BASICS: PENCIL TECHNIQUE. Richard L. Yepez and Kathleen E. Yepez. An Art Skills Tutorial. Commissioned by the. Center for Science Education Research. Irrespective of one's drawing aptitude, we all know it is an amusing and a rewarding activity. Drawing, however you know is an essential discipline in certain. SKETCHING. Vni. ON. LIGHT. AND. SHADE. IX. ON. DRAWING. FROM. FLAT. COPIES. X. SUGGESTIONS. FOR. A. COURSE. OF. STUDY . XI.
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Sketching the Basics - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. The field of sketching is both lively and changing, and the importance of drawing in relation to the design process is considerable. Koos Eissen (Med) and Roselien Steur (MSc BA) both teach drawing techniques. Sketching: The Basics contains many step-by-step guides to making. Techniques and hands-on activities around sketching for human-computer interaction Buxton - getting the design right. Source: Sketching User Experiences: The Workbook, Morgan Kaufmann, .. Bluebeam PDF Revu ( Windows).
Some chosen viewpoints make it possible to give pure shape information about an object related to the human eye , whereas. Drawing on coloured paper is a good preparation for digital drawing. We then chose 3 movements we found 'interesting' and made a hrst invest gaf ion in cbarg ng mechan ems in terms of their shape. The shape could start with the biggest rounding, the top surface in this case, onto which smaller ones are added 'outwards'. This determines a lot of the drawing choices from start to end. Make stronger lines on the shaded side, bottom and right hand side, and of the separate parts.
Even quick models can be very useful if you want to get your perspective and proportions right. Choosing Concepts A combination of a side view are presented to the client for concept choice. All these have an explanatory character. A Next, we explored a variety of production technology options and set our choice on thermotorming.
Then the shape was refined and the details elaborated. Finally, we addressed all issues related to industrial manutacturing. Sketching enabled us to evaluate and narrow down the alternatives. We employ simple yet effective sketching techniques. Black ink pen drawings can be done quickly to visualise ideas as they are generated and evolve. When tocused more on shape, we use felt pens to add colour and volume; it's a taut way to bring out the shape and give the images a sexier' look.
This allows you to go into as much detail about your design as you need It looks like a tree, or a hand, or a splash, or maybe a shaggy head, or even an alien. Kids love it. It has a cute belly and folding instructions on the front. There are several holes, so kids wouldn't have to queue, and their size is right for drink cartons folded flat, but small enough not to let any books in. With built-in speaker and light sensor, the monster thanks you for every received carton - its belly rumbles contentedly.
Sketches, for us an essential part of the design process, are used to present, share and develop the ideas within the team. As a rule, we do not show these to clients.
Sketches are made at every stage of the project to help us select and refIne designs, from an overall concept to the smallest detail. Here are some drawings illustrating different stages of the Tetra Pak recycling container project. We started with a series of concept sketches and picked out the cheerful monster idea Tetra Pak strives to be eco-friendly anc encourage recycling.
They wish to teach people that juice and milk cartons shouldn't be thrown away, but collected and reprocessed.
The campaign includes lectures, flyers and posters explaining why cartons are useful and should be recycled. Schools and offices would need containers to hold cartons before they are taken to recycling centres. We designed the containers, devised names and slogans for the campaign, and created a set of logos. So when making a drawing, beware of its role in the design process, or what it is you want to explore or show, and which parties are involved.
This determines a lot of the drawing choices from start to end. In ideation it is important that sketches keep your flow of ideas going and inspire you. A large amount of sketches with little or no detail can be more effective and inspiring here than a few 'beautifully' rendered products. At other moments you may wish your client to choose from a few possible options. In such a case a large number of drawings can be confusing, whereas a few drawings in which the different concepts are emphasised may be better suited.
The various parties with whom you communicate are also of importance. Showing your initial ideas to an experienced client with knowledge of the product can be something completely different than showing the same ideas to a sponsor, who may only be interested in his return of investment. All these aspects determine whether the drawing can be a quick sketch or should look precise. Be aware if a drawing's context in design solves questions such as: Can I use an existing sketch from ideation?
Moreover, the choice of drawing materials you use, the viewpoint of the drawing and even the direction of light can be a direct result of the sketch's role in the design, and largely determine the 'look and feel' of a sketch. Start by drawing a scooter from memory. Questions like: How does the steering mechanism work? Make quick sketches while researching; first draw different solutions and then choose the best one. After you have done that, make your final perspective drawing. In this exercise you will use sketching with different applications: You will need to know the direction of the ellipses of the two wheels.
Keep the wheels parallel to keep from creating another drawing problem. See Chapter 2 for support. Detailing In this phase, all details are decided upon, such as the exact surface finish and size of a product. Several close-up drawings may be required, in combination with side views and perspectives. A variety of drawings usually works best to visualise both detail and its impact on the product as a whole. Problems are met, solved, optimised and communicated with various parties.
An ideal situation would be for the designer to use the same drawings for design as for communication. Design and Communication From the developed concepts, one final idea is chosen. This idea is further developed for realisation. In this phase details are being decided upon, engineering is done, and production is being prepared. Design case chapter 1 Turnkey Design. Since an idea is never ready', a drawing is a good tool for developing something further in a short time, as sketches can be made quickly and suggestively.
By using a technical drawing from engineering or a photo of an existing product as an underlay, you can quickly generate variations in shape. Pictures taken from a foam model will do the job as well. In any case, if the proportions of the shape allow, it is worthwhile to make an underlay, side views and perspective, and take time to optimise the object's form, as the emotional aspect of the product is often dependent on this.
Pre-Engineering When communicating with construction engineers just before the actual engineering begins, so called pre-engineering sketches' are made.
These can be principle sketches of partial technical solutions, possibly made during an engineering meeting. Rough side view technical drawings and exploded views are commonly used drawings in this phase. Exploded views show components in relation to each other, and can give direction in assembly methods.
Pure product information is important during this phase. During the communication process, the different parties require specific drawings, showing different aspects of the product. Here you will find the use of underlays such as CAD drawings, renderings, and pictures of foam models very effective.
Choosing Concepts Choosing a concept can occur internally, with co-designers or management for example, or externally with a client.
At this point you should present the different ideas in similar ways. Make sure an honest choice can be made, and not be blurred by the use of different handwriting or drawing styles.
Presentations should be alike. Presentation Sketches and drawings can be used for presentation during several stages of design. Presentations can be in-house, among designers that work together, or externally. In each case different issues may be important.
A client, such as a producer outsourcing the design of his products, has of course knowledge of his field of products, his market and the technical details, and may want to compare the design with existing products and production techniques. A professional from outside the product field or design, such as a sponsor, manager or user, requires other aspects of the drawings.
He or she is usually unaware and not interested in the underlying technical details of the design, and may wish to have a clear and inspiring image of what the implications are of this product on a person's daily life.
A pitch or contest requires a specific type of presentation. During a pitch your idea should look its very best and reveal the context of the design. A pitch takes place with competitors, and your goal is to get the assignment or win the contest. So when pitching together with other designers, make sure your drawings tempt and convince the viewer. Each outcome of the ideation phase may have its own problem areas' that need to be solved or optimised.
The problem' may involve design, ethics, environmental impact, choice of material, technical options, assembly, safety, construction, cost effectiveness and so on. And each problem' will probably have several possible solutions.
Again it is time to generate a variety of solutions, and then make a selection. Drawings typical in this design phase are more detailed than in the ideation phase. For instance, an exploded view drawing will show parts in relation to other parts and thereby could explore technical solutions. The outcome of the concept phase can result in several feasible ideas presentable to the client. This actually was surprising; it had nothing to do with the original charging movement, but appeared as a reaction to the existing drawings.
This key sketch was then picked up and used for further exploration, again generating several variations and ideas. The final product idea consists of a combination between a toy car and a small bagless handheld vacuum cleaner. Inside the toy car is an alternator which charges a battery through the movements of the playieg child. This is the power source of the vacuum cleaner. The process of generating ideas freely and evaluating and choosing them is a repetitive action in the design process.
Visualisation plays an important role in this iteration. Each phase starts with the generation of many ideas, and concludes with one or a few end' results.
These results form the input for the next phase, where problem solution or optlmisatlon requires you to again first generate many solutions, and then evaluate them. The further along in the design process, the more uncertainties will be overcome.
As a logical result, this will be reflected in the more definite character of the drawings. In this example the starting point was to create more awareness for energy consumption. It was choser to come up with a product idea in wh cb human power plays a key issue. We started with a human power bra nstorm; a collection of hand and arm movements that can be used to generate electr cal power. We then chose 3 movements we found 'interesting' and made a hrst invest gaf ion in cbarg ng mechan ems in terms of their shape.
This generating of ideas was done largely by association, and that is how the sketch with the toy car sudden y 'popped up'. In the ideation phase it is important to generate many ideas, explore several variations, and end up with a range of ideas.
The ideation phase will conclude with a selection of these ideas with which to continue. These are the potentially good ideas that may grow into a real proposal or concept. It is not important to present products in correct perspective or with shading.
It is more important that the ideas themselves are clear and either context related or context driven. This may mean a lot of schematic and archetypal line drawings in, for example, side view or a page full of line drawings as shown here.
In this process of visual thinking, words on post-its or inspiring pictures could be added to tell a story. Some typical drawings in this phase are referred to as 'doodles' and 'thumbnails', both quite small. Small drawings are justified at this stage of design because there is no room for detail. However, we do encourage drawing larger, if possible, and using a 'blunt' medium such as a marker, instead of a fine liner or colouring pencil, to create the same effect regarding details.
Some designers like to keep a booklet in which to sketch ideas. With this sketch book you can do ideation whenever you like, anytime and nearly everywhere. Making an initial ideation sketch may lead to producing another sketch, improving the first or drawing another idea. One of two things may occur with this first sketch: Do not criticise these sketches yet, as it is important to keep the flow of ideas going; criticism will take place later. This may mean that a product is sometimes visualised in a clear way, and in other cases that the drawing itself should be convincing or persuasive.
There is no one criteria for a drawing to be 'good' or 'bad', and before you judge, it is important to always know the goal and context of a drawing. So making a 'beautiful' drawing is not the main purpose of this book.
We will leave a lot of the pre design process out of our discussion. What is important here, is that there are certain recognisable moments En the process of design in which drawing and sketching can play a major role. This chapter focuses on these moments only. Although every design may be different, there are some generally recognisable phases in every design process. These various design phases can of course overlap, and may differ a little in each situation.
Each of these phases demands different things from a drawing or a sketch.
In this chapter we will discuss different kinds of drawings within the design process. As a designer you can communicate through drawing. So you're not dependent on language or origin to establish your place. Laurens van de Acker, Director of Design at Renault. Some chosen viewpoints make it possible to give pure shape information about an object related to the human eye , whereas a different choice can have a completely different impact.
An object could appear bigger or smaller, but also nice, impressive or overwhelming. How do you choose and can you predict the result of your choice? A good sketch can often embody a lot of character which is an essential reference when the design is translated into a 3D model, especially in car design At many stages of the design process, communication of intended proportions is crucial.
Those types of viewpoints in which clearly communicating shape information is important are called informative viewpoint. This viewpoint is all about optimisng shape information, including intended scale information: A large object will be sketched with more perspectival convergence than a small object.
In some cases the way a product is used influences the choice user viewpoint. The open matchboxes, for example, give the optimal shape impression in terms of both size and usage. The boxes above have top surfaces which are too foreshortened or too flat. In fact, they are positioned too near to the horizon, causing this effect. A very flat surface gives difficulties estimating its size, both by the viewer and the draughtsman.
The boxes further below have the opposite effect; too high a viewpoint means the need for a third vanishing point, that of the vertical lines, which causes too much distortion to 'read' the actual size of the vertical surfaces. The sketch at the bottom shows two perspectival directions which are near the degree angle. At 90 degrees the 2-point perspective changes into a 1-point perspective, and no side surfaces can be seen. In photo D the bike appears nice at first glance, but it does not reveal much of the most informative side view, and leaves the back of the bike unexplained.
The same can be said about E. Photo F is also quite informative, but not optimal. It is even taken from a user's point of view', but the viewpoint is so low that the saddle appears too foreshortened to read' its shape.
Very uninformative is G; it is almost a top view instead of a perspective, and therefore not. Photo H also gives a good overview of the bike's shape, and photo I emphasizes the box carrier, but leaves the rest of the bike unexplained because of overlap. In short, it is important that if you were to draw a box around the bike, all 3 visible surfaces should have only a little foreshortening, just like the matchbox.
Besides that, there are viewpoints of which a part of the object overlaps another, and thus hides shape information. In these sketches various ways of folding carton boxes are investigated and analysed for use in the design of a nest box. A rather high view point is chosen to keep the emphasis on the top surface where: The overall dimensions of the boxes are unimportant at this stage. After forming an idea for the design of a birdhouse, one can translate some of the folding possibilities into birdhouses.
The developing sketches here show the possible construction. Now the overall dimensions of the houses are important, and a slightly lower viewpoint is chosen to avoid distortion in the vertical direction.
It is important that all planes are clearly visible. The use of a small background and shading are of course also helpful. Blue lit and Great Tit Cyanistes caeruleus and Parus major.
The plan views are used to inform on the use of material and also to communicate even more information regarding the folding principle. Leaving the angle of view in terms of height the same, you may still turn the object in different positions. It is important to create a good view of the two vertical surfaces. One of these vertical sides, however, will in most cases represent the object best.
In this example it is the side of the car. Compare it with a child's drawing of a car, who will draw it from the side; this is the archetypal way. This most informative side in a perspective drawing should be the less foreshortened side of the drawing, to reveal maximum information. In the example here, the drawing 0 at the bottom right is regarded as the result chosen with the most optimal viewpoint.
Some remarks on the other drawings: Truck B may have an excellent viewpoint for other purposes; it has its emphasis on the front of the toy. Drawing C, by contrast, is too foreshortened to perceive the front width of the truck. There are also spatial, 3D products that clearly have a more important, or dominant face', like clock radios, microwave ovens and washing machines. It is not always useful to draw a perspective representation of these kinds of products; it could mean an enormous time saver to just draw this face' in side view.
Drawing in side view in this case thus means more design efficiency. This sketch of the beamer starts with long thin and smooth lines. The light direction is chosen from the left-hand top side, so all lines on the shadow side, i. Doing so in the line drawing adds depth; the lines are called shadow lines. Where a hole in the housing is located due to a button, for example , the contour of that hole can be thickened completely all round.
When shading and cast shadow are added, a more profound sense of depth and spatiality is added. The main shape of the product whether fiat, curved or hollow , and its rounding become clear. But also the spatially deeper parts or parts sticking out such as ribs can be well perceived now. Colour and structures are now added.
Always make sure there is enough contrast in the drawing, because if you add pastel chalk, contrasts will automatically lessen. An example of how to draw structures, with hatching in between the ribs, in steps: First draw in arbitrary direction, then a second hatching crossing the first one at an angle try to avoid a degree angle. The third hatching also slightly different to the first two will finish the nonwoven structure. Even after applying pastel chalk or airbrush, small details can be added with black and white lines.
Tip Adding surroundings to the product, in this case a cast shadow on a back wall and a theoretical reflection on the ground surface using light grey marker and pastel chalk, gives the drawing a more spatial context. By scanning the drawing just before the finishing touches, one can digitally add some more realism in a short time. Using, for example, only black and white line tools, one can correct circles and ellipses. White highlights can often be emphasised more using digital techniques.
It can be important to maintain the sketchy character of the drawing, for instance at the early stages of the design. If it starts to look like a final rendering, the design proposal will get a very definite character. A sketch, however, will be open to changes and discussion, for example customer input. A way to keep the drawing sketchy is to keep the sketch lines visible; in these drawings you can still see the guidelines used to draw the socket, the initial lensellipses and the elongated lines on the right-hand side of the beamer.
Upright cylinders are best not drawn in central perspective, such as done above. It takes more time than drawing a side view such as in the top drawing , but in comparison does not add that much information. A better viewpoint is the one drawn at the bottom, where the nozzle is slightly turned towards the viewer.
This drawing contains the most shape information and is perceived as the most spatial drawing. The large ellipses of the paint container are used to determine the two perspectival perpendicular directions. These directions are used to draw the handle and spray nozzle. In the case of cylinder like objects, the ellipse plays an important role in determining the viewpoint.
A sensible choice is not to draw ellipses very flat' A or with too much perspectival convergence B. Sketch C provides the necessary overview and makes drawing sections easier. To verify this roundness a set square can be used. With the same central axis, four ellipses are drawn in this example. A vertical line through the centre of the ellipse crosses it at top and bottom at this point the cylinder would lie on a horizontal surface.
Tangents to these points reveal the perspectival horizontal direction. Drawing two vertical tangents to the ellipse and connecting these points also shows this horizontal direction.
This horizontal direction and the central axis are comparable with the two horizontal perspective directions of a block shape,,. Thus a perspectival square can be drawn around' the ellipse.
When this is truly a square the third from the left , the ellipse has a correct roundness. When starting a drawing, this is a useful tool to check the roundness of ellipses. Later on you can estimate the roundness better, and no check will be needed. Even in the case of tilted shapes in random orientations, the method of tangents to ellipses can be used to determine the corresponding perspectival perpendicular directions to an ellipse.
In these shapes here, one groove is always chosen and drawn, the perpendicular groove can be found using tangents. The thickness of the shapes is of course in the direction perpendicular to the long axis of the ellipse.
In some cases the original drawing can be rotated slightly. This adds more dynamics to the drawing. This is especially common in car design. This rather flat hand-held device is drawn from a user viewpoint, i. As a result, the top view has only a little perspectival convergence, a deliberate choice to create as few complicated detail as possible in perspective. The step-by-step drawings show different viewpoints and have comparable details, so you may judge for yourself which one is more convenient.
All the drawings start with the top horizontal surface, and drawing of the elliptical shapes to start the rounding. See also Chapter 4 about rounding. First the bigger quarter circles in perspective parts of the ellipse are drawn and then, with the use of a diagonal point, the remaining two quarter circles. The next step is the smaller rounding. Beware of the perspectival foreshortening of the quarter circles in the vertical direction.
On the left and at the top they are barely visible. Now you may add the verticals at the start and finish of the circular parts. These verticals help you to decide where shading starts. The remaining rounding underneath the product is added in suggestion to finish the basics of the hand held. Shading is added to create more volume in the line sketches.
A cast shadow is used to position the hand-held product to a horizontal surface. A slight drop shadow causes the spectator to perceive the handheld product at an angle to the surface: After grey markers are used for shading, colour markers are applied. Pastel chalk on top of the colour marker can refine the surface's colour. Most of the time, details are final additions and give a slightly different look to the proposals.
Now you can see the importance of the viewing angle. Details are not easy to draw in the drawings on the right and have less readable information. Although rejecting a drawing and starting over again is, in general, certainly not advisable, avoid constantly repairing mistakes you made earlier in the drawing.
The choice of viewpoint is such a decisive choice that it may be necessary when you first start drawing, to start over with a better viewpoint.
Practice will teach you to predict the better viewpoint. Hints to keep in mind are the location of most information about the product, and to keep judging if that is displayed with only little a foreshortening. Try it and check for expected problems at an early stage of the drawing. Where should the emphasis be?
What is it you want to communicate? And what will this viewpoint emphasise? These are simple but effective questions to keep in mind. Of course you couid add a digitai picture to the drawing.
This transition can be made if one realises that we generally draw in 2-point perspective. The lines in vertical direction are not foreshortened. Thus, the vertical lines of an object drawn in bird's-eye perspective have literally the same length when drawn at eye level colour arrows. The other advantage of this is that no matter from how high or low we draw an object, the width of the shape and drawing remains the same see the black arrows.
Start by drawing a red surface through the object at eye height. Draw a horizon. The horizontal distance between the vertical lines black arrows remain the same at eye level.
These lines cross the horizon. Everything above the red surface will appear above the horizon at eye level. When connecting these lines, the initial shape will appear at eye level. Length and distance can be related to the horizon, but also to other vertical or horizontal measurements. The roof ridge, for example, can be drawn using the horizon, but also in relation to lines in the drawing.
This method of transition of the viewpoint works relatively quickly and will, in most cases, be more precise than drawing directly at eye level. The design sketches of the beach house give a good overview and information about the overall shape of the house, but to visualise the real-life perception of it, eyelevel perspective is necessary. The principal transitions of the bird's-eye drawing to eye level is the same as just explained: But there is something else.
Bigger objects have more perspectival convergence than smaller objects. With this in mind, the drawing that is used for the transition should have more convergence than usual, and the eye-level drawing should have enough convergence. Tip Always start with the biggest dimensions. This reveals the overall shape as soon as possible.
In this line drawing the shadow lines have been thickened. Just before that, the first outcome of the transition is critically regarded, and corrections and adjustments are being made. This is an important phase; let yourself be guided by both perspective rules and your eye'. Evaluate with your "e' is one of the most important rules in awings and other visuals.
It is of mrse important to match the horizon of e picture exactly with the horizon of the awing. The intersection lies on the horizon.
When you know the size of an object in that space, you can relate it to the horizon. Here, a stool with a height of 45 cm fits 2. This is much lower than the average human; it is the height of a seat!
Thus the interior appears much higher and more spacious at first glance than you would expect from a standing height. The height of the windows, for example, is twice that of the horizon, which is cm; much lower than was expected at first glance.
Central perspective is often used in interior design, when both side walls should be visible in relation to a back wall. It is a common mistake to think that the vanishing point should be in the centre. To obtain more information about the visual aspects of one of the side walls or objects on that side, you may move the vanishing point. These two interior drawings of the same interior give a different impression due to the different location of the vanishing point.
In this picture you can find drawing aspects hke vanishing point iust outside the photo on the right and eye level related to the person in the room. This picture shows a variation on central perspective, it iooks hke a central perspective, but the interior becomes a 2-point perspective, as there is also a vanishing point at the iett in addition to the one behind the interior. Next to the location of the vanishing point, the cut-out of a drawing can change the feel of an interior dramatically.
Here you find three drawings of the same airplane interior. In drawing A, the space is not limited. This makes the space feel wide, open and large. It actually does not feel like the interior of a plane at all. In drawing B, the border of the interior is emphasised like a cross-section.
This enables you to combine technical data in its real environment, but makes the interior appear as very small. Drawing C is the preferable one; a more playful border is chosen. The characteristic shape of the interior is still felt, but now appears a bit bigger than in drawing B. The emphasis can thus be placed on, for example, the ceiling light.
A proposal for an exhibAion stand within 10 x lOx 5 h m can start with a drawing directly at eye level. Both examples here and on the next page started like that. Its height is body length minus 10 cm, say cm.
Start with drawing the nearest vertical; estimate a perspectival convergence line above the horizon, and draw another vertical line. Thus a wall with height 5 m but unknown length can be drawn. Estimate and draw a square, and draw the perpendicular direction by adding a nearby vanishing point on the left say, just on the edge of your paper. Draw another square in that direction, on the far left.
Mind the strong foreshortening; it will appear quite small. Now you can finish a cube, in this case with a beam size of 5 m. You may have to adjust the cube before you go to the next phase: When diagonals are drawn through the midpoint of an outer vertical line, a square can be doubled or multiplied. Using this principle in a clever way, one can transform the cube into a space of 10 x 10 x 5 m; it could be a typical convention space.
This grid can now be used as an underlay for a drawing at eye level such as the above. The eye level is at the horizon, so the drawn person in front is 1. Same steps in birds-eye view. The drawing begins with a horiton and the nearest vertical line.
In both directions perspectival convergence is drawn; one vanishing point nearby just in the drawing , the other further away. Left and right boundaries are slightly tilted to suggest a third vanishing point. This will make the oblect look bigger. Dividing these verticals' in, for example, halves and quarters and connecting these points will give you perspective guidelines. Notice the amount of perspective in the fourth step, a big difference in size of the two trailers.
A special variation of eye level is frog'seye perspective. Here the viewer has an extraordinarily low viewpoint; just above the ground like a frog, just above or even on the horizon. The object is drawn almost on the horizon.
As objects are now much bigger than the vIewer, a lot of perspectival convergence is used; both vanishing points are relatively Ilearby. As a resLllt, the object will appear huge, impressive or in the case of a vehicle, maybe even fast'. In this example a side-view picture of a 's Braun Nizo 8-mm camera by Dieter Rams is used as a starting point. By tracing it as shown in the top drawing, only tracing the object's main features as they stand out in the photo, you may expect this rather vague result: You can see that there is no underlying construction drawn.
A professional way of sketching is to make the construction visible. This is shown in the second drawing. This is a side-view drawing of the product, showing shape information such as where a surface changes from flat to curved.
Different product parts and details are grouped and ordered. The different parts of the lens, for example, are grouped around a central axes. Adding shading makes it easier to read the product.
Could you reconstruct the camera in perspective only having this side-view information? Think about the basic volumes and how to group them. Don't bother about the details; just try to find an informative angle of vision. Here the lower perspective drawing reveals most shape information. A related exercise, to do yourself, is: At those moments colleagues are actually competitors as ideas are selected.
In these presentations, best ideas are filtered out within seconds, on impulse. We subconsciously make selections within only a few seconds; perceiving information takes a little longer. More thorough information that leaves you pondering takes several minutes to take in.
Before you start sketching seriously, it can be helpful to warm up, get loose and relaxed. This way you can also straighten your mind and focus. One way to do this is to make several large, quick sketches. Each of these sketches was made in less than 2 minutes, on A3 paper, using the broad side of grey markers. So when design proposals are presented on a wall, the most convincing drawings are subconsciously filtered in a few seconds.
Take a distance from your sketches every now and then, literally. Now you can see better whether it works or not in a presentation; see if it is readable, attractive and has enough contrast from afar, or how it relates to other sketches. Show your work to others to get reactions. Do not explain first, but ask their opinion. This way they will look at it without bias, and may be struck by something that has slipped your attention, or give meaning to your sketch in a different way.
Electric Concept Car with a self-structured platform for a Japanese car manufacturer, Design Director: Emanuele Nicosia.
The sketches are part of the design concept investigation and reflect the process of developing a design direction which started from the so called outboard' concept. Here the car has a platform where to assemble parts upon: Usually two or three concept proposals are introduced to the customer for design direction and selection.
Possible layouts and packaging of the vehicle are investigated, following the requests and data given by the client, such as the car class, target users, technical features and sales points.
Motors are joined by a separate structure on the rear part, in the case of rear-wheel-drive vehicles, like outboard engines. The body, at last, could be assembled on the platform.
The styling emphasises this design language by optically showing the separation between body and motor, as seen in the initial sketch. I always sketch freehand with pencil, underlining important parts with ball pen and then I import the hand made sketch into Adobe Photoshop. I keep this layer separate from the other work layers and I draw on top of those lines with Wacom tablet.. The renderings were started digitally, following the old school' Canson technical procedure, but now Using Photoshop tools instead of markers, coloured pencils, soft pastels and white watercolour for high lights.
Adding some perspective in side view sketches improves the spatial feeling. This is done by showing parts of the other side of the car, like the wheels, interior details, headrest or side windows.
A path tool is used for drawing stronger lines that divide different surfaces like windows, headlamps, grilles etc. To make the side view and perspective renderings appear more realistic, parts of images of headlamps and tail lights are pasted into the drawings.
Optim Crane. In the concept stage of the project, we actively used digital sketching because it helps us easily combine different shapes and volumes. By doing this we came up with some concrete directions which we developed a step further. One of them was an idea to use a mesh language for surfacing. We found that the idea of using flat plane surfaces perfectly fits this purpose.
After that we made a series of inspirational sketches using Adobe Photoshop and Alias Sketchbook Pro mostly We have definitely saved time and resources by doing loads of sketch experiments at each stage After creating the basic 3D model of the cabin and setting all important layout points, we started sketching again, this time to solve issues of use such as, windows opening, glass cleaning, ventilation and most importantly of all, providing great visibility for a crane operator.
Sketches were also made to understand how to use some technical boxes and spare places around a crane operator. Finally, a special environment was made, and even some animations in 3D were created. We could thus check the process of lifting containers and moving them around.
The cab is des gned for single and double-beam tonne capacity cranes. If boasts panoramic w ndows, which must be installed with careful regard to production technology and provide a s gnihcuntly larger field of view.
The mega-passenger aircraft Megalodon by Colani, The mega-passenger aircraft is based on the shape of the Megalodon shark. Colani presented his own mega-version of a passenger aircraft seven years after the first went into service.
It has four flight decks, swing-wings at the rear, and two fivefold drives. Each flight deck can seat up to passengers. Only this time, we will discuss more realistic situations. To better explain the various approaches, the previous chapter divided products into separate categories of shapes: This chapter starts with shapes that are a combination of those, and moves on to shapes with more complexity.
Drawing aspects like line perspective, shading and drawing materials are not treated separately but integrated. It remains important to analyse an object's shape, and be able to simplify it into a combination of geometric shapes.
It is useful to practice this and build a mental library of shapes that are easily reproduced. This will help you to draw automatically, without thinking, and enable you to predict what will happen and what is the best approach. Room for estimation and improvisation will speed up your drawing and give it a more intuitive handwriting' and thus lead to more convincing and inspiring drawings.
In an increasingly digital world, sketching is still the most direct and effective way to translate designers' thoughts into concrete results; for personal reflection and to communicate with others.. Of course you don't always have to start drawing, say, a hair dryer with a cylinder. If the character of the object is more block shaped, a block is used as a starting point and circular parts are added later.
Compare the different approaches. The hair dryer above starts with a block three cubes behind each other and adds a cylindrical part within one of these cubes. Tangent lines are then drawn to start shaping the handle. The hair dryer below, on the contrary, starts with a cylinder and uses tangent lines to the ellipses to add the handle.
A cylindrical shape of course hardly ever starts with a block because you get a lot of extra lines, which will inevitably get in the way. This kind of misinterpretation of the drawing approach will also result in sketches that look Enncessarily complicated. All sketches here started by the drawing cyHnders or ellipses, not blocks.
Singular rounding, in one direction only, is seen here. There are several approaches to drawing a singular rounding. In the step-by-step instruction here, the more elaborate one is used, to highlight the relation of the rounding to the block shape. In the case of quarter-circle roundings, they will form an ellipse when put together again, Thus the shading of the rounded edges will also form a cylinder when put together.
Compare the cylindrical parts here with the rounding of the inal toaster drawing. When the rounding consists of four quarter circles, the separate rounding can be put together and form an ellipse again.
Dividing the ellipse into four parts, one can distinguish two sharply curved roundings around the long axes , and two less sharply curved ones. The latter are easier to draw and therefore usually drawn first. To keep all tour roundings of the same proportion, a diagonal can be used to indicate the more sharply curved roundings in the outer squares. Here is a real opportunity for adding highlights with a white pastel and colour pencil.
Still drawing singular rounding, as seen in the drawing approach here, one uses less of the block shape as a guide for the rounding. The rounding is well defined on the top surface, and then repeated on the base surface. The advantage of this approach is not only fewer lines, but also there is room for a more complex combination of rounding, and the opportunity to freely adapt the shape's total proportions while drawing.
The toaster is finished in Adobe Photoshop, a background gradient is added from front to back and orange to black, and its opacity is changed. The background colour is removed from the top of the toaster to give it a more metal-like appearance.
Also, when rounding is found in the orientation of a horizontal cylinder, separate quarter circle rounding will form an ellipse again, and so will its shading. Here, rounding in all three spatial directions are combined. In the most simple situation, these three roundings are of the same size. On the now rounded corner there is a part of a sphere. It is very important to draw the start and end of each rounding in the line drawing.
Shading can then be easily applied. With grey marker, start for example with the shaded flat surface, then the singular rounding each part of a cylinder. The multiple roundings are then shaded as parts of a sphere, creating a 'hollow moon' shape. The multiple roundings equal singular roundings.
Their relation to each other and to the block shape can be seen here in these theoretical shapes. The roundirigs furthest away are the least visible. On a horizontal surface the visible singular rounding is drawn first. Using sections through the start and end of the horizontal planes, one adds the rest of the visible rounding.
Rounding that is barely visible due to foreshortening, are suggested only by a 'double line'. As roundings are smooth transitions, no big umps in shading, as seen in combinations of cylinder and cone shapes, will be seen, but just smooth transitions. Maybe the most common rounding to be seen in product design consists of a combination of rounding of unequal sizes. The shape could start with the biggest rounding, the top surface in this case, onto which smaller ones are added 'outwards'.
Only the visible ones are drawn; the others are only suggested. A disadvantage of this method, as seen in the drawings on the left, is that it increases the size of the product slightly. As a comparison, the A smaller rounding can also be added on top' of the hrst start surface.
This way the overall shape of the product will remain set by the hrst drawn surface. It results, however, in a drawing with more lines, which could be unwanted. Shading these unequal roundings is basically the same as the equal rounding, but somewhat transformed. First, the right-hand flat side is shaded, together with the two singular roundings attached. The multiple rounded 'corner' at the front is then shaded, connecting the shade of the two previous roundings.
When colour marker is applied, enough white should be left open on the rounding. Especially in glossy materials, rounding is perceived as a very light bright area. The gradients needed can be made with pastel chalk. In these objects flat and slightly curved top surfaces can be seen.
A smooth pastel chalk gradient on a flat surface will indicate the object's glossy material. Apply more pastel in the front areas, always less at the back. On a slightly curved surface this gradient should be stronger and be dependent on the light direction. It is very important that the pastel chalk colour is the same as the marker's colour. In most cases a mix of pastel chalks is needed. Note the different approaches: Here pastel chalk is also applied at the far end, and some white is left out in the middle.
In the sketch of the red object, the choice is to emphasise the rounding. Tip As roundings get smaller, they can eventually be suggested by a double line. Make sure you do not use too much marker between these double lines, as rounding will usually contain much white, owing to reflection.
First start with a section of both tubes. Then bisect the ellipse of the smaller tube in the same direction as the big tube and its perpendicular.
Two surfaces can now be drawn, connecting to the bigger tube. The outer points of the connection are now defined. Some extra sections can give more hints of the final saddle-like connection. Another way to get a better grip on the resulting curve, is to draw a curved square surtace on the bigger cylinder. It is curved like the ellipses of that cylinder. The resulting connection should lie within this square. This is also a way to get more symmetrical connection. In a horizontal orientation of the bigger tube, the approach is basically the same.
Sometimes, however, an even better starting point is a plane or a section. This method of sketching is also a good way to train yourself to draw transparently, meaning you can always see through the object and see' the invisible points. The shapes here are all drawn from a plane or a section. This approach to drawing might possibly give the most freedom of shape forming and allow room for improvisation, as shapes are literally growing beneath your fingers and can be adapted at nearly all stages of the drawing.
Sectional lines are also helpful in keeping the shape symmetrical, Diagonals can be used to reproduce a symmetrical curve. When sections are kept visible, a good understanding of the shape can be communicated. The shapes are approached spatially. This drawing approach is especially important, and is usually used with less predictable shapes, such as organic shapes. An extra line is drawn where the two sections meet, to make sure they have the same measurement at that point.
Usually the sections are perpendicular. When using this approach, small rounding can be integrated in the sections as well.
In these examples sections are not always the starting point of the drawing or the spatial approach. Instead, they are added afterwards to 'bend or transform' the object's surface.
As these lines actually 'describe' the surface, they are quite dominant in their appearance, and they can be even more helpful in reading the shape than shading. So sections can somehow dictate what you are supposed to see or feel. Here you see two versions of the same shape, made by changing just the curvature of the surface. With some practice, the sections are placed at the most effective or strategic places. A shape can change a lot in appearance by the sections.
This again leaves room for a lot of drawing treedom in shape, and in changing the object while drawing. For example, a combination of a round and square shape might be the case, but it might not be so obvious with which shape to start. Start by drawing an analysis of the shape in side view. It is important to 'define' measurements and eiongate lines in order to define parts in relation to each other.
Adjust it a bit for a better exercise result. The first drawing is of no use here. It may show the product's real proportions, but nothing is defined'. When the right measures are defined, as in the second drawing, the total length or height, for example, can be related to the diameter of the bowl.
A cylinder of which the height is the same as the width, is drawn first with a square Idotted mel onto which the ellipses are placed. It is of no use to start drawing a cube, as this does not make drawing the ellipses easier, and results in a drawing with a lot of lines.
What you always wanted to know about sketching but has never yet been explained in such a simple and efficient way. Chapter 1 Sketching in Design 1. Chapter 2 Drawing Approach 2. Chapter 3 Viewpoint 3. Chapter 4 Sketching Progress 4. Chapter 5 Expressing Colour and Materials 5. Chapter 7 Product Context 7. Chapter 6 Fast and Fearless 6. Design case Ducati Motor Holding S. This may mean that a product is sometimes visualised in a clear way, and in other cases that the drawing itself should be convincing or persuasive.
We will leave a lot of the pre design process out of our discussion. What is important here, is that there are certain. This chapter focuses on these moments only. Although every design may be different, there are some generally recognisable phases in every design process. These various design phases can of course overlap, and may differ a little in each situation. Each of these phases demands different things from a drawing or a sketch.
In this chapter we will discuss different kinds of drawings within the design process. As a designer you can communicate through drawing. It is not important to present products in correct perspective or with shading. It is more important that the ideas themselves are clear and either context related or context driven. This may mean a lot of schematic and archetypal line drawings in, for example, side view or a page full of line drawings as shown here.
In this process of visual thinking, words on post-its or inspiring pictures could be added to tell a story. Small drawings are justified at this stage of design because there is no room for detail.
Some designers like to keep a booklet in which to sketch ideas. With this sketch book you can do ideation whenever you like, anytime and nearly everywhere. Making an initial ideation sketch may lead to producing another sketch, improving the first or drawing another idea. One of two things may occur with this first sketch: Do not criticise these sketches yet, as it is important to keep the flow of ideas going; criticism will take place later.
In the ideation phase it is important to generate many ideas, explore several variations, and end up with a range of ideas. The ideation phase will conclude with a selection of these ideas with which to continue.
Some chosen viewpoints make it possible to give pure shape information about an object related to the human eye , whereas. An object could appear bigger or smaller, but also nice, impressive or overwhelming. How do you choose and can you predict the result of your choice?
Never underestimate the importance of a sketch in the design process. A good sketch can often embody a lot of character which is an essential reference when the design is translated into a 3D model, especially in car design At many stages of the design process, communication of intended proportions is crucial. Those types of viewpoints in which clearly communicating shape information is important are called informative viewpoint.
This viewpoint is all about optimising shape information, including intended scale information: A large object will be sketched with more perspectival convergence than a small object. In some cases the way a product is used influences the choice user viewpoint. The open matchboxes, for example, give the optimal shape impression in terms of both size and usage. The boxes above have top surfaces which are too foreshortened or too flat. In fact, they are positioned too near to the horizon, causing this effect.
A very flat surface gives difficulties estimating its size, both by the viewer and the draughtsman. The sketch at the bottom shows two perspectival directions which are near the degree angle.
At 90 degrees the 2-point perspective changes into a 1-point perspective, and no side surfaces can be seen.
In photo D the bike appears nice at first glance, but it does not reveal much of the most informative side view, and leaves the back of the bike unexplained. The same can be said about E. Photo F is also quite informative, but not optimal. Very uninformative is G; it is almost a top view instead of a perspective, and therefore not. In short, it is important that if you were to draw a box around the bike, all 3 visible surfaces should have only a little foreshortening, just like the matchbox.
Besides that, there are viewpoints of which a part of the object overlaps another, and thus hides shape information. Upright cylinders are best not drawn in central perspective, such as done above. It takes more time than drawing a side view such as in the top drawing , but in comparison does not add that much information. A better viewpoint is the one drawn at the bottom, where the nozzle is slightly turned towards the viewer. This drawing contains the most shape information and is perceived as the most spatial drawing.
The large ellipses of the paint container are used to determine the two perspectival perpendicular directions. These directions are used to draw the handle and spray nozzle. In the case of cylinder like objects, the ellipse plays an important role in determining the viewpoint.
Sketch C provides the necessary overview and makes drawing sections easier. The viewpoint of a product that is drawn from a declined cylinder is largely determined by the first line of the drawing: This determines the rotation, and with that, the roundness of the ellipses, which further determines the perpendicular directions used for drawing handles etc.
A horizontal central axis in a perspective drawing means a central perspectival viewpoint drawing A. This is not a very spatial, informative viewpoint. Drawing B has very flat ellipses which make it difficult to draw sections and tangents.
Drawing E, on the other hand, has such a tilted central axis that the shape is too foreshortened in that direction to perceive its precise length. Drawing C and D are more informative viewpoints. So a central axis that is not too horizontal or too steep is in most cases a good start. The directions of the ellipses are then known always perpendicular , and only the roundness needs to be estimated.
To verify this roundness a set square can be used. This has many advantages. For the viewer, these details convey information about the size of the product, and lend a sketch a more realistic character, which can make it easier to understand. For the designer it may serve as a means to enliven the product idea and stimulate us to think more about an idea.
Adding these details can be done relatively quickly, but they can dramatically change a sketch. Because of the importance of the product details, it is worthwhile searching for the right layout.