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Silverturtle's Guide to SAT and Admissions soundofheaven.info - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Silverturtle's Guide to SAT and . Silverturtles Guide to SAT and Admissions soundofheaven.info - Download as PDF File . pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. SAT. #2) Download Official SAT Practice Tests. #3) Free PSAT #4) "UC Frshmn Profile SATs" (See PDF below) SilverTurtle's Guide to SAT & College Admissions.
There is a well or wells. Solving Them! And the are certainl not a measure of our self worth. An additional strategy is to mark the questions that you deem to be of highest risk for error and then go back to redo them. Because of the weather, the storm went home. Alan Vu.
For example: We revolutionaries are free. Sally is the referent. Exophora occurs when a pronoun's referent is found in a different context than that in which the pronoun is found. In case you're curious about why commas were used in the third sentence but not the first. A pronoun's referent is often called itsantecedent. Sally started jumping on her clock. The best students in the class. Anaphora In its most general sense. Despite appearances to the contrary.
It is important to note that one plus one does not equal five. They are this. There are some additional things to mention about participles. I lied a little bit earlier. What time is it? I need to pluralize referent. Dummy pronouns more formally called expletive pronouns or pleonastic pronouns are the singular exception to the rule that all pronouns must have endophoric references on the SAT.
But because the referent of it is the subject of the previous clause. In either case. In order to maintain continuity in number. Each of those can be used as a pronoun as in I want to eat that or an adjective as in I want that hippo as a friend. If one had meant to refer to child which was being used in the objective case. Rest assured. For further example of when a pronoun should be considered ambiguous and when it should be considered acceptable.
And that's fine. This does get a bit hazier. Just remember this: In forming the superlative form. I am weakest. Which of your eleven cars do you like best? A specific diction error: This error is unlikely to show up on any given SAT. The positive form of an adjective is its base form e.. Errors with adjectives in comparisons: There are three terms relevant to this error: And with the dollars example.
Consider these examples: Which of your two cars do you like better? The superlative form is used when we are comparing three or more things. This concept has important implications for subject-verb agreement as well. The comparative form is used when we are comparing two things. An instance in which an adverb is modifying an adjective: I want to buy a very hungry alligator. Between me and my brother.
In order to form the comparative form.. Among me and my brothers. I ate only one meal the entire time! Incorrectly deciding between adverbs and adjectives: The key to correctly identifying whether an adverb or adjective is appropriate is to ask yourself What is the word doing in this sentence? If the word is modifying a noun or pronoun. When I went to Mars last week.
When I emphasize the nearest candidate for modification. We can correctly say. Recall that the nominative case also known as the subjective case means that the noun or pronoun is the subject of a verb. If we chose badly.
Ask yourself whether we are modifying feel or some noun. The problem with the sentence is that it departs from the general rule that adverbs must be as close as possible to what they are modifying. I only ate one meal the entire time! If you heard this when you weren't in SAT-Writing mode. This does not have to do with adverbs. In that sentence the adverb fast is modifying the verb ran. These two sentences actually have very similar underlying grammatical structures.
Another type of subject complement is the predicate nominative. We are actually modifying I here. Because predicate nominatives define or rename the subject of the linking verb. I ran through the wall quite fast. Errors in placement of adverbs: In general adverbs can be placed quite liberally. Bob is the man. He quickly ran to get his lost lemur. He ran quickly to get his lost lemur.
If the word is modifying a verb. The adverb very is there modifying the adjective hungry. Consider this example. Because bad and hungry modify the subject of the intervening verb. An instance in which an adverb is modifying a verb.
That adverb is. Consider this sentence: He is hungry. With nouns. There are some tricky situations. This leaves me wondering: To reduce this ambiguity. One example: He wrote his own autobiography. Here are a couple more examples: I gave it to him. That is. Consider these temporal redundancies. If this will be only the second time that a song is being played.
I might as well bring up a phrase that always frustrates me. Who is the best runner? The best runner is he. The correct phrase is the reason is that. Consider this lot of examples. The subject complement and predicate nominative he is defining the linking verb's subject. When a word or set of words can alone mean what is intended. Consider this question: That was good. We can. My failure was due to my lack of success. The best people are they. Comparative and superlative adverb errors: Care must be taken in forming the comparative and superlative forms of adverbs.
I indicate the word or words that should be omitted in parentheses after each sentence: I'll meet you there at twelve noon. There are some less conservative grammar sources that support the interchangeability of due to and because of. There are also some words that. That is due to his pet snake.
My hunger is due to the weather. Some other phrasal verbs: We agree with each other and our ideas. This latter meaning "should" have been communicated thus: Because of the weather. I ran up the restaurant tab. Some of these can be problematic to even well-prepared test-takers who are native English speakers. I said that because of my pet snake's forcing me to do so.
The SAT will occasionally test idiomatic phrasal verbs. A commonly cited rule with respect to prepositions is that they cannot appear at the end of a sentence. The components of a phrasal verb cannot be separated. We agreed to give. I failed because of my lack of success.
Where is he at? But this is due to the fact that at is unnecessary. Due to the weather. If we are following the technical distinction. We agreed to the plan.
Make sure that there is no prepositional redundancy if someone did try to move a preposition from the end of a sentence. Up what did you run? Why is that second sentence wrong? Because run up is a phrasal verb. I have tried to include any relevant notes: We agreed on the best course of action.
This means that the only time that one can grammatically begin a sentence with Due to is when a participial phrase is being employed. I am hungry. I guess we'll never know. I care about your well-being.
I care for you in order to ensure your well- being. I argue with you about food. I discriminate against people from your school. I depart from the typical thinking. I departed for Canada. Consider these ungrammatical. Whenever a noun is the object of a prepositional phrase. I provide for you.
I provide you with food. If fewer would be used to modify a noun. Between you and I. Using the verb to be. There is a lot to talk about with verbs. Between you and me. Recall our earlier discussion about deciding whether to use fewer or less.
The objective case for each pronoun should be used: I went to the well with her and Bob. The simple subject of a sentence is never in a prepositional phrase. I never really liked my enemies. And only the.
Amounts are singular. If less would be used to modify a noun. I went to the well with she and Bob. The number of people is amazing. The sentence is not trying to say that the people themselves are amazing.. That jar [of pencils] walks very nicely. Here the people themselves are being directly referred to. Ninety percent of the town is gone. For example note how the pronouns correspond to the singularity or plurality of the subject: The group is working toward its goal.
Bob [as well as three of his friends] is going to the mall to buy a hotel. The group are fighting among themselves. Although the previous topic heading is technically always correct.
Those hawks [of honor] are honorable. Three-fourths of my pie is gone on leave. Such an intention contrasts with that of this sentence: A number of people are amazing.
Consider this sentence. Consider these examples. Ninety percent of the town's inhabitants are gone. A lot of cars is available for purchase. Three-fourths of all pelicans belong to the minority. The number [of people] is amazing. A lot of cars are available for purchase. The house [with the three doors] is under water. The subject of this sentence is the singular lot—one full of cars.. Collective nouns are flexible.
In order to decide whether to ignore or pay attention to the prepositional phrase. While the simple subject of the sentence is still technically a lot. The jury are fighting among themselves. Collective nouns can be singular or plural. When we think of the idea represented by the collective noun as a set of distinct entities.
The jury has decided its verdict. Here are the monkeys that knew the other monkey. Bob and I are leaving now. Follow these guidelines for the verbs that follow those expletive pronouns. An inverted verb structure is often indicated by the expletive pronouns there and here.
The rabbit or you are a rabbit. Be careful with compound subjects. Bob or he is a rabbit. The leader or their members are rabbits. Don't be tripped up by inverted verb structures. Make sure that the verb agrees with the true subject. If and is used to connect the nouns in a compound subject and the noun closest to the verb is plural.
If and is used to connect the nouns in a compound subject. There seem to be houses. Macaroni and cheese is good. The singular exception get it?
There is a dog in the lawn. The second-person youtook what is in this context a singular are. There are three dogs building a lawn. There seems to be a house. As these last two sentences indicate. There is a well or wells. There are three common types of circumstances under which this inversion occurs. The members or their leader is a rabbit. If or is used to connect the nouns in a compound subject.
Here is a monkey. There are wells or a wall. Don't forget that there's is a contraction for there is. If and is used to connect the nouns in a compound subject and the noun closest to the verb is singular. There is a muffin. When used as indefinite pronouns.
There is either a dog or people in the cabin. Either she or I am fine. Inverted structures also commonly appear in questions: Why are Bob and Sally working together? Learn the rules for correlative conjunctions.
There are either people or a dog in the cabin. Note that this final rule is unique to inverted verb structures in which expletive pronouns appear. Either the shoes or arm is fine Learn the rules for using indefinite pronouns. Both the water bottles and Bob are going to Canada for the winter.
Either the shoe or arm is fine.
Another common situation in which an inversion occurs is when we have an introductory prepositional phrase.. For the correlative conjunctions involving either and neither.
Make sure that you check the plurality or singularity of the subject: Under the desk are pencils. Either I or she is fine. Consider these examples of the proper use of either. There are hats. These are the primary correlative conjunctions as well as the only ones that are relevant to subject-verb agreement: Behind the soda machine is a dollar. Either the shoe or arms are fine. Behind the soda machine are sand-dollars. Consider these examples note how any predicate nominatives must agree in number with the corresponding indefinite pronouns: Each of the brothers is a male.
None of it is enough. Others are arriving shortly to prop you up. Despite a widespread assumption that it stands for not one. Note the logically necessary plurality of the object dogs. Intervening prepositional phrases are completely irrelevant—there are no exceptions. Note that each can be used adverbially as well. These pronouns are some. Some of the pie is nice. Describing none as equivalent to not one. Had each been used as a pronoun. Anything is fine. Either of you guys is a salamander.
Make none plural except when emphasizing the idea of not one or no one — and then consider using those phrases instead. Each of us is ready. As I indicated earlier. None of those colors are happy. Some of you are coming tonight. Neither of the options is viable.
Few of us are ready. Some indefinite pronouns are always plural. Much of the number of the patrons is attributable to marketing. Many of the errors are acceptable. Some indefinite pronouns' singularity or plurality depends on that of the intervening prepositional phrase. Any of them are able to excavate. These are few. He acted as if he were guilty.
The imperative mood is used to make commands. This does not seem to be the prevailing practice. Leave me alone. I requested that he be present at the hearing. The subjunctive mood's uses are difficult to briefly generalize. Consider these example sentences. We would have passed if we had studied harder.
It is the most common mood.
Why is he tall? We predict an increase in the amount of time that has passed. Decrease the speed. I often see in several of my school textbooks. She wishes her boyfriend were here. Examples of the imperative mood: Clean the sink. The subject of a verb in the imperative mood is usually you.
In any case. Let's leave now. If Juan were more aggressive. Questions on which knowledge of when the subjunctive is used is helpful appear quite frequently on the SAT. Examples of the indicative mood: He is tall. The subjunctive mood is used in dependent clauses that do the following: Present progressive: The present progressive tense can emphasize the ongoing nature of an action e.
The present perfect tense can indicate that an action occurs in the present as well as in the past e. I was eating my food or an interrupted action e. Past perfect: The past perfect tense is used to refer a past action that occurred before another referenced past action. It can also be used when we are talking about two concurrent actions in the past e. As my dog was watching me.
Past progressive: The past progressive emphasizes the ongoing nature of an action completed in the past. Past Tense Simple past: The simple past tense refers to an action completed in the past. My pet is a dog. The test is tomorrow or The election is on Tuesday. Tense Before I explain each tense's general uses. The simple future tense can also be employed for that last use..
I was eating when my dog grabbed my bowl. She travels for work or being e. Present perfect progressive: The present perfect progressive tense is similar to the present perfect tense.. I have lived here. He is moving next year. When a prepositional phrase already indicates that an action came.
Since birth. I have just completed my book.. Simple present: I eat Present progressive: I am eating Present perfect: I have eaten Present perfect progressive: I have been eating Simple past: I ate Past progressive: I was eating Past perfect: I had eaten Past perfect progressive: I had been eating Simple future: I will eat Future progressive: I will be eating Future perfect: I will have eaten Future perfect progressive: I will have been eating Present Tenses Simple present: The simple present tense is used to refer to customary actions e..
I am walking instead of the more general I walk. Present perfect: The present perfect tense is used when a past action affects the present. By the time we arrived. Like the simple present tense.
Bob had left. I have seized the opportunity. The next section discusses the past participle. Simple past: For some verbs. Past perfect progressive: The past perfect progressive tense functions similarly to the past perfect tense but emphasizes the continuous nature of an action. Its three basic forms: Base form: I always lay the paper down first.
I always lie down. Future Tenses Simple future: The simple future tense refers to actions to be completed in the future. Future progressive: The future progressive tense is used to refer to actions that will be in progress at a future time I will be eating lunch at noon.
Before we left. He has eaten the sandwich. I will have finished my homework by the time you arrive.. I had gone to the bathroom. I went to the bathroom or Before we left. They have arrested the criminal. Future perfect progressive: The future perfect progressive tense functions similarly to the future progressive tense but emphasizes that the action has been occurring prior to the specified time e. I will have been working on it.. I laid the rug on the ground Past participle: Future perfect: The future perfect tense is used to indicate that an action will be completed by a particular time in the future e.
I want to lie down. A specific verb error: Using these two verbs correctly can be difficult. I lay down on the rug Past participle: I want to lay this down. Recognizing past participle errors: The past participle is used along with a conjugated form of to have in forming the perfect tenses.
Arisen Become. Come Dive. Drawn Drink. Flung Fly. Driven Drown. Fallen Fight. Gotten Give. Frozen Get. Fled Fling. Eaten Fall. Broken Choose. Drunk Drive. Flown Forget. Fought Flee. Chosen Come. Drowned Dwell. Blown Break. Dived Do. Forming the past participle of nearly every verb should be simple for fluent English speakers. Forgotten Freeze. Become Begin. Done Draw. Given Go. Begun Blow. Hanged Know. Shrunk Shut. Sunk Sit. Laid Lead. Rung Rise. Lain Lie tell fibs. Spoken Spring. Sprung Sting.
Sat Speak. Stung Strive.
Led Lie to recline. Run See. Seen Set. Grown Hang a thing. Put Ride. Set Shine. Known Lay. Sung Sink. Shut Sing. Shaken Shrink. Risen Run. Shone Shake. Lied Put. Hung Hang a person. Ridden Ring.
But it worked fine.
Bob went home. I have talked to Bob. Swum Swing. We don't find the answer in the sentence. In the first sentence Bob is the subject of the verb. Shifting tenses: A sentence need not be in one tense. There are times when the passive voice is preferred.
Torn Throw. Many gifts have been given out this Christmas. Taken Tear. Worn Write. Avoiding the passive voice: When the grammatical subject of a verb is logically performing the action of the verb. Thrown Wake. You'll likely notice that past participles are used in forming the passive voice. I want to go to the movies. Written Several times in the past.
Woken Wear. Bob was talked to by me. Swung Take. Such a shift is simply illogical. Present participles. By the time I was ten years old. We can use participles in three main ways. We can also use participles in normal verb phrases: He is running. We can also offset the participle to modify a noun. I had been a winner. We shifted from the simple present tense to the imperfect tense. I will have left. I had been talking for almost a year. He has run. As long as you are watchful of the tenses present in a sentence.
By the time you get here. I want a working fan. Participles function adjectively. There are no complex grammatical guidelines for deciding whether a tense shift is appropriate. It is worth reiterating the common trigger words for the perfect tenses. I will eat a hot dog yesterday. Since I got here. Before they left the house. The last three sentences mean very similar things. All you need is an understanding of what each tense means which I attempted to facilitate with my earlier descriptions and to logically apply that understanding.
Verbals There are three main types of verbals. You can also add Being to angry with no effect on the meaning. Past participles describe past states or actions. I have been eating nothing but food. Bob almost sold candy to every person in the neighborhood!
It is more likely that the intended meaning was this: Bob sold candy to almost every person in the neighborhood! Squinting modifiers occur when an adverb could be modifying either a word before it or one after it. Looking back. Having finished that. Given the recent increase. I am not surprised by the higher number. Considering the recent increase. I see that he should not have done that. Mis-modification with phrases: Misplaced limiting modifiers usually occur when the verb of a sentence is adverbially modified and the intention is to instead modify the verb's object.
These sentences could be corrected thus: In completing their project early. Does quickly eating food cause hunger. When using this medication. Consider these sentences. Eating food quickly causes hunger. Exampling some other modifying errors is worthwhile. We need to clarify: Quickly eating food causes hunger. The phrase usually comes before the clause. When using participial phrases and prepositional phrases that have a participle in them.
As a veteran patron. In this case either form is justifiable: There is not much to know about infinitives for the SAT.
Failing to distinguish between participles and gerunds: That is the present infinitive. I don't like my dog's peeing on the rug. The failure of the system was due to its not being well regulated. For these sentences the words ending in -ing are participles: B 5 This question gets a difficulty rating of 5 not for its syntactic complexity but for its relatively challenging vocabulary.
The sentence makes it clear that Max Roach laid the foundation for modern jazz by being the first to do something. Neither "mimic" nor "repudiate" logically fits in the second blank one is not likely to mimic or repudiate possibilities , so B must be the answer. One additional tip: I recommend carefully but swiftly reading through each sentence with the words that you selected as the answers after you have gone through all Sentence Completion questions for that section.
Reading them through later helps because you may no longer be as influenced by a minor detail that you had been focusing on and will then see the big picture of the sentence. I am attempting to avoid pulling from any of the Blue Book material so that you can use that on your own. Answers are again below; but I will omit explanations this time, as Sentence Completion questions are generally straightforward with respect to understanding them once one knows the words' definitions which I again link to.
Since codfish are part of the marine ecosystem, their would adversely affect the animals who depend on them as a source of food. A a negligible.. The gifted child-poet Minou Drouet, hailed in the s as an artistic , now lives in relative , enjoying a privacy unavailable to her as a child. A paragon.. The legislator is known on the Capitol Hill for his oratorical spontaneity, his ability to deliver speech. A an enigmatic B an abrasive C an impromptu D a meticulous E a lackluster 4.
She was , remaining assured and self-controlled even in the most volatile of situations. A ungainly B autocratic C unflappable D egotistical E demonstrative 5. The delegates' behavior at the convention was utterly disgraceful and fully deserving of the it provoked. A rancor B lethargy C commiseration D forbearance E compunction 6.
Gwen's ambitious desert hike was impeded by the heat that sapped her strength and resolve, leaving her and A disoriented.. Because of their spare, white appearance, ancient Greek statues in modern museums are often considered ; yet newly unearthed antiquities showing traces of bright pigment are not so A plain..
Former news anchor Dan Rather had for colorful C 5 Vocabulary For most students, the factor most limiting of their capacity to do well on the Sentence Completion questions is vocabulary. As you could probably discern from the previous questions, some of the vocabulary tested on the SAT is not commonplace among most teenagers' conversations. One way to build a robust vocabulary is to read a lot and look up any new words that you encounter. This is a great lifelong habit and will likely yield the most organic lexicon.
However, the most effective way to build a vocabulary that will help you on the SAT is to memorize words from books made especially for the test.
Because the English language comprises so many words hundreds of thousands , there is, of course, no way to ensure that you will know every word that will appear on your administration of the SAT. Nonetheless, rest assured: Preparatory companies exploit this by compiling word lists that are actually manageable in their brevity but helpful in their coverage.
The most efficient source is Direct Hits Volumes 1 and 2. The books do not include many words, but they are very well-chosen and accompanied by interesting blurbs to help students better remember them.
Everyone who takes the SAT should know the words in these books. Once you have completed Direct Hits, additional vocabulary preparation may not be worth the opportunity cost. But if you are still hungry for more words, there are several extensive lists out there, including this 1,word list and this 5,word list.
Keep in mind that there will be considerable overlap among these lists. One of the best ways to approach these lists is to make one run through the books while writing down all words that are foreign to you and their definitions onto flash cards. From that point, you can go through just the words that you do not know, which helps to save time. If you have a solid foundational vocabulary before you tackle Direct Hits, you will be well- prepared for the Sentence Completion questions after going through the books; expect to consistently get between 18 and 19 out of 19 on the section.
There are occasionally some difficult words that appear in the passages and their corresponding questions, so this vocabulary preparation will help you there too. Passage-Based Questions These questions test your ability to, indeed, read critically.
Unlike the ACT Reading section, whose questions' answers are largely pulled almost word-for-word from the text, the SAT Critical Reading section's passage-based questions strike, in my opinion, a perfect balance between overly subjective and ambiguous questions and those of the type that the ACT has.
The reasoning mentality and the strategy with which you approach the questions are perhaps more important with passage-based questions than with any others on the SAT. Only with examples can you get a meaningful sense of how you need to think in order to consistently answer these questions correctly, yet one rule is paramount: Keep this in mind at all times when answering passage-based questions on the SAT.
Here is a delineation of my process for approaching passages on the SAT: These first two steps should not take more than seconds. Obviously, you need to move very quickly, but do not go so fast that you cannot comprehend what you are reading.
Then read the marked section and see whether you can answer the question at that time. If not, move on. At that time, go to any unanswered questions; these are usually general tone or purpose questions, or ones that require comparing or contrasting aspects of two passages.
Because you have read through the entirety of the passage, you should know exactly where to look. Once I refined my execution of this method, I was consistently finishing each section in less than half the allotted time without sacrificing accuracy.
Nonetheless, there are successful test-takers who use slightly different methods. Finding the optimal pace at which you read the passages is crucial. Doing practice tests will help you to find this pace, and it will likewise increase the pace at which you can read for understanding. Another great way to increase your pace without sacrificing your accuracy is to make yourself acutely interested in the passage.
Your brain will process information that it deems unimportant relatively slowly. You must therefore make yourself think that what you are reading is extremely interesting and, in turn, important.
Such an attitude will heighten your arousal and, with practice, it need not simultaneously make you more nervous. Hang on to every word; you will understand and remember more in a shorter period of time. Some people find visualizing what is described by the passage to be helpful. Some guides suggest making notes about the text on your exam booklet, such as summaries of what is going on or thoughts on the author's purpose.
Integrating this process into your thinking is fine; actually writing these things down, though, is probably too time- consuming. Answers and explanations are below. Passage 1 Being funny has no place in the workplace and can easily wreak havoc on an otherwise blossoming career. Of course, laughter is necessary in life. But if you crack jokes and make snide remarks at work, you will eventually not be taken seriously by others.
You will be seen as someone who wastes time that could better be spent discussing a project or an issue. Additionally, many corporate-minded individuals do not have the time to analyze comments with hidden meanings-they will take what you say as absolute and as an accurate representation of your professionalism in the workplace.
Passage 2 Are we now compelled, as a culture, to be comical, no matter the setting or the endeavor? And if so, what on earth gave rise to this troubling idea? One possible culprit may be corporate America itself, where being funny is now seen as a valuable asset.
Fortune companies dole out big fees to comedy consultants who offer humor seminars and improv workshops-all in the name of improved productivity. But how exactly are funnier employees better for business? According to Tim Washer, a former improv performer who is now a communications executive at IBM, funniness helps foster team-building and, of course, learning how to "think outside the box.
Both authors would agree with which of the following statements? A Workplace culture has gradually changed over time. B Consultants can help employees learn how to succeed professionally.
C Humorous employees are usually popular. D Humor is not appropriate in all situations. E Humor is not valued by corporate executives. C Let's look at each of the options. A Although he is opposed to humor in the workplace, the author of Passage 1 does not indicate that it is an ongoing problem, nor does he provide a creative solution to it. B Whenever you see a strong word in one of the choices, you must take special care to ensure that the word's connotation is supported by the language and tone of the passage.
In this case, mock is that strong word. This choice is not supported by the text, as the author is merely objectively explaining what happens to people who employ humor in the workplace. Now, the author does hint at the possibility that coworkers may mock employees who attempt to be humorous "you will eventually not be taken seriously by others".
The author himself or herself, however, is not mocking the behavior. C The author is indeed outlining the consequences of being humorous in the workplace. D The only suggestion that the author is making is that employees should not be humorous in the workplace, which he supported by outlining the consequences of such behavior.
E This is an attractive answer, but it is not exactly correct. The author does not indicate that workplace humor is common. Moreover, despite the fact that the consequences that the author is outlining in the referenced lines would support a criticism of workplace humor, the author is not explicitly criticizing it here; he is saying that bad things will happen to people who "crack jokes" in the workplace. Recognizing these somewhat subtle distinctions is integral to consistently correctly answering the harder questions.
D The opening of the passage is most telling of the author's attitude: Are we now compelled, as a culture, to be comical, no matter the setting or the endeavor? And iI so, what on earth gave rise to this troubling idea?
One possible culprit Note the questions and the diction e. The author is clearly not fascinated or approving of workplace humor there go choices A and B.
He or she is, rather, uncertain of its role but is clearly leaning toward an opposed position. Another strong word appears here: Though clearly not fully accepting of the justifications of humor's role in corporate America, the author exhibits a tone that is not nearly aggressive enough to provide support for this choice. A This question is pretty straightforward.
Tim Washer is supportive of workplace humor because it "fosters team building" and facilitates "thinking outside the box. D Evaluate each statement from each author's perspective. A The author of Passage 2 implies with the early use of "now" that workplace culture has changed. But Passage 1's author makes no reference explicit or implicit to any change over time.
B Passage 1's author does not mention consultants. C Passage 1's author does not mention popularity. D Passage 1's author is opposed to humor in the workplace, so he or she would agree.
Passage 2's author calls the idea that humor may be appropriate "no matter the setting" "troubling. E The author of Passage 1 would agree, but the author of Passage 2 writes, " From the earliest times, the complications inherent in deciphering the movements of planets in the night sky must have seemed a curse to baffled astronomers.
In the long run, though, they proved a blessing to the development of cosmology, the study of the physical universe. Had the celestial motions been simple, it might have been possible to explain them solely in terms of the simple, poetic tales that had characterized the early cosmologies. Instead, these motions proved to be so intricate and subtle that astronomers could not predict them accurately without eventually coming to terms with the physical reality of how and where the Sun, Moon, and the planets actually move in real, three-dimensional space.
The primary purpose of the passage is to A emphasize the importance of myth in ancient civilizations B explain how an astronomical problem affected the development of a physical science C predict the motions of planets outside of our solar system D challenge the major achievements of some ancient astronomers E compare celestial movements in different time periods 2.
Most advertising researchers who work for and advise businesses assume that consistent, long-term advertising campaigns are an effective way to project a solid, enduring image and to maintain an ongoing relationship between consumers and the company's products; however, there is little published research on the effectiveness of such a strategy. This is partly because most advertising studies, in an attempt to control for "background knowledge," focus on new ads or fictitious brands.
Also, while the proverbial wisdom may be to use a consistent, long-term campaign, businesses rarely do so. More commonplace is the switching of campaigns to gain consumers' interest.
B A There is no mention of myth. B Indeed, the passage's point is that, in trying to determine the planets' complicated motions, we learned many foundational aspects of cosmology. C The passage is not predicting anything.
D The passage is not challenging anyone's achievements. E There is no suggestion that celestial movements have changed over time. E The astronomers were baffled because the movements were so complicated that they could not understand, and in turn predict, them. A Immediately following the referenced assumption, we find: The author clearly believes that the assumption is not well-supported. B Companies "gain consumers' interest" by changing up their marketing campaigns.
Mathematics The Mathematics section of the SAT makes up one-third of your total composite score out of Here is the run-down that I gave in the introductory section: The Math section oI the SAT is also 70 minutes long and spread out over three sections; likewise, two oI these are minutes sections, and one is 20 minutes long.
Because the Math section is relatively straightforward and causes little trouble for most CCers, I will keep this section brief. You won't have to do any calculus on the SAT; you won't even need to know trigonometry though it may help sometimes. Indeed, unlike the ACT Math section, which covers some pre-calculus topics, the SAT Math section goes little beyond what the average student completing geometry has learned. This characteristic of the section contributes to its validity as a predictor of a student's potential to succeed in future math classes, as opposed to its being an indicator of what has been learned.
Now, do not take this as meaning that the Math section is particularly easy-basic, yes; but easy, not necessarily. You will still have to use a rather significant degree of reasoning to work through the questions. As I previously discussed in the section about The Blue Book, you need to take the time to understand why you missed a question and how to solve it correctly. The SAT won't ever ask two questions that are perfectly analogous i.
Among these typical strategies are plugging in numbers an often-cited technique for good reason: With respect to that last technique: With practice, many students who do not actually consider themselves to be particularly strong at math are nonetheless able to score or higher on the Math section.
See here for a basic and concise overview of nearly all of the knowledge that you will want to have to succeed on the Math section. Remember, though, that your problem-solving skills will be more important than your knowledge. However, if you feel that you need more concentrated mathematics practice than you get from taking practice tests, you may want to check out this, which many people have found to be helpful.
The potential for error and the lack of margin for error are daunting: The most obvious ways of protecting against this the elimination of all errors cannot be ensured, but the chances can be minimized to nearly negligible levels are through maintaining unrelenting concentration and establishing an appropriate pace. Many people, when taking practice tests, are perhaps a bit too casual: An additional strategy is to mark the questions that you deem to be of highest risk for error and then go back to redo them.
When I am going through the test, I put a mark on my answer sheet next to approximately the quarter of questions that I think have the biggest room for error.
Then, when I have finished the section, I, instead of merely checking my work which does not actually facilitate the discovery of errors with great reliability , completely reread and redo each of those questions. I then divide any remaining time among the unchecked questions, which usually yields a superficial but worthwhile review of each. Writing The Writing section of the SAT makes up one-third of your total composite score out of The SAT Writing section, added in , is a slightly shorter 60 minutes, which is broken into three sections one minute essay section to commence the test, a minute section, and a reIreshingly brieI minute section to round out the SAT.
Although the SAT does not explicitly test any grammatical terms, having a firm understanding of English grammar serves as an invaluable foundation for confidently answering each of the Improving Sentences and Identifying Errors questions. Having an especially good ear for what sounds right may get you a good score a lot of the time; but it is unreliable, especially these days, when colloquialisms and grammar errors pervade our speech.
So here we go. In writing this guide, I have attempted to integrate concepts that the SAT will test into the presentation of grammar.
Some of the grammar terminology can be intimidating; but if you spend the time to truly understand the concepts that I present, I am confident that assuming an essay score of 10 or higher you should be able to consistently score or higher on the Writing section, almost regardless of where you started.
Many relevant discussions stem from them, and they are presented here as well. Nouns come in various forms, some of which have overlap: Common noun: Proper noun: Bob, Microsoft, United States, Texas. Plural noun: Depending on the context and intended meaning, collective nouns may be either singular or plural; I will discuss this more later. Noncount noun: Some words can be count or noncount nouns, depending on the sense that the word is being used in.
One example of such a word is will: Abstract noun: Abstract nouns are usually noncount nouns. To guide the discussion of pronouns, I will explain person, case, and anaphora. As you work through this section, you will likely notice the great number of errors that directly relate to pronouns.
Person - First-person pronouns refer in whole or part to the speaker or writer; I, me, myself, mine, my, we, us, ourselves, ours, and our are the first-person personal pronouns. I will discuss pronoun case and its implications on the SAT in a moment, but there are many SAT-relevant aspects to pronouns that should be studied now, all of which can be categorized under the umbrella of errors in person and number. Shifting person and number: On the SAT a sentence must not change person, unlike the style that I employed earlier in this guide, in which I frequently shifted fromone to you to students to avoid sounding overly formal.
If one wants to avoid losing their leg, you must not bite yourself excessively. This is incorrect; one of these must be changed to eliminate the discontinuity. This sentence contains another pronoun error, which I will discuss soon.
Consider another example: If students want to do well on their tests, one would be wise to answer the questions correctly. Both students and one are in the third person; but the former is plural, and the latter is singular. This is incorrect. Consider another variation on this error: If students want to do well on their test, they would be wise to answer the questions correctly.
It is highly unlikely that multiple students would be taking a single test, so test must be pluralized to eliminate the number shift. Upon learning this idea, however, students tend to overgeneralize by assuming that all plural possessive pronouns must be followed by plural nouns.
This is, indeed, generally the case, but do not forget what we learned just recently: The following pair of sentences using the word will, which can be either count or noncount is, therefore, correct: Driven by their great will, all of the frogs continued until they reached their destination.
Nonetheless pragmatic, though, the frogs made sure that their wills were in order before they embarked on their quest. Noting the additional error that occurred in the first example sentence reveals an important concept that is frequently tested on the SAT: This contrasts with the typical habits of most people, and even contradicts the recommendations of many grammarians; so it is worth stressing. The most common singular substitutes for they and them are he or she and him or her, respectively.
These alternatives are, unfortunately, quite clunky, though. Another solution is to pluralize the subject of the sentence. Consider these variations in the following corrections of the first example sentence: If one wants to avoid losing his or her leg, he or she must not bite himself or herself excessively.
If people want to avoid losing their legs, they must not bite themselves excessively. Note that, in the second sentence, care was taken to pluralize leg in order to comply with the previously stated rule about avoiding number shifts. Case - A pronoun in the subjective case also called the nominative case is the subject of a verb. These pronouns "do" something or "are" something. The subjective pronouns are I, you, he, she, it, we, they, and who.
These pronouns are me, you, him, her, it, us, them, andwhom. When the pronoun is the object of a verb, it is either a direct object or an indirect object. I cannot see distinguishing between these two forms as being useful on the SAT, however, so I will not elaborate on that. The possessive pronouns are mine, yours, his, hers, its, our, theirs, and whose. Nouns also take all three forms, but in English there is no distinction in how we write or speak nouns that are in the nominative or objective cases.
For example, one can say that Bob ate the city, or that the city ate Bob. In the first clause I will discuss clauses in detail later Bob is in the subjective case; in the second clause Bob is in the objective case, as it is the direct object of ate. Case errors in comparisons: In everyday speech we often use the incorrect case in comparisons. Specifically, we tend to use the objective case instead of the subjective case.
This error stems from our tendency to omit the verb in the second part of the comparison. Now, this habit itself is not ungrammatical; but it does lead to the aforementioned case error, which is ungrammatical. Consider the following sentence, which would not likely even raise an eyebrow if used in normal speech: You are a better runner than me.
You is being used in the subjective case here although we cannot tell this by just looking at the word, as you is one of those pronouns that do not visibly inflect between the subjective and objective cases ; it is the subject of the verb are.
This discontinuity must be fixed by changing me to I. This may sound somewhat awkward, but this feeling should go away if you actually say the otherwise implicit verb, as in: You are a better runner than I am. This error appears frequently on the SAT. Gerund errors with the possessive case: This error is one of the most pervasive and least commented-on in the English language.
One finds mention of it only rarely even in grammatical handbooks. Because I have not yet established all of the necessary grammatical foundation to explain this, I will address this at the conclusion of the "Parts of Speech" section. For now, though, I will leave you with an example of this error: I looked up and saw a person stealing my burrito!
Case errors with prepositions: Although this rule is relatively straightforward, I will save describing it until I cover prepositions. Speaking of that adverb Case errors with relative pronouns: Who and whoever are subjective relative pronouns. The relative pronouns that, which, and whichever can be in either the subjective or objective case.
The rules for determining which case is being used apply similarly to relative pronouns: Because who visibly inflects between the cases, I will present two sentences using that word and its variation to example when each case is appropriate: I caught the turkey whom I knew.
I want to catch the turkey who knows me. In the first sentence I is the subject of the verb knew, and whom which is referring to turkey is the object of that verb. Ordinarily, the object of a verb will appear after it. It is important to note, though, that relative pronouns are usually exceptions to this. In the second sentence who which is also referring to turkey is the subject of the verb knows, and me is the object of that verb. Errors with making the possessive case: In order to make a singular noun possessive, we generally add an apostrophe and then an s.
In order to make a plural noun possessive, we generally add merely an apostrophe if the word already ended in an s. These basic guidelines are exampled below: Another issue arises when we are forming the possessive with a compound noun i. When each of the nouns within the noun phrase is possessing at least one of whatever the noun that is being modified is, we use the possessive case for each of the compound noun's nouns, as in: Ironically, Bob's and Fred's cars broke down at the same time.
If the noun that is being modified is possessed jointly by the nouns in the compound noun, use the possessive on only the noun closest to the noun that is being modified, as in: My mother and father's mansion should satisfactorily suit my housing requirements. Case errors with compound subjects and objects: Contrary to what many people's speech may suggest, each noun in a compound subject or compound object must be inflected to the same case as the other nouns' case in that phrase.
Consider these ungrammatical sentences: Him and Bob went to the store together. Sally, Joe, and her are about to start a new pasta club. I do desire that you apprise my pet and I of the reasons for your election to depart. These sentences should be corrected thus: He and Bob went to the store together. Sally, Joe, and she are about to start a new pasta club. I do desire that you apprise my pet and me of the reasons for your election to depart.
In the third sentence pet and me is the compound object of the verb apprise. Case errors with appositives: Appositives define or elaborate on the nouns that they are adjacent to, as in the appositives are underlined: My friend Bob is a good swimmer because he is a fish.
A loyal turkey, Sam was eaten without objection. My mother, Sue, is a female. My company, the best accounting firm in the nation, likes to make money.
In case you're curious about why commas were used in the third sentence but not the first, it has to do with restrictive versus non-restrictive modification. In general, when a modifier restricts what it is modifying, we use commas; if not, we don't.
This is usually true for appositives. For example, if we write My friend, Bob,, the modification is non-restrictive, meaning that Bob is your only friend. Similarly, if we write My mother Sue, the modification is restrictive; this implies that you have more than one mother.
Anyhow, appositives must match the case of the noun that they are modifying. For example: We revolutionaries are free. They have left us revolutionaries no option. The best students in the class, she and I, will receive poor grades on the paper.
I will give the two best students in the class, her and him, poor grades on the paper to facilitate this example sentence. Anaphora In its most general sense, anaphora refers to any verbal reference. All pronouns are, thus, anaphoric; they refer to nouns.
A pronoun's referent is often called itsantecedent; but I will herein use the former term i. There are three main types of anaphora, which I explain in the context of pronouns: With respect to the SAT's Identifying Errors questions, an exophoric pronoun would refer to something that is not in the given sentence. Although she did not know what time it was, Sally started jumping on her clock. Sally is the referent, and she is the cataphoric pronoun.
Exophoric pronoun errors: In the context of the SAT, exophoric pronouns are always incorrect. That's right: Clear cataphoric references are acceptable, however. Ambiguous reference errors: More than merely appearing in the sentence, a pronoun's referent must be clear.
Consider the following sentences: The parents told their children that they would be leaving soon. The parents told their child that they would be leaving soon. The first sentence is unacceptable because they could grammatically and logically refer to either parents or children. However, the second sentence is acceptable. The plural they cannot refer to the singular child; it must, therefore, refer to the only plural noun in the sentence: This does get a bit hazier, though, if the writer of the second sentence was trying to refer to both parents and child.
Rest assured, though: For further example of when a pronoun should be considered ambiguous and when it should be considered acceptable, consider my previous sentence: The plural thev cannot reIer to the singular child; it must, thereIore, reIer to the only plural noun in the sentence: There, it referred clearly to they.
Grammatically, however, the singular it could have referred to the likewise singular child, a fact compounded by the two words' close proximity. But because the referent of it is the subject of the previous clause, the reference is clear.
They are this, these, that, and those. Each of those can be used as a pronoun as in I want to eat that or an adjective as in I want that hippo as a friend. In either case, the reference must also be clear; even the adjectival demonstrative is referring to something. Alright, I lied a little bit earlier. Dummy pronouns more formally called expletive pronouns or pleonastic pronouns are the singular exception to the rule that all pronouns must have endophoric references on the SAT. Well, dummy pronouns do not actually refer to anything.
It is important to note that one plus one does not equal five. Despite appearances to the contrary, it was clear to the particularly perspicacious observer that Bob's name was Bob. What time is it? And that's fine. Just remember this: In order to maintain continuity in number, I need to pluralize referent. Luckily, there is much less to mention about adjectives than about pronouns. There are some additional things to mention about participles, but I will save those for the section in which I cover verbals which are participles, gerunds, and infinitives.
Errors with adjectives in comparisons: There are three terms relevant to this error: The positive form of an adjective is its base form e. In order to form the comparative form, we usually use the suffix -er or the adverb more e. In forming the superlative form, we generally add the suffix - est or the adverb most e.
The comparative form is used when we are comparing two things, as in: Between me and my brother, he is weaker. Which of your two cars do you like better?
The superlative form is used when we are comparing three or more things, as in: Among me and my brothers, I am weakest. Which of your eleven cars do you like best? A specific diction error: This error is unlikely to show up on any given SAT, but it comes up so frequently in everyday speech that it is worth mentioning. In general, we associate the adjective fewer with count nouns and number, and the adjective less with noncount nouns and amount.
Consider these examples: But, while some of those things may seem countable and in reference to numbers e. For example, when we say that there is less than ten minutes left, we are referring not to the actual minutes, but to time. Likewise, when we say that we are less than three miles away, we are referring to distance.
And with the dollars example, we are not referring to the actual dollar bills in which case we would be referring to a number ; we are, instead, actually referring to the amount of money. This concept has important implications for subject-verb agreement as well, which I will discuss later. An instance in which an adverb is modifying an adjective: I want to buy a very hungry alligator. The adverb very is there modifying the adjective hungry, which is modifying the noun alligator.
An instance in which an adverb is modifying a verb, and in which another adverb is modifying that adverb: I ran through the wall quite fast. In that sentence the adverb fast is modifying the verb ran. That adverb is, in turn, being modified by the adverb quite. Errors in placement of adverbs: In general adverbs can be placed quite liberally.
We can correctly say, for example, all of the following: Quickly, he ran to get his lost lemur. He ran quickly to get his lost lemur. He quickly ran to get his lost lemur. Sometimes, however, the placement of an adverb can change the meaning of a sentence.
Consider this example, in which I italicize part of the sentence with the intent that you will emphasize that part in your mind when you are reading it; this will make the error even harder to spot: When I went to Mars last week, I only ate one meal the entire time! If you heard this when you weren't in SAT-Writing mode, your grammatical ear would likely have no problem with this sentence.
The problem with the sentence is that it departs from the general rule that adverbs must be as close as possible to what they are modifying.
When I emphasize the nearest candidate for modification, the result is not so pleasing to the ear: This leaves me wondering: To reduce this ambiguity, we need to move the adverb next to one meal: When I went to Mars last week, I ate only one meal the entire time! Incorrectly deciding between adverbs and adjectives: The key to correctly identifying whether an adverb or adjective is appropriate is to ask yourself What is the word doing in this sentence?
If the word is modifying a noun or pronoun, use the adjective form. If the word is modifying a verb, adjective, or another adverb, use the adverb form. There are some tricky situations, however: Ask yourself whether we are modifying feel or some noun.
We are actually modifying I here, so we choose the adjective bad. If we chose badly, the meaning would be that the manner in which we feel is bad. Consider this sentence: He is hungry. These two sentences actually have very similar underlying grammatical structures. Because bad and hungry modify the subject of the intervening verb, they are called subject complements; specifically, they are predicate adjectives predicaterefers broadly to the verb and its complements and modifiers.
This does not have to do with adverbs, but elaborating on this topic seems worthwhile. Another type of subject complement is the predicate nominative.
Recall that the nominative case also known as the subjective case means that the noun or pronoun is the subject of a verb. Because predicate nominatives define or rename the subject of the linking verb, they must be in the subjective case.
With nouns, the result is perfectly agreeable to the ear remember that nouns do not visibly inflect between the subjective and objective cases: Bob is the man. Consider this example, which correctly uses a pronoun in the objective case: Who is the best runner?
The best runner is he. The subject complement and predicate nominative he is defining the linking verb's subject, runner, so it is inappropriate to use the likely better-sounding, objective-cased him. Here are a couple more examples: I gave it to him. That is, the recipient was he. The best people are they. Redundancy, often committed via adverbs: When a word or set of words can alone mean what is intended, it is unnecessary and, furthermore, ungrammatical to indicate the idea again with modifiers.
Consider this question: That was good, but can you repeat that song again? If this will be only the second time that a song is being played, again must be omitted. Consider these temporal redundancies; I indicate the word or words that should be omitted in parentheses after each sentence: I'll meet you there at twelve noon.
One example: He wrote his own autobiography. There are also some words that, except in colloquial contexts, should only rarely be adverbially modified. One, for example, should not say that something is "very unique" or "somewhat perfect"; the latter word in each of these pairs is an absolute adjective. We can, however, say that something is "almost unique" or "probably perfect. The correct phrase is the reason is that. Comparative and superlative adverb errors: Care must be taken in forming the comparative and superlative forms of adverbs.
Generally, if the adverbial form of word ends in -ly, we must form the comparative and superlative forms with more and most, respectively. For example, instead of asking someone to "work slower," we should ask him or her to "work more slowly. For example, more better is incorrect. There are some less conservative grammar sources that support the interchangeability of due to and because of.
Nonetheless, most references maintain the distinction, and it is possible that this could appear on the SAT. Luckily, the rule is straightforward: That is, due to modifies nouns; because of modifies verbs. Consider this lot of examples; in each case the phrase that I choose is the only correct one, according to this distinction: My failure was due to my lack of success.
I failed because of my lack of success. That is due to his pet snake. I said that because of my pet snake's forcing me to do so. Because of the weather, I am hungry. My hunger is due to the weather. This means that the only time that one can grammatically begin a sentence with Due to is when a participial phrase is being employed, as in: Due to the weather, the storm went home. If we are following the technical distinction, we know that the storm is due to the weather, but we do not know why the storm went home.
If, however, the writer is not following the rule, the storm could have gone home because of the weather. This latter meaning "should" have been communicated thus: Because of the weather, the storm went home.
I guess we'll never know. A commonly cited rule with respect to prepositions is that they cannot appear at the end of a sentence. This is, however, not actually true in most cases. Now, there are some times when it is wrong to do so, as in: Where is he at? But this is due to the fact that at is unnecessary, as where already indicates location; it is not directly due to the preposition's being at the end of the sentence. In fact, there are some times when moving the preposition from the end of the sentence is incorrect: I ran up the restaurant tab.
Up what did you run? Why is that second sentence wrong? Because run up is a phrasal verb; it consists of the verb run and the particle a cool name for the preposition of a phrasal verb , which is up in this case.
The components of a phrasal verb cannot be separated. Some other phrasal verbs: Make sure that there is no prepositional redundancy if someone did try to move a preposition from the end of a sentence, as in the person to whom I talked to.
The SAT will occasionally test idiomatic phrasal verbs. Some of these can be problematic to even well-prepared test-takers who are native English speakers.
We agreed on the best course of action. We agree with each other and our ideas. We agreed to give. We agreed to the plan. I argue with you about food. I care about your well-being. I care for you in order to ensure your well- being. Also, "with" must be used when "compare" is being used intransitively, a concept that I will cover later. I departed for Canada. I depart from the typical thinking. I discriminate against people from your school. I provide for you. I provide you with food. Whenever a noun is the object of a prepositional phrase, it must be in the objective case.
Consider these ungrammatical sentences, in which the underlined portion indicates the prepositional phrase that the error is in: I went to the well with she and Bob. Between you and I, I never really liked my enemies. The objective case for each pronoun should be used: I went to the well with her and Bob. Between you and me, I never really liked my enemies. There is a lot to talk about with verbs. Amounts are singular; numbers are plural. Recall our earlier discussion about deciding whether to use fewer or less.
If fewer would be used to modify a noun, that noun takes a plural verb. If less would be used to modify a noun, that noun takes a singular verb. Using the verb to be, here are subject-predicate versions of the list of examples that I gave in discussing the issue of fewer versus less: The simple subject of a sentence is never in a prepositional phrase.
And only the simple subject directly this distinction will become important later affects how a verb should be conjugated. Consider these examples, in which the intervening prepositional phrases are in brackets: The number [of people] is amazing. That jar [of pencils] walks very nicely. Those hawks [of honor] are honorable. The house [with the three doors] is under water.
Bob [as well as three of his friends] is going to the mall to buy a hotel. Although the previous topic heading is technically always correct, there are times when we will need to consider the plurality or singularity of the object of the intervening prepositional phrase. In order to decide whether to ignore or pay attention to the prepositional phrase, ask yourself What is this sentence trying to say?
Consider these examples. A lot of cars is available for purchase. The subject of this sentence is the singular lot-one full of cars. If, however, the sentence said this, it would clearly have a different meaning: A lot of cars are available for purchase. While the simple subject of the sentence is still technically a lot, we must refer to the object of the prepositional phrase, the plural cars, because the sentence is trying to say that many cars are available.
Consider this sentence, which I wrote earlier: The number of people is amazing.
The sentence is not trying to say that the people themselves are amazing, just that how many there are is amazing. Such an intention contrasts with that of this sentence: A number of people are amazing. Here the people themselves are being directly referred to, and the agreement reflects this.
Similarly, with a percent or fraction, we must refer to the object of the preposition and have our verb agree with that: Three-fourths of all pelicans belong to the minority. Three-fourths of my pie is gone on leave.
Ninety percent of the town is gone. Ninety percent of the town's inhabitants are gone. Collective nouns are flexible. Collective nouns can be singular or plural, depending on the intended meaning. For example note how the pronouns correspond to the singularity or plurality of the subject: