PDF | This chapter presents the dominant theory of individual values in social psychology and sociology. Values are Chapter (PDF Available) · January with 2, Reads Revue Européenne des Sciences Sociales, 24, . Lönnqvist, J-E., Verkasalo, M., Wichardt, P.C., and Walkowitz. Charge sensitivity [pC/g]. fr [kHz]. >6 f1 [Hz]. Triaxial. A triaxial LTCC accelerometer utilizing the piezoresistive effect is presented in Fig. 19 [ ]. Henry, I. and P.C. Lee (), 'Governance and ethics in sport', in J. Beech and S . Chadwick (eds), The /_seminar_autonomy/ soundofheaven.info (accessed 28 December ). Proposition d'un cadre d'analyse et d'action', Revue française de Gestion, 34 (), October.
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The document is processed in Excel using VBA. The scope of information processed /11 - / PC REVUE. Guide to the digital world. Cross, P.C., D.M. Heisey, B.M. Scurlock, W.H. Edwards, M.R. Ebinger, and A. Brennan. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties soundofheaven.info .pdf. soundofheaven.info Bidas M. Confirmation of the occurrence of Anisoplia Revue de l'Association Roussillonnaise . Frolov A.V., Grossi P.C. & Vaz-de-Mello F.Z. A new species of Aegidium Arrow from the Atlantic forest ecoregion in South.
Simons, J. Investigating functional and structural connectivity between the broader mPFC and, for example, posterior auditory and language regions around the superior temporal gyrus, would further inform models of hallucination formation. Morphology of the paracingulate sulcus and executive cognition in schizophrenia. Armstrong, E. Acer Predator Helios
Paracingulate sulcus morphology is associated with hallucinations in the human brain.
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Psychiatry Suppl. Mitchell, K. Source monitoring 15 years later: Subramaniam, K. Computerized cognitive training restores neural activity within the reality monitoring network in schizophrenia.
Neuron 73 , — Cortex 11 , 17—25 Landis, J. The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics 33 , — Armstrong, E. The ontogeny of human gyrification. Cortex 5 , 56—63 Yucel, M. Paracingulate morphologic differences in males with established schizophrenia: Psychiatry 52 , 15—23 Fornito, A.
Morphology of the paracingulate sulcus and executive cognition in schizophrenia. Cachia, A. Deviations in cortex sulcation associated with visual hallucinations in schizophrenia. Noga, J. Cingulate gyrus in schizophrenic patients and normal volunteers. Psychiatry Res. Le Provost, J. Paracingulate sulcus morphology in men with early-onset schizophrenia.
Variability of the paracingulate sulcus and morphometry of the medial frontal cortex: Brain Mapp. Chi, J.
Gyral development of the human brain. Huang, C. Sonographic cerebral sulcal development in premature newborns. Brain Dev. Van Essen, D. A tension-based theory of morphogenesis and compact wiring in the central nervous system.
Nature , — Mota, B. How the cortex gets its folds: Front Neuroanat. Ronan, L. Differential tangential expansion as a mechanism for cortical gyrification. Cortex 24 , — Simons, J. Discriminating imagined from perceived information engages brain areas implicated in schizophrenia.
Neuroimage 32 , — Fletcher, P. Abnormal cingulate modulation of fronto-temporal connectivity in schizophrenia. Neuroimage 9 , — The hallucinating brain: Jones, S. Rumination, reflection, intrusive thoughts, and hallucination-proneness: McCarthy-Jones, S.
Reduced integrity of the left arcuate fasciculus is specifically associated with auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia.
Castle, D. The diagnostic interview for psychoses DIP: Schaer, M. A surface-based approach to quantify local cortical gyrification. IEEE Trans. Imaging 27 , — Desikan, R. Invasion by poorly differentiated invasive gastric carcinoma Fig.
In a malignant melanoma arising on the upper arm and invading directly into dermis Fig. In both cases, there were no other lesions or routes of spread identified even after complete clinical and histologic examination of the patients. The presence of fluid has important implications for tissue function and pathology. Our data comparing rapidly-biopsied and frozen tissue with tissue fixed in a standard fashion suggest that the spaces we describe, supported and organized by a collagen lattice, are compressible and distensible and may thus serve as shock absorbers.
All of the organs in which we have detected this structure are subject to cycles of compression and distension, whether relatively constant lungs, aorta or intermittent digestive tract after a meal, urinary bladder during micturition, skin under mechanical compression, fascial planes during action of the musculoskeletal system. The dermal interstitium and the fascial interstitium may be mechanistically important in explaining edema as with the pre-obstructed bowel in Supplemental Fig.
The submucosal interstitial space of the biliary tree — extending through the full extent of the extra- and intra-hepatic portal stroma — may explain the characteristic duct edema that rapidly develops in acute large bile duct obstruction. Further support for the relationship between the histology we observe and in vivo structure comes from ultrasonography of tissues.
Submucosal spaces of other viscera, the dermis, and fascia appear heterogeneous by ultrasound, typically indicative of fluid or adipose tissue, while truly dense collagenized stroma, such as in tendons and ligaments, appears dark by ultrasound 8 , 9 , 10 , Additional support for our observations is found in published ultrastructural studies of skin, vermiform appendix, and peri-aortic adventitia, which also appear to have included these structures, although they were not well characterized 12 , 13 , The nature of the lining cells is unclear.
While cells of the extrahepatic bile duct stained for both CD34 and D, D staining was absent in all other tissues examined.
Vascular endothelial cells also co-express CD34 and vimentin, but the lack of endothelial features on electron microscopy excludes this classification for the interstitial lining cells we observe, suggesting instead that they are a novel, CDpositive form of fibroblast or even mesenchymal stem cell Whether they are the cells that deposit the collagen bundles is unknown; if so, they would be important in scar formation in wound healing.
Notably, keloid scars show collagen bundles and large spaces that appear to be an exaggeration of these structures in the underlying dermis Recent data showing that keloid scars appear in regions of skin under high tension raise questions about the impact of mechanical forces and fluid flow on the structures and cells of this space It is likely that the submucosal interstitium we describe corresponds to the interstitial spaces described in studies of metastasizing cell clusters The presence of a network of submucosal channels in the digestive and urinary tracts could explain the greatly increased likelihood of metastasis by luminal invasive tumors once they reach the submucosa.
As illustrated by the cases we show of invasive melanoma and gastric cancer Fig. If the interstitial lining cells are the precursors of fibrogenic myofibroblasts, they might also function as first responders in peri-tumoral sclerosis of the pancreatico-biliary tree, tubular digestive tract, bronchial tree, urinary bladder and skin.
These cells could also serve important roles in non-malignant sclerotic conditions including biliary atresia and primary sclerosing cholangitis in the biliary tree, scleroderma in the dermis and esophagus, and inflammatory bowel disease in the digestive tract.
Ongoing studies are focused on characterizing these cells and their functions. The flow of interstitial fluid through the submucosal space of the luminal GI tract is likely guided by peristalsis, in parallel with luminal contents. If there is communication between the gut lumen and the submucosal space, this raises the possibility that cell signaling including hormonal or immunologic signals could be regulated in a proximal-to-distal manner determined by the speed of peristalsis.
Interestingly, while macrophages were not seen in these spaces in the normal tissues examined, they clearly traffic into the space to take up the tattoo pigment after submucosal injection Fig. The collagen bundles in the interstitial space are lined on only one side by cells, implying that the collagen matrix on the opposite side is in direct contact with interstitial fluid. There are few examples known in the human body other than the interstitial space between cells, the renal glomerulus and the space of Disse, where fluid is in direct contact with matrix proteins without an intervening cell barrier.
Collagen fibers, which are charged molecules, may form an important physiologically active surface. Whether cells of the immune system or other cells passing through the space interact with the collagen bundles is a highly physiologically relevant question that requires further investigation. In sum, while typical descriptions of the interstitium suggest spaces between cells, we describe macroscopically visible spaces within tissues — dynamically compressible and distensible sinuses through which interstitial fluid flows around the body.
Our findings necessitate reconsideration of many of the normal functional activities of different organs and of disordered fluid dynamics in the setting of disease, including fibrosis and metastasis. A submucosa subjected to directional, peristaltic flow is not the previously envisaged wall of dense connective tissue, but a potential conduit for movement of injurious agents, pro-fibrogenic signaling molecules, and tumor cells.
This raises the possibility that direct sampling of the interstitial fluid could be a diagnostic tool. Finally, our study demonstrates the power of in vivo microscopy to generate fresh insights into the anatomy and physiology of normal and diseased tissues. Thirteen patients undergoing surgical resection of the biliary tree at Mount Sinai Beth Israel were recruited to participate in this study between July and Dec Written informed consent was obtained from all patients for participation in the study including intraoperative injection with fluorescein and pCLE and examination of the resected specimen under microscopy to assess surgical margins with probe based confocal laser endomicroscopy pCLE.
Inclusion criteria included the ability to give informed consent and age above 18 years old. Additional tissues for study from other organs were obtained from fixed archival materials, exempt from IRB review.
Patients were infused with 2. Peripheral bile duct, pancreatic duct and duodenal wall samples of the final resection specimens were then studied further. Some surgical samples were large enough to enable us to study several different tissues.
The specimens were either embedded with the luminal side up or in cross section. Some specimens were large enough to be bisected and evaluated in both planes. We also performed serial sections of tissue in a cross-sectional plane to the bile duct. Specimens were mounted on glass slides without fixative and air-dried, after which they were treated using a xylene-based frozen section protocol, coverslipped and evaluated and photographed using a fluorescent microscope with a FITC excitation filter — nanometers.
Immunostaining was performed according to standard procedures Fixed specimens were first deparaffinized. Frozen section specimens were air-dried and heat fixed. After incubation with 1—3 drops peroxidase substrate DAB-3,diaminobenzidin; 0. Images were acquired with non-descanned detectors.
Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. The error has not been fixed in the paper. Aukland, K. Distribution of body fluids: Paris 79 , — Louveau, A.
Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels. Loeser, C. Confocal endomicroscopic examination of malignant biliary strictures and histologic correlation with lymphatics. Benias, P. Needle-based confocal Endomicroscopy for evaluation of malignant lymph nodes - a feasibility study.
Endoscopy 48 , — Tse, D. Morphological heterogeneity of endothelium.
Cicchi, R. From molecular structure to tissue architecture: Takaqi, T. Intraductal ultrasonographic anatomy of biliary varices in patients with portal hypertension. Endoscopic Ultrasound. Chung, I. The Asus ZenBook 14 is an above-average ultraportable for professionals, with an extremely trim design and some little tweaks that make it pleasant to use and carry.
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