Air Pollution: • what it means for your health. • the public information service. Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs in partnership with the. This paper estimates the global damage costs of air pollution over a year time to , focusing exclusively on air pollution of anthropogenic origin. The cost of air pollution consequences on the economy In the second section, the consequences of air pollution on health are soundofheaven.info
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PDF | Air pollution occurs when gases, dust particles, fumes (or smoke) or odour are introduced into the atmosphere in a way that makes it. health-harmful PM air pollution – particularly from diesel vehicles, diesel . soundofheaven.info 6. The impact of air pollution on children. 6. Foreword. It causes miscarriages, early delivery, and low birth weight. It contributes to diseases that.
Retrieved 24 April Consider reducing or rescheduling strenuous activities outdoors if you are experiencing symptoms. This important case law appears to confirm the role of the EC as centralised regulator to European nation-states as regards air pollution control. For example, a small child's inhalation rate will be less than that of an adult. On 25 July in the case Dieter Janecek v Freistaat Bayern CURIA, the European Court of Justice ruled that under this directive  citizens have the right to require national authorities to implement a short term action plan that aims to maintain or achieve compliance to air quality limit values.
For example, content of carbon dioxide in natural atmosphere was ppm and now in current atmosphere it is To give a precise meaning of air pollution is a complex thing and can state that pollution began to include in air when human beings started burning fuels.
Enhancement in global concentrations of gasses of greenhouse like carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide is also known as air pollution. We can purify the above statement by considering man-made emissions of hazardous chemicals as air pollution but this consideration has an adverse effect too.
Primary Pollutants and Secondary Pollutants: Basically, contaminants are of two types and they are as follows: Primary contaminants: The important primary contaminants which are hazardous in high amount are as follows: Secondary contaminants or pollutants: The important secondary contaminants which are hazardous in high amount are as follows: From the last few decades, air pollution has been controlled all over the world through laws and regulations.
Some of them are as follows: National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Calif Med v. Calif Med. Paul Kotin and Hans L. Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Copyright notice. Abstract An experimental study of the effect of air pollutants on health can be undertaken only subsequent to the creation of synthetically polluted atmosphere in exposure chambers as a readily available and easily controllable laboratory tool.
Images in this article Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Chronic exposures to air pollutants and acute infectious respiratory diseases. Plant Physiol. The reviewers also found suggestive evidence that exposure to PM2.
In , a large Danish epidemiological study found an increased risk of lung cancer for patients who lived in areas with high nitrogen oxide concentrations. In this study, the association was higher for non-smokers than smokers. In December , medical scientists reported that cancer is overwhelmingly a result of environmental factors , and not largely down to bad luck.
In the United States, despite the passage of the Clean Air Act in , in at least million Americans were living in non-attainment areas —regions in which the concentration of certain air pollutants exceeded federal standards. Protective measures to ensure children's health are being taken in cities such as New Delhi , India where buses now use compressed natural gas to help eliminate the "pea-soup" smog.
Ambient levels of air pollution have been associated with preterm birth and low birth weight. A WHO worldwide survey on maternal and perinatal health found a statistically significant association between low birth weights LBW and increased levels of exposure to PM2. Women in regions with greater than average PM2. A study by the University of York found that in exposure to PM2. The source of PM 2. A study performed by Wang, et al.
A group of 74, pregnant women, in four separate regions of Beijing, were monitored from early pregnancy to delivery along with daily air pollution levels of sulphur Dioxide and TSP along with other particulates. The estimated reduction in birth weight was 7. These associations were statistically significant in both summer and winter, although, summer was greater. This is the largest attributable risk ever reported for the known risk factors of low birth weight.
Brauer et al. Even in the areas with relatively low levels of air pollution, public health effects can be significant and costly, since a large number of people breathe in such pollutants. A study published in found that even in areas of the U. Data is accumulating that air pollution exposure also affects the central nervous system. In a June study conducted by researchers at the University of Rochester Medical Center, published in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives , it was discovered that early exposure to air pollution causes the same damaging changes in the brain as autism and schizophrenia.
The study also shows that air pollution also affected short-term memory , learning ability, and impulsivity. Lead researcher Professor Deborah Cory-Slechta said that "When we looked closely at the ventricles , we could see that the white matter that normally surrounds them hadn't fully developed.
It appears that inflammation had damaged those brain cells and prevented that region of the brain from developing, and the ventricles simply expanded to fill the space.
Our findings add to the growing body of evidence that air pollution may play a role in autism , as well as in other neurodevelopmental disorders. In , experimental studies reported the detection of significant episodic situational cognitive impairment from impurities in indoor air breathed by test subjects who were not informed about changes in the air quality.
Researchers at the Harvard University and SUNY Upstate Medical University and Syracuse University measured the cognitive performance of 24 participants in three different controlled laboratory atmospheres that simulated those found in "conventional" and "green" buildings, as well as green buildings with enhanced ventilation.
Performance was evaluated objectively using the widely used Strategic Management Simulation software simulation tool, which is a well-validated assessment test for executive decision-making in an unconstrained situation allowing initiative and improvisation. Significant deficits were observed in the performance scores achieved in increasing concentrations of either volatile organic compounds VOCs or carbon dioxide , while keeping other factors constant. The highest impurity levels reached are not uncommon in some classroom or office environments.
In India in , it was reported that air pollution by black carbon and ground level ozone had reduced crop yields in the most affected areas by almost half in when compared to levels. One out of ten deaths in was caused by diseases associated with air pollution and the problem is getting worse.
The problem is even more acute in the developing world. The world's worst short-term civilian pollution crisis was the Bhopal Disaster in India. In six days more than 4, died and more recent estimates put the figure at nearer 12, Various air pollution control technologies and strategies are available to reduce air pollution.
In most developed countries, land-use planning is an important part of social policy, ensuring that land is used efficiently for the benefit of the wider economy and population, as well as to protect the environment.
Because a large share of air pollution is caused by combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil , the reduction of these fuels can reduce air pollution drastically. Most effective is the switch to clean power sources such as wind power , solar power , hydro power which don't cause air pollution.
Titanium dioxide has been researched for its ability to reduce air pollution. Ultraviolet light will release free electrons from material, thereby creating free radicals, which break up VOCs and NOx gases.
One form is superhydrophilic.
In , Prof. Tony Ryan and Prof. Simon Armitage of University of Sheffield prepared a 10 meter by 20 meter-sized poster coated with microscopic, pollution-eating nanoparticles of titanium dioxide.
Placed on a building, this giant poster can absorb the toxic emission from around 20 cars each day. A very effective means to reduce air pollution is the transition to renewable energy. The following items are commonly used as pollution control devices in industry and transportation. They can either destroy contaminants or remove them from an exhaust stream before it is emitted into the atmosphere.
In general, there are two types of air quality standards.
The first class of standards such as the U. Air Quality Directive set maximum atmospheric concentrations for specific pollutants. Environmental agencies enact regulations which are intended to result in attainment of these target levels. The second class such as the North American Air Quality Index take the form of a scale with various thresholds, which is used to communicate to the public the relative risk of outdoor activity.
The scale may or may not distinguish between different pollutants. It is a health protection tool used to make decisions to reduce short-term exposure to air pollution by adjusting activity levels during increased levels of air pollution.
From air quality monitoring to health risk communication and community engagement, local partners are responsible for the vast majority of work related to AQHI implementation. Occasionally, when the amount of air pollution is abnormally high, the number may exceed The AQHI provides a local air quality current value as well as a local air quality maximums forecast for today, tonight and tomorrow and provides associated health advice. As it is now known that even low levels of air pollution can trigger discomfort for the sensitive population, the index has been developed as a continuum: The higher the number, the greater the health risk and need to take precautions.
The index describes the level of health risk associated with this number as 'low', 'moderate', 'high' or 'very high', and suggests steps that can be taken to reduce exposure. Significantly, all three of these pollutants can pose health risks, even at low levels of exposure, especially among those with pre-existing health problems.
The latter two pollutants provided little information in predicting health effects and were removed from the AQHI formulation. The AQHI does not measure the effects of odour, pollen , dust, heat or humidity. Air pollution hotspots are areas where air pollution emissions expose individuals to increased negative health effects. Emissions from these sources can cause respiratory disease, childhood asthma, cancer, and other health problems. Fine particulate matter such as diesel soot, which contributes to more than 3.
It is very small and can lodge itself within the lungs and enter the bloodstream. Diesel soot is concentrated in densely populated areas, and one in six people in the U. While air pollution hotspots affect a variety of populations, some groups are more likely to be located in hotspots.
Hazardous land uses toxic storage and disposal facilities, manufacturing facilities, major roadways tend to be located where property values and income levels are low. Low socioeconomic status can be a proxy for other kinds of social vulnerability , including race, a lack of ability to influence regulation and a lack of ability to move to neighborhoods with less environmental pollution.
These communities bear a disproportionate burden of environmental pollution and are more likely to face health risks such as cancer or asthma. Studies show that patterns in race and income disparities not only indicate a higher exposure to pollution but also higher risk of adverse health outcomes.
Air pollution is usually concentrated in densely populated metropolitan areas, especially in developing countries where environmental regulations are relatively lax or nonexistent.
While smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer in China, the number of smokers is falling while lung cancer rates are rising. On 25 July in the case Dieter Janecek v Freistaat Bayern CURIA, the European Court of Justice ruled that under this directive  citizens have the right to require national authorities to implement a short term action plan that aims to maintain or achieve compliance to air quality limit values.
This important case law appears to confirm the role of the EC as centralised regulator to European nation-states as regards air pollution control. It places a supranational legal obligation on the UK to protect its citizens from dangerous levels of air pollution, furthermore superseding national interests with those of the citizen. In response to these charges, Boris Johnson , Mayor of London , has criticised the current need for European cities to communicate with Europe through their nation state's central government , arguing that in future "A great city like London" should be permitted to bypass its government and deal directly with the European Commission regarding its air quality action plan.
This can be interpreted as recognition that cities can transcend the traditional national government organisational hierarchy and develop solutions to air pollution using global governance networks, for example through transnational relations. Transnational relations include but are not exclusive to national governments and intergovernmental organisations,  allowing sub-national actors including cities and regions to partake in air pollution control as independent actors. Particularly promising at present are global city partnerships.
The C40 is a public 'non-state' network of the world's leading cities that aims to curb their greenhouse emissions. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For the obsolete medical theory, see Bad air. For the measure of how polluted the air is, see Air quality index.
For the properties of air, see Qualities of air. Calendar seasons. Winter Spring Summer Autumn. Tropical seasons. Dry season Harmattan Wet season. Meteorology Climate change Tornado terms Tropical cyclone terms.
Main articles: Pollutant and Greenhouse gas. Play media. Main article: Indoor air quality. See also: Neuroplastic effects of pollution. Particulate control Mechanical collectors dust cyclones , multicyclones Electrostatic precipitators An electrostatic precipitator ESP , or electrostatic air cleaner is a particulate collection device that removes particles from a flowing gas such as air , using the force of an induced electrostatic charge. Electrostatic precipitators are highly efficient filtration devices that minimally impede the flow of gases through the device, and can easily remove fine particulates such as dust and smoke from the air stream.
Baghouses Designed to handle heavy dust loads, a dust collector consists of a blower, dust filter, a filter-cleaning system, and a dust receptacle or dust removal system distinguished from air cleaners which utilize disposable filters to remove the dust. Particulate scrubbers Wet scrubber is a form of pollution control technology. The term describes a variety of devices that use pollutants from a furnace flue gas or from other gas streams.
In a wet scrubber, the polluted gas stream is brought into contact with the scrubbing liquid, by spraying it with the liquid, by forcing it through a pool of liquid, or by some other contact method, so as to remove the pollutants. Air quality law. Toxic Hotspots. List of most polluted cities in the world by particulate matter concentration.
Archived from the original on 11 August Retrieved Retrieved 25 March Retrieved 12 March The New York Times. Retrieved 27 June