Book III introduces the elements of style word choice. He explains the similarities between the two but fails to comment on the differences. Book I offers a general overview. Chapter Eight Aristotle defines and discusses the four forms of politeia constitution useful in deliberative rhetoric: He defines pisteis as atechnic inartistic and entechnic artistic.
He also distinguishes what kinds of actions are fair and unfair with being just. Chapter Fifteen Aristotle summarises the arguments available to a speaker in dealing with evidence that supports or weakens a case. Chapter Fourteen This chapter parallels the koinon described in Chapter Seven.
Chapter Thirteen Aristotle classifies all acts that are just and unjust defined in judicial rhetoric. These atechnic pisteis contain laws. Chapters Efficacious Emotions for Speakers in All Genres of Rhetoric Chapters explore those emotions useful to a rhetorical speaker.
Chapter Ten Discusses what syllogisms should be derived from kategoria accusations and apologia defenses for judicial rhetoric. Chapter Twelve This chapter. Chapter 1: Introduction In Chapter 1. Aristotle states these as the reasons for people doing wrong. Aristotle describes what makes certain topics appropriate or worthy for praise or blame.
Also introduces the wrongdoing. As such. Aristotle states that along with pathos. Chapter Eleven This chapter discusses the many different types of hedone pleasure useful for judicial rhetoric.
Aristotle notes that emotions cause men to change their opinion in regard to their judgments. Aristotle refers to the effect of ethos and pathos on an audience since a speaker needs to exhibit these modes of persuasion before that audience.
Aristotle emphasizes the importance of willingness. Aristotle's Rhetoric generally concentrates on ethos and pathos. He also states that it is important to highlight certain traits of the subject of praise. Aristotle analyzes the character of different groups of people so that a speaker might adjust his portrayed ethos in order to influence the audience. For example. Amplification and deprecation. Kennedy in On Rhetoric: The old do not act on a basis of desire but rather act for profit Book 2.
Aristotle arranges the discussion of the emotions in opposing pairs.
There exist two kinds of paradigm: In all of these techniques. On page While Books I and II are more systematic and address ethos. These insults are the reasoning behind the anger Book 2.
In choosing a maxim. One of good birth. It is pertinent to understand all the components in order to stimulate a certain emotion within another person. Aristotle discusses paradigm and enthymeme as two common modes of persuasion. Aristotle also mentions the koina. Those in the prime of life represent the mean to Aristotle.
The angry direct their emotion towards those who insult the latter or that which the latter values. Aristotle proceeds to define each emotion. Aristotle considers popular wisdom and audiences as a central guide.
In this way. According to Aristotle. For each emotion. Those who become angry are in a state of distress due to a foiling of their desires Book 2. The young hate to be belittled because they long for superiority Book 2. The transition concludes the discussion of pathos.
When applied to rhetoric. Not using the term circle. Chapter 9 Looks at periodic style and how it should be seen as a rhythmical unit and used to complete a thought to help understand meaning Bk. Chapter 4 Discusses another figurative part of speech. Chapter 7 Aristotle expands on the use of appropriate style in addressing the subject. Chapter 8 Rhythm should be incorporated into prose to make it well "rhythmed" but not to the extent of a poem Bk.
Similes are only occasionally useful in speech due to their poetic nature and similarity to metaphor. Chapter 6 Gives practical advice on how to amplify language by using Onkos expansiveness and syntomia conciseness.
Chapter 5 Addresses how to speak properly by using connectives. Chapter 3 Deals with "frigid" language. Aristotle stresses emotion. This occurs when one uses elaborate double words. Chapters 1— Aristotle argues that voice should be used to most accurately represent the given situation as exemplified by poets Bk.
It is seen as. Chapter 14 Discusses the prooemiun introduction. Narration differs in epideictic. Chapter 15 Handles prejudicial attacks according to Aristotle which later on became part of Stasis argumentation theory which is "determining the question at issue in a trial". Aristotle warns that it is inappropriate to speak in hyperbole Bk. Scholars are turning to Book III once again to develop theories about Greek style and its contemporary relevance. Chapter 17 Looks at the pistis or the proof in an oration.
Chapters 13— Taxis Chapter 13 Covers the necessary parts of a speech which include the prosthesis which is the statement of the proposition and then the pistis which is the proof of the statement. Both have the main goal of signaling the end of the speech Bk. Chapter 12 The three genres of oral and written language are deliberative. This transitions into the next section of chapters on taxis.
Chapter 11 Explains why devices of style can defamiliarize language. Gross and Walzer further say that "There is no comparable situation in any other discipline: No other discipline would claim that a single ancient text so usefully informs current deliberations on practice and theory.
See also Enthymeme Arthur Schopenhauer. Oxford UP. William E. Rereading Aristotle's Rhetoric. Rorty argues.
James L. Ars Rhetorica. Goodwin F. Aristotle focuses on deliberative rhetoric so heavily because "it most clearly reveals the primary importance of truth as it functions within the craft of rhetoric itself.
The Rhetoric of Aristotle. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The rhetoric of Western thought: From the Mediterranean world to the global setting.
He states: IA USA: Murphy ed. Perseus Project. University Press. Michael Sproule eds. Richard C. In interpreting Aristotle's work on use of rhetoric. Without such a version of deliberative rhetoric. The Rhetorical Tradition: Readings from Classical Times to the Present. IL USA: Southern Illinois University Press: Edited by W. Gross and Walzer. John J.
Ruth Golden and J. December Arguments in Rhetoric against Quintilian. Alan G. The remark that enthymemes often have few or less premises concludes the discussion of two possible mistakes the orator could make Rhet. One can draw conclusions from things that have previously been deduced or from things that have not been deduced yet.
The latter method is unpersuasive, for the premises are not accepted, nor have they been introduced. The former method is problematic, too: Arguments with several deductive steps are common in dialectical practice, but one cannot expect the audience of a public speech to follow such long arguments.
This is why Aristotle says that the enthymeme is and should be from fewer premises. Just as there is a difference between real and apparent or fallacious deductions in dialectic, we have to distinguish between real and apparent or fallacious enthymemes in rhetoric.
The topoi for real enthymemes are given in chapter II. The fallacious enthymeme pretends to include a valid deduction, while it actually rests on a fallacious inference. Note that neither classification interferes with the idea that premises have to be accepted opinions: However, it is not clear whether this is meant to be an exhaustive typology.
When using a sign-argument or sign-enthymeme we do not try to explain a given fact; we just indicate that something exists or is the case: But there are several types of sign-arguments too; Aristotle offers the following examples:. Sign-arguments of type i and iii can always be refuted, even if the premises are true; that is to say that they do not include a valid deduction sullogismos ; Aristotle calls them asullogistos non-deductive. Sign-arguments of type ii can never be refuted if the premise is true, since, for example, it is not possible that someone has fever without being ill, or that someone has milk without having given birth, etc.
Now, if some sign-enthymemes are valid deductions and some are not, it is tempting to ask whether Aristotle regarded the non-necessary sign-enthymemes as apparent or fallacious arguments. However, there seems to be a more attractive reading: We accept a fallacious argument only if we are deceived about its logical form.
So it seems as if Aristotle didn't regard all non-necessary sign-arguments as fallacious or deceptive; but even if this is true, it is difficult for Aristotle to determine the sense in which non-necessary sign-enthymemes are valid arguments, since he is bound to the alternative of deduction and induction, and neither class seems appropriate for non-necessary sign-arguments.
Cicero, Brutus , 46—48 and Isocrates. Aristotle's book Topics lists some hundred topoi for the construction of dialectical arguments. These lists of topoi form the core of the method by which the dialectician should be able to formulate deductions on any problem that could be proposed.
Most of the instructions that the Rhetoric gives for the composition of enthymemes are also organized as lists of topoi ; especially the first book of the Rhetoric essentially consists of topoi concerning the subjects of the three species of public speech. It is striking that the work that is almost exclusively dedicated to the collection of topoi , the book Topics , does not even make an attempt to define the concept of topos.
At any rate the Rhetoric gives a sort of defining characterization: According to this definition, the topos is a general argumentative form or pattern, and the concrete arguments are instantiations of the general topos.
That the topos is a general instruction from which several arguments can be derived, is crucial for Aristotle's understanding of an artful method of argumentation; for a teacher of rhetoric who makes his pupils learn ready samples of arguments would not impart the art itself to them, but only the products of this art, just as if someone pretending to teach the art of shoe-making only gave samples of already made shoes to his pupils see Sophistical Refutations b36ff.
By recalling the houses along the street we can also remember the associated items. In Topics b28—32, Aristotle seems to allude to this technique: At least within the system of the book Topics , every given problem must be analyzed in terms of some formal criteria: Does the predicate of the sentence in question ascribe a genus or a definition or peculiar or accidental properties to the subject?
Does the sentence express a sort of opposition, either contradiction or contrariety, etc.? Does the sentence express that something is more or less the case? Does it maintain identity or diversity? Are the words used linguistically derived from words that are part of an accepted premise? Depending on such formal criteria of the analyzed sentence one has to refer to a fitting topos. For this reason, the succession of topoi in the book Topics is organized in accordance with their salient formal criteria; and this, again, makes a further mnemotechnique superfluous.
More or less the same is true of the Rhetoric —except that most of its topoi are structured by material and not by formal criteria, as we shall see in section 7. A typical Aristotelian topos runs as follows: Other topoi often include the discussion of iv examples; still other topoi suggest v how to apply the given schemes. Often Aristotle is very brief and leaves it to the reader to add the missing elements.
In a nutshell, the function of a topos can be explained as follows. First of all, one has to select an apt topos for a given conclusion. The conclusion is either a thesis of our opponent that we want to refute, or our own assertion we want to establish or defend. Accordingly, there are two uses of topoi: Most topoi are selected by certain formal features of the given conclusion; if, for example, the conclusion maintains a definition, we have to select our topos from a list of topoi pertaining to definitions, etc.
Once we have selected a topos that is appropriate for a given conclusion, the topos can be used to construe a premise from which the given conclusion can be derived. If the construed premise is accepted, either by the opponent in a dialectical debate or by the audience in public speech, we can draw the intended conclusion.
It could be either, as some say, the premise of a propositional scheme such as the modus ponens, or, as others assume, as the conditional premise of a hypothetical syllogism. Aristotle himself does not favor one of these interpretations explicitly. But even if he regarded the topoi as additional premises in a dialectical or rhetorical argument, it is beyond any doubt that he did not use them as premises that must be explicitly mentioned or even approved by the opponent or audience.
This topic was not announced until the final passage of Rhet. II, so that most scholars have come to think of this section as a more or less self-contained treatise. The insertion of this treatise into the Rhetoric is motivated by the claim that, while Rhet. In the course of Rhet. After an initial exploration of the field of delivery and style III. The following chapters III. Chapters III.
These are the topics of the rhythmical shaping of prose style and of periodic and non-periodic flow of speech. Again metaphors are shown to play a crucial role for that purpose, so that the topic of metaphor is taken up again and deepened by extended lists of examples. Chapter III. The philosophical core of Aristotle's treatise on style in Rhet.
Originally the discussion of style belongs to the art of poetry rather than to rhetoric; the poets were the first, as Aristotle observes, to give an impulse for the study of style.
Nevertheless he admits that questions of style or, more precisely, of different ways to formulate the same subject, may have an impact on the degree of clarity: Clarity again matters for comprehension and comprehensibility contributes to persuasiveness. In prose speeches, the good formulation of a state of affairs must therefore be a clear one.
However, saying this is not yet enough to account for the best or excellent prose style, since clear linguistic expressions tend to be banal or flat, while good style should avoid such banality. If the language becomes too banal it will not be able to attract the attention of the audience.
The orator can avoid this tendency of banality by the use of dignified or elevated expressions and in general by all formulations that deviate from common usage.
On the one hand, uncommon vocabulary has the advantage of evoking the curiosity of an audience. On the other hand the use of such elevated vocabulary bears a serious risk: Whenever the orator makes excessive use of it, the speech might become unclear, thus failing to meet the default requirement of prose speech, namely clarity. Moreover, if the vocabulary becomes too sublime or dignified in relation to prose's subject matter Aristotle assumes it is mostly everyday affairs , the audience will notice that the orator uses his words with a certain intention and will become suspicious about the orator and his intentions.
Hitting upon the right wording is therefore a matter of being clear, but not too banal; In trying not to be too banal, one must use uncommon, dignified words and phrases, but one must be careful not to use them excessively or inappropriately in relation to prose style and the typical subject matter of prose speeches.
Bringing all these considerations together Aristotle defines the good prose style, i. The good style is clear in a way that is neither too banal nor too dignified, but appropriate in proportion to the subject matter of prose speech. In this respect the definition of stylistic virtue follows the same scheme as the definition of ethical virtues in Aristotle's ethical writings, insofar as both the stylistic virtue and the virtue of character are defined in terms of a mean that lies between two opposed excesses.
If the virtue of style is defined as a mean between the banality involving form of clarity and overly dignified and hence inappropriate speech, it is with good reason that Aristotle speaks of only one virtue of prose style, and not of clarity, ornament by dignified expressions and appropriateness as three distinct virtues of style.
However, from the times of Cicero and Quintilianus on, these three, along with the correctness of Greek or Latin, became the canonical four virtues of speech virtutes dicendi. Reading Aristotle through the spectacles of the Roman art of rhetoric, scholars often try to identify two, three or four virtues of style in his Rhetoric. Finally, if the virtue of style is about finding a balance between banal clarity, which is dull, and attractive dignity, which is inappropriate in public speeches, how can the orator manage to control the different degrees of clarity and dignity?
For this purpose Aristotle equips the orator with a classification of words more or less the same classification can also be found in Poetics chapter Most examples that Aristotle gives of this latter class are taken from the different Greek dialects, and most examples of this type are in turn taken from the language of the Homeric epos. Further classes are defined by metaphors and by several expressions that are somehow altered or modified, e. Sometimes Aristotle also uses the term kosmos under which he collects all epithets and otherwise ornamental expressions.
These different types of words differ in accordance with their familiarity. The best established words, the kuria , make their subject clear, but do not excite the audience's curiosity, whereas all other types of words are not established, and hence have the sort of attraction that alien or foreign things used to have. Since remote things are admirable thaumaston and the admirable is pleasant, Aristotle says, one should make the speech admirable and pleasant by the use of such unfamiliar words.
However one has to be careful not to use inappropriately dignified or poetic words in prose speech. Thus the virtue of style is accomplished by the selection and balanced use of these various types of words: Fundamental for prose speech is the use of usual and therefore clear words.
In order to make the speech pleasant and dignified and in order to avoid banality the orator must make moderate use of non-familiar elements. Metaphor plays an important role for prose style, since metaphors contribute, as Aristotle says, clarity as well as the unfamiliar, surprising effect that avoids banality and tediousness. These four types are exemplified as follows:. Most of the examples Aristotle offers for types i to iii would not be regarded as metaphors in the modern sense; rather they would fall under the headings of metonomy or synecdoche.
The examples offered for type iv are more like modern metaphors. Aristotle himself regards the metaphors of group iv , which are built from analogy, as the most important type of enthymemes. An analogy is given if the second term is to the first as the fourth to the third. Correspondingly, an analogous metaphor uses the fourth term for the second or the second for the fourth.
This principle can be illustrated by the following Aristotelian examples:. Examples a and b obey the optional instruction that metaphors can be qualified by adding the term to which the proper word is relative cp. In example c , there is no proper name for the thing that the metaphor refers to.
Metaphors are closely related to similes; but as opposed to the later tradition, Aristotle does not define the metaphor as an abbreviated simile, but, the other way around, the simile as a metaphor.
The simile differs from the metaphor in the form of expression: While in the later tradition the use of metaphors has been seen as a matter of mere decoration, which has to delight the hearer, Aristotle stresses the cognitive function of metaphors.
Metaphors, he says, bring about learning Rhet. In order to understand a metaphor, the hearer has to find something common between the metaphor and the thing the metaphor refers to. Thus, a metaphor not only refers to a thing, but simultaneously describes the thing in a certain respect.
This is why Aristotle says that the metaphor brings about learning: Aristotle Aristotle, General Topics: Rapp lmu. Works on Rhetoric 2.
The Agenda of the Rhetoric 3. Rhetoric as a Counterpart to Dialectic 4.
The Purpose of Rhetoric 4. The Three Means of Persuasion 6. The Enthymeme 6. The Topoi 7. How to Say Things with Words 8. The Agenda of the Rhetoric The structure of Rhet. Rhetoric as a Counterpart to Dialectic Aristotle stresses that rhetoric is closely related to dialectic. This analogy between rhetoric and dialectic can be substantiated by several common features of both disciplines: Rhetoric and dialectic are concerned with things that do not belong to a definite genus or are not the object of a specific science.
Rhetoric and dialectic rely on accepted sentences endoxa. Rhetoric and dialectic are not dependent on the principles of specific sciences. Rhetoric and dialectic are concerned with both sides of an opposition. Rhetoric and dialectic rely on the same theory of deduction and induction.
Rhetoric and dialectic similarly apply the so-called topoi. This is why there are also remarkable differences between the two disciplines: Dialectic can be applied to every object whatsoever, rhetoric is useful especially in practical and public matters. Dialectic proceeds by questioning and answering, while rhetoric for the most part proceeds in continuous form. Dialectic is concerned with general questions, while rhetoric is concerned for the most part with particular topics i.
Certain uses of dialectic apply qualified endoxa , i. Rhetoric must take into account that its target group has only restricted intellectual resources, whereas such concerns are totally absent from dialectic. While dialectic tries to test the consistency of a set of sentences, rhetoric tries to achieve the persuasion of a given audience. Non-argumentative methods are absent from dialectic, while rhetoric uses non-argumentative means of persuasion. The Three Means of Persuasion The systematical core of Aristotle's Rhetoric is the doctrine that there are three technical means of persuasion.
Supplement on The Brevity of the Enthymeme 6. But there are several types of sign-arguments too; Aristotle offers the following examples: Rhetoric I. Wise men are good, since Pittacus is good. This woman has a child, since she has milk. She is pregnant, since she is pale.
Supplement on the Topoi of the Rhetoric 8. How to Say Things with Words Rhet. These four types are exemplified as follows: This principle can be illustrated by the following Aristotelian examples: Analogy Metaphor a The cup to Dionysus as shield to Ares. Glossary of Selected Terms Accepted opinions: Bibliography Allen, James. Barnes, Jonathan. Berti ed. The Posterior Analytics. Bitzer, L. Burnyeat, Myles. The Logic of Persuasion. Furley and A. Nehamas eds. Princeton University Press.
Cooper, John M. Cope, Edward Meredith. An Introduction to Aristotle's Rhetoric. Cambridge The Rhetoric of Aristotle, with a Commentary. Revised and edited by John Edwin Sandys.
Cambridge University Press. Cronkhite, Garry L. Dow, Jamie. Les Belles Lettres. Erickson, Keith V. Fortenbaugh, William W. Peripatetic Rhetoric after Aristotle. Transaction Publishers. Freese, John Henry. London and Cambridge, Mass.: Loeb Classical Library. Harvard University Press. Furley, David J. Aristotle's Rhetoric.
Garver, Eugene. The University of Chicago Press. Grimaldi, William M. Aristotle, Rhetoric I-II. A Commentary. New York: Fordham University Press. Halliwell, Stephen. Kassel, Rudolf. Aristotelis Ars Rhetorica. Berlin and New York: De Gruyter. Kennedy, George A. Aristotle, On Rhetoric.