eBook (PDF): Publication Date: July ; Copyright year: ; ISBN The Modern Construction Handbook has become a building construction classic and Its systematic approach with chapters on materials, walls, roofs, construction and. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. Building design and construction handbook / Frederick S. Merritt, editor,. Jonathan T. Ricketts, editor. The Building Construction Handbook is THE authoritative reference for all procedures and modern developments are included to provide the most.
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Modern Construction Handbook - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. The Modern Construction Handbook has. The Modern Construction Handbook has become a building construction classic. Its systematic approach with chapters on materials, walls, roofs, construction and Future. Andrew Watts. Pages Back Matter. Pages PDF. eBook (PDF): Publication Date: May ; Copyright year: ; ISBN All important aspects of construction in six main chapters; All illustrations in neutral 3D Modern Construction Handbook has become a modern classic of building.
Gehry is less interested in loadbearing construction than in the built formsthat can be generated from a few material systemswhich are liber- ated from the constraints of mass produc- tion towards an eventual approach of mass customisat ion. Aluminium'snatural finish, often referred to as mill finish, can be worked to produce a polished, ground or brush-grained finish. The appearance of galva- nising when new is a mottled shiny grey,turn- ing to a dull grey with weathering asthe zinc oxidizes. In many wayst his book demonstrates that the pre-industrial world of significant buildings,that formed a part of our urban environment, can find a continu- ation in the world of digital fabrication and mass customisation. In addit ion, 2D detailsdescribe the 'sys- tem' as a wall method that could be used t o describe how t he facadesgo together; regardless of its actual application aroundthe building.
What emerged wasthat construction systems for the major- ity of building construction are independent, wit h few systems relating t o one another. Much of the skill of contemporary detailing isin knowing how to bringthose systems together which are fabricated or manufac- tured in isolation of one anot her.
The linking of building systems sothat they might be able to interface more easily has long been an aspirati on of manufactur- ers, but t he current sit uat ion is one where few systems co-ordinate easily wit h one anot her. This suggested that the taxonomy of buildingsystemsin the First Edition should be based on a robust set of genuinely dif- ferent generic typesthat would have t o be ident ified independently of current systems of classification, such as t hose described in designers' specifications.
The structure of architecture-based specificationsident ifies components and assemblies in inter-related sections, where each sub-item in the assem- bly isidentified independently, such as'cur- t ainwalling', which itself comprises several generic external wall types set out in t his book.
Specificationsthen link items such as 'curtain walling' to their constituent materials of glass, seals, paint finishes and so on under quite different headings.
Whi le the system is useful in describing a building for use by a cont ractor;particularly wit h regard t o nat ion- al standards, including those for performance testing, specifications do not relat e t he parts in a way that canbe easily used at t he design stage to understand generic facade assem- blies. The approacht aken in t he classification system in t he Modern Construction Hand- book was to group items in a way known to building design teams: The construction of buildings has, histor i- cally, beenbased on a varying relationship between loadbearingstructure, wallsand roofs, and this formst he basis of classifica- ti on in t his book.
In some buildings, walls, roofs and structure are a single entit y as in medieval cat hedrals, wit h t he except ion of their addit ional t imber roofs, used to protect the structural ceiling.
In framedconstruction the walls and roofs can be continuous over a singlesupporti ngstructure, while in many casesof 20th century construction,walls, roofs and structure are quite separat e, and arethen subdivided within each category t o provide a'collage' form of construction where systemsare overlaid in t he manner of a visual collage.
Most of the primary building materials can be used t o make loadbearing structures, where they serve as both structure and enclosure. Other uses of mat erials for walls and roofs are non-Ioadbearing cladding.
However;somet imeswhere different mat e- rial systems are formed in the same material in a building, there is still some structural interdependency. Where quite different material systems are mixed, such as in a con- crete frame and enclosure, a different inter- dependency emerges, that of allowing each material to be expressed separately. The inclusion of fittings in the taxonomy of the First Edition proved difficult, with smaller scale items of stairs, lifts, internal finishes and doors placed within the group.
The term 'internal fittings' was too restricting, as some of these components could be used externally. This was the least satisfyingpart of the First Edition. In this Second Edition this issue has been resolved by including stairs in the structure chapter, doors in the walls chapter, and internal finishes in the first sec- tion on materials. Lifts are now described in the environment chapter, since they are usu- ally considered to be part of the mechanical systems, the layout of which is designed by a specialist consultant.
As a result of this last decision it could be seen that the environ- ment section could include both systems that reduce energy consumption by the use of low energy passivestrategies, as well as high energy active strategies, such as mechanical ventilation, and lifts can be seen as part of this strategy to make tall buildings usable.
In environmental terms, the use of sev- eral layers of envelope and structure in a single building can create a much richer set of internal spacesthan those provided by the single skin envelope. The outer wall can be made of a double skin, or even as a deep zone within the building which is an inhabit- able equivalent of the 'twin wall' or 'double skin' facade. This has helped to inform both material systems, not all of which need to be sealed,as well asthe environment chapter where passivecooling, heating and ventila- tion can be used to reduce overall energy consumption, as well as create a stronger link between the built environment of the city and the building itself The materials for roads and public spaces do not form part of the scope of this book, of course.
Eachgeneric system is described first in terms of the properties of the material, then how they are used as a material system, and last how that material system'behaves', or can be made to 'behave', to form a building by examining its detailing.
Possible develop- ments of some of these material systems are set out in the future chapter to show how the principles can be extrapolated for use on new projects. These paragraphs on 'system design' show how the generic example works. The way the system is applied to dif- ferent geometries is explained in 'system details'. The geometries show how the system can be set out on different mathe- matically-based surfaces, and how the system can meet at corners and junctions.
Two other books in the Modern Construction Series, titled Modern Construction Facades and Modern Construction Roofs, show how spe- cific details can be created, which forms the basis of an understanding of what is needed to be accommodated in different geometries. The chapter on 'future' systems adds a para- metric component to some of the examples, thus highlighting the range of possibilities that might exist for some of the examples shown.
This return to an almost pre-industrial approach to design allows new buildings to develop a much closer empathy with existing buildings, even if the technologies used are very different. The non-rectilinear nature of some of the material systems allows them to engage more robustly and elegantly with existing fabric, both pre-industrial and that of 20th century Modernism in architecture.
MCH 9 Materials 0 I Structure and envelope Well s Cathedral ,Wells,UK In terms of construction, Modernist architec- t ure can be considered t o be an approac h that was not an inevit able development of 19th cent ury archit ecture but rat her a response t o an industriali sation governed by mass production of building components such as steel secti ons for fr ames, br icks, blocks, metal coi l, timber boards and sec- t ions.
The use of repeated, recti linear struc- tural bays, both in plan and elevation, can be seen as a response t o t he way the raw products used in building are manufactured, includi ng the straight lines of cut t imber and plywood used for concrete formwork. The use of steel or concrete frames led t o building envelopes being enclosed in non- loadbearing cladding. The use of repeated, rectilinear bays can be seen as a response to manufacture, including th e straight lines of cut t imber and plywood used for con- crete formwork.
Consequent ly,as a result MCH 10 Natural History Museum, Oxford, UKArchitect Deane and Woodward of the widespread use of t he structural frame in much of 20t h cent ur y Modern- ist archit ecture, the separat ion of structure and ext ernal wall has dominat ed, where th e facade is reduced t o non-loadbearing walls. This approach has been a result of the development of structural forms, originally destined for large scale buildings,which have found use in much smaller scale construc- t ions, even being used in individual houses in continental Europe.
The use of loadbearing structures for larger scale buildings resulted in facades with 'punched' window openings that gave a'massive' quality to buildi ngs.
In contrast, the use of t he separat e structural frame was able to creat e a visual lightness and t ransparency t hat gave greater freedom t o designers.
However,the int egrat ion of skin and str ucture int o loadbearing facades can also allow much greater freedom in t he design of the ext ernal envelope to suit the requirements of th e spaces immedi ately behind. In the context of the existing built environm ent, a new building can almost 'grow' out of the adjacent exist ing building using the same mat erials but with a different material system.
Natural History Museum, Oxford, UK Architect Deane and Woodward The use of a str uctural frame clad wit h non-loadbeari ng walls has led to an aesthetic t ypically concerned with either forming a 'collage' of different components, or as a repeated modul e of the same component. However, loadbearing constructi on can embrace a design approach of struct ural and environmental integratio n: Both loadbeari ng and deep rainscreens are possible solutions for th is approach.
The recent introduction of computer controlled tools hastaken away the imperat ive of mass prod uction, offering instead possibilit ies of'mass customisation' where many components of different size can be produced quickly t o a high quality Consequent ly, architectural prod ucti on is no longer determined by t he need for repeat ed rect ilinear unit s used in Moderni st designs.
In terms of th e relationship between st ruct ure and ext ernal envelope, the introducti on of mass customisat ion suggests that systems for both facades and structures could become more complex and int erdependent, while remaining economic by th e standards of Colonia Guell,Barcelona, Spain.
Antonio Gaudi contemporary building construction. Atradition of the integration of structure and envelope The integration of structure and enve- lope can be seen in the Gothi c tradition: Such structures also commun icate a sense of the communal effort required to construct t he building: The walls,which seem t o int egrat e frame and infill wall into a single constructional ent ity, sweep inwards at roof level t o cre- ate stone vault s t hat form a cont inuit y wi t h the walls.
Onl y a timber roof is required to protect the stone ceiling from the effects of the weat her. The t imber roof is not a 'concept ual' part of the masonry structure, but rat her a necessary addition t hat ensures t he constr uction provi des a weathert ight enclosure. Gothi c Revival buildings of the 19th cent ur y,such asthe Oxford Museum in England, combine medieval methods of loadbearing construct ion wi t h industrially manufactured iron ribs that form a vault ed roof structure infilled wi t h glazing.
What can Sagrada-Familia, Barcelona, Spain. Antonio Gaudi be seen as a civic expression of the manual work of many craftsmen and labourers of the medieval world, was replaced by an archit ec- t ural expression of t he use of mass produced building components t hat were used ast he raw material for the specialist fabrication of entire parts in small workshops, rather than that of work being all performed on sit e.
Gothic Revival buildings such as the Oxford Museum are built wi t h a mixture of load- bearing and framed construction.
In t he early 20th centur y t he archit ect Antonio Gaudi sawthat an advantage of loadbearing construction was that individual blocks of stone, bricks or concrete blocks could be corbelled inwards or outwards from t he vertical plane of t he external wall to cre- at e a complex vertical sect ion as well as a complex plan.
Gaudi's use of brickwork was based on his own structural investigat ions, as implemented at t he Sagrada Familia in Barce- lona. In the years that followed, the buildings of Oscar Ni emeyer int egrated structure and skin in projects of var ying brief, from housing to churches to public buildings, exploring the possibilities inherent in reinforced concret e rather than following the imperat ives of the Sagrada- Familia,Barcelona,Spain. Antonio Gaudi rect ilinear structural frame. In the I s, Eero Saarinen used loadbearing concrete in the TWATerminal at John F Kennedy Airport in New York, a building which int egrat es t he lan- guage of str ucture and enclosure with t hat of partiti ons, counter s, desks and furniture.
The furniture is cur ved to make it comfortable for t he curved human physique, linking the form of what inhabits the building to inform the constr uction of the building it selfThis building can be regarded as an integration of building, int erior spaces and furni t ure t hat marked the buildings of medieval Oxford.
A building designed by Eero Saarinen, t he Mil- waukee Art Museum, was recently extended to a design by Santiago Calatrava in a struc- ture that creates a loadbearing, or skelet al, structure, reminiscent of earlier buildings by Oscar Niemeyer.
Calatrava's interest in animal skelet ons goes one step beyond the interest in the structure of Saarinen. MCH II Materials 0 I Structure and envelope 2 Aerial view,Oxford, UK Parametric modelling This needfor variat ion in more complex arrangements of linkedspaces istackled more comprehensively in projects by Zaha Hadid, whose work is informed by an inter- est in parametric design, where spaces can be linkedby rhythm, and links achieved through the assistance of computer soft- ware, sothat many more iterations can be investigated and explored than are possible by hand, by conventional 2D CAD, or even by conventional physical modelling.
Paramet- ric modellingprovides an interrelationship between parts of the building as well as the urbanspace surrounding it, making the cityscape one of interdependence as, once again,can be found in medieval Oxford.
The involvement of structural engineers such as Adams KaraTaylor has ledto a more ambi- tious engagement wit h loadbearing struc- tures.
The officeof Frank Gehry has taken the useof parametric modelling as a tool for generat ing building formsthat would not be possible in a practical sense wit hout compu- ter software and its linkto computer aided manufacturing.
Gehry is concerned that archit ects produce buildingsthat are gener- ated by the needto be resolved in 2D as MCH 12 drawings, andthat buildings can be seen as mere'built drawings' rather than being con- ceived as'buildings' in the first place. Gehry is less interested in loadbearing construction than in the built formsthat can be generated from a few material systemswhich are liber- ated from the constraints of mass produc- tion towards an eventual approach of mass customisat ion.
Modernism and construction Modernismdevelopedfrom aspects of architecture of the early 20th century, influenced by mass production techniques from about onwards. In contrast,the approach taken by architects such as Eric Mendel sohn in Germany duringthe s considered ways of integrating different aspects of programmes informed strongly by the waythe building wasconstructed.
The Einsteinturm in Potsdam, Germany, by Eric Mendelsohnintegratedthe needs of a researchcent re comprising spacesfor study and discussion, wit h the complimentary requirement for an astronomical telescope to be accommodated in t he building. Rather than expressthe 'primary' aspect of the tel- escope and fitting the 'secondary' research spaces into it,the design allows both aspects of the designto combine as a more bal- anced composit ion.
Thiswas achieved by designing the spacesfrom the outside in, cre- at ing an envelopeto suit the general enclo- sure of spaces, effectively wrapped around the telescope. The structure supportingthe telescope is set insidethe building, requiring a quite different support for the observation floor.
The space between the outer envelope and the inner telescope structure isinhab- ited by the circulation space servingboth t elescope and study spaces. The telescope canbe consideredto be designedfrom the insideout, while the st udy spacesare designed from the outside in.
The interstitial zone between the inner and out er structure is inhabited by the staircasewhich rises throughthe building. In anot her project,the staircase itself could have been part of the overall building structure, but herethe stair is supported primarily by both inner and out er structureson its sides.
The building's external envelope is built from brick,cov- ered in render. While the building could have been formed in concrete,the const ruction Einstein Tower, Potsdam, Germany. Erich Mendelsohn method of corbelling brickwork in andout of vert ical plane isideally suited as a method to construct a form of thisgeometry.
In our own time, the riseof digital tool s permitsthis more complex approach to tectonicsthat was dominatedin the 20th century by the useof the structural frame. As set out in the previous essay, a char- acteristic of the construction of Modernist architecture has beenthe separation of st ructure and external envelope.
The new structure can almost be seen as 'grow- ing'out of the adjacent existing building and the adjacent groundscape using the same material but employinga different material system. The material system can be chosen or developedto suit the design needs of the spacesimmediately behindthe external envelope.
Wit hin building designs. Where spaces are requiredto have a high level of techni- cal performance, or specific light conditions that areto be created, this can be achieved wit hout immediate referenceto the external envelope but rather to the building st ructure. An interstitial zone between internal spaces andexternal facade structures creates an opportunity for a buffer zonebetweenthem, which could be used as aninhabited space or for circulation aroundthe building, aswas mentioned in the previoustext on the Ein- steinturmby Eric Mendelsohn.
The integration of skin and structure into a loadbearing facade has obviousdifficulties. The conventional 'layered' approach of clad- dingapplied to structural forms in Modernist construction hasthe advantage of superim- posing wat erproofing,thermal insulation and vapour barriersto form a sequent ial wall build-up.
In loadbearing facades it ismore difficultto integrate these different func- tions into a single structural wall. However, allowing lines of structureto deviatefrom the rectilinear rather thanbeingusedto suit primarily rectilinear facade cladding. I - Paramet ric mode l of a twisted tower architecture respondsto the needs of mass production,a set of design imperatives of repeatability anda rectilinearapproach based on mass production rather than the possibili - ties provided by digital tool s of design and production available wit h mass customisation.
The renewed interest in the structural design of the externalloadbearing wall cre- ates at once a new design vocabulary for architecture and a return to an expressionof the joy of making buildings, as demonstrated in individual craftsmanship, an approach that can be seen to have beenshared widely in constructionbefore early prefabricationtech- niqueswere introduced in the s.
This approachto design is informed by a balance of the specific useof the material system, used to form the building, wit h the sequence of movement around the building andthe spaces createdwit hin. The expressionof constructionand circulation as'designed' elements harnessed to the'objective' design requirements of spati al organisat ion related to programmeand site context, canbe a powerful partnershipof principles. A design approach of designing inwards from the facadeof the building, and outwards from the internal spaces of the building, could allow structureto create interstitial space between inside and outside.
This approach can also createenvironmental 'buffer' spaces, which are not maintained at the internal tem- perature of the building but serve as a buffer between inside and outside temperature conditions. Thesespaceswould not require the same amount of tempered air;but would provide an opportunity for natural vent ila- tion, all key to reducing carbon dioxide emis- sions in buildings.
Fromthe point of view of construction, this approach ismore complex than 20th century construction, but could be achieved wit h digital toolsfor design and fab- rication,the tools of mass customisat ion. The possibility of mass customisation of compo- nents allows a departure from the repeated rectilinear component sothat components can be more geomet rically complex, eit her as individual components or as complete build- ing assemblies.
Recent developments in build-. Twisted building forms achieve geometric complexity by using curves,typicall y across a surface of constant curvature in order to make it easierto build in a construction market that is used to mass production tech- niques of building construction.
Geometric complexity can also be achieved wit h folds, where conventional flat surfaces, which are st raight forward to build, can be formed into unconventional facadeforms.
The approach of folded and t wisted building forms is a wayof introduc- ingcomplex geometr y while maintaining contemporary principles of'repeatability' in order to makethem economicto build using a conventional approachto construction. In t hissensethe approach of twisted andfolded forms is an intermediary one between the rectilinear repetition of Modernist construc- tion and the emerging constructionmethods described here.
With the greater introduction of digital fabri- cationtools,the needto maintain a geomet- ric discipline will slowly disappear; perhaps making design choices more dependent on the principles of design performance impera- tive in buildings such as the Einsteinturm dis- cussed inthe lastessay. Greater freedom of design from digital tool swill provide greater control andgreater responsibility from the designer to usethe technology wisely.
Design methodology Current architectural design has a prefer- encefor rectilinear spaces linked in a spat ial organisation which isalso primarily rectilinear; though dependent upon site conditions, based aroundthe useof rectilinear structural frames. The design generated isthen given an outward facadeexpression of materials formed wit h openingsor wraps as an inter- face between the internal arrangement of the building at its immediate site context.
An alternat ive design methodology isto add the use of material systemsto that mix: This may be digital, aswit h the possibilities for inventionthat the t ools bring, or may be used for the continued cladding of structural frames.
Thisleads the desi gn into a direct connection wit h traditional loadbearingcon- struction, but movingit forward wit h chang- ingmethods of industrial production.
Digital tools allow the performance of a designto be explored andoptimised, and be devel- oped in order for an individual or at eam to tackle the fabrication of the component which has not beenmade in a particular way before. Alt ernat ively. The Modern Construction Handbook sets out theseconstructiontechniques, both traditionally-based and contemporary. Essential to this use of material systems is an understanding of the physical characteristics of materials as manu- factured and used in a system in additionto their essential physical properties.
This book also sets out the construction systems essen- tial to contemporary architectural produc- tion, categorised in terms of envelope, struc- ture and environment.
Thebook beginswit h a setting out of materials andhow they are used as material systems andendswit h pro- posals for new material systems as an extrap- olation of what ispossible in the present and how it could be used in the future. MCH 15 Materials 0I Parametric design Parametrically modelled glazed structural facade The useof parametric design in architecture has beencentred around the useof soft- ware t hat was originally developed for other industries.
Its primary use in architecture has been t o generate digital models for build- ing structuresand external envelopewhich have a complex geometryThe word 'com- plex' isused t o denote geometries which are not rectilinear; and therefore cannot be described by plans and sectionswhich can be extruded in a straight line through the form of the building. Building designswhich do not conform to the rectilinear forms characteristic of Modernismare difficult to describe as 2D plans, sectionsand elevations in a waywhichcan be communicatedto t hosewho will construct t he building.
Even 2D plans, while still a useful t ool, still cannot be used to establishthe edge of the external envelope if the external wall isnot vertical, as the position of t hat wall applies only at the horizontal planeat which t he planis set, t ypically at floor level for a form of complex geometry.
The external wallswere designedin the form of'wraps' of MCH 16 open jointed rainscreensand solar shading screens set forward of awat erproofed back- ingwall. Rainscreen facade panels comprise a pattern of repeated tri angular panels in a pinwheel grid,where a set of five t riangular panels forms a shape identical in propor- t ion to the smallest trianglefrom which it is formed. In projects such as these, facadesare described in away that can communicateto contractorst he nature of a complex three dimensional form on paper.
Elevations of such buildings are set out as unfolded or 'developed' facades from a 3D digital model. This describesthe scope of the facades and t het ot al material needed as'kit of parts' drawings resembl ingthat of anAi rfix model kit.
In addit ion, 2D detailsdescribe the 'sys- tem' as a wall method that could be used t o describe how t he facadesgo together; regardless of its actual application aroundthe building. Drawings specifically for the facade systems are needed since the facade con- struction met hod is devised individually for such projects. Details of facade conditions at edges, corners, interfaces andjunctionswith ot her parts of t he building construction are prepared in t he tradit ional way Drawings describingthe design of com- plex geomet ry of the external envelope are of different t ypes: This method differs significantly from the t raditional approach of plans, sections, elevat ions,typical details and so on, asnoth- ingist ypical or dimensionall y constant in t he external walls.
The relat ionship of inner and outer skin varies, 50 a set of' rules' is set out in the system drawings,then appliedt o t he 'kit of parts' drawings and the setti ngout drawings. At Federat ion Square for example, t he inner and outer layersare set out in a loose- fit relati onship between inner and outer skin. In projects where forms are either facet- ted or curvedt o create an architecture of complex geometry.
In singleskin buildings where the building has a complex form,the exact fit of the different components during construc- t ion is critical during construction. In devel- opingsuch building forms and implement ing them, t he forms needto establish criteria which are fixed, such as floor areaof the different spaces comprising the building,sit e constraints, and criteriawhich arenot fixed. Some buildingdesigns for complex forms evolve as a result of more informat ion being known about the building, allowing more of the design to be fixed.
The spreadsheet can be linkedto the process of modellingthe buildingforms digitally in a parametric design software. Working para- metrically allowsthe design to establishwhat is'fixed' and what will be'variable' in t he Detailed images of constructionsystem from the same parametricmodel design development.
Thisapproach allows a digital design method to evolve. In facade design,t he behaviour of the model as a set of surfacescan be understood by number; size, geomet ry and so on.
The relat ionship of the parameters in the design allows the dig- ital model to evolve through an engineering- basedmethod of iteration, rather than start t he digital design model againeach t ime a new option is explored.
This approach requires somediscipline and clarity in t he designapproach at the outset. However;parametricplug- insare becoming available for early stage design software, ensuringthat the parametric approachisgaining influence throughout the design process. In facade design, where t he paramet- ric approach is becoming a primary tool in architecture,the aimsvary during the different stages of design development.
Outcomes of parametricdesign can range from establishinga rat ionalised or optimised geometry. All these different requirements can be put into t he model at the beginning, wit h changes in the digital model showingthe corresponding effect between them all. Facade design of complex forms is often driven by a desire to optimise the construction; often by simplify- ingit by providing as simple a solution as possible without losing t he strengthof vision or strengthof archit ectural expression in the design.
Even in higher budget projects, t he need to omit unnecessary complexity of construction and diversity in panel size is important to both reducecosts and attract the most highly qualified companies to work on the project.
The possibi lities of parametrically-based design go beyond the needfor evolvinga single digital model for t he maincomponents of building structure and external envelope. With more and more parts of t he design forming a single model, t he use of a building information model or 'BI M' that sets out all the components required to make a build- ing, is becoming a reality.
Whereas large scale manufacturing of aircraft, cars, boatsand so on have already usedthis working method for some years, the useof BIMs in building design isjust becoming the norm in higher profile projects.
Building informat ion models are now becoming parametric, with t he pos- sibility of introducing complex geomet ry into the process. While this approachis aimedprimarily at bringing greater control and knowledge to t he design of individual buildings, the possibilities are being seenmore widely in both fieldsof architectural design and urban design.
Where buildings have beendesigned asa'collage' of components which are jux- taposed or stacked together in a loose-fit manner;more contemporary architectural design is basing itsel f on a greater integration of structure, envelope,environment.
This greater level of interdependency of design allows buildings t o become bet- ter constructed at the scale of the window, the bay,t he wall, the building and the street to form a continuity.
Where the provision of buildings, roads, natural landscape and servicesinfrastructure are considered quite separat ely in our industrialised society. The interde- pendency of building,street. An essential aspect of parametric design with digital modelsisto establish what is import ant in t he design and what is much less important; understanding what design 'problem' is being set.
This approach MCH 17 Materials 0 I Parametric design 2 Parametrically modelled lapped glazed panel covered facade allows buildingsto become a much more closely dependent set of spaces, and building construction becominga closer expression of t he ideas of space, light and form con- structed within the constraints of a particular material system.
A parametric approach will alsoallow muchgreater int erdependency of buildings workingtogether as part of a single 'organism'- the urban environment of build- ings, streets and public spaces. It is perhaps in t he design of public space, and the elimi- nation of residual or ill-defined space that could be t he next major use of parametric design in digital models. Parametric working method An essential aspect of workingwith paramet ric design isthe ability to develop different parts of the buildingdesign in parallel rather t han working sequentially from outline design, scheme design, detailed design andso on.
Rat her than viewingdesign as a series of stages to complete andmove on from wit hout significant ly changingor informing what hasalready been accom- plished in the design,t he design of a building istackled not as somet hing developing as a result of a seriesof decisions which influ- encethe next decisionin turn from primary concernsto secondary concerns and so on but rat her of material systemswhich interact and influence one another.
A mate- rial system for structure, walls, roofs and environmental design can be developed in MCH 18 parallel, for thesechoices are as important as the internal organisation of t he building, t he spat ial arrangement and relat ionship to t he site. This brings the choice of materials andt he way they are used, or 'tectonics' back to the centre of architectural design, rather t han material and construction-related issues being chosen as standard construction meth- ods afterwards. The result of involving issues of mat erialsand construction at a later stage isthat the forms of construction used can become no more t han an outer 'clothing' t hat is deemed appropriate t o t he site con- text andt he brief.
The limitation of this approach ist hat the outer skin has little t o do wit h the structure and envelope mat erials behind it, often forming the outer rainscreen or coveringof a con- struction systemthat isbased on procure- ment expediency rat her than design. Conse- quently. Construction methods used for theseessenti al parts of building design are set out as material systems in t he chapters of t hisbook; each described from a com- mon platform of how the principle mat erial is used to form a system for wall, roof or st ructure, and how thesemight be applied to specific strategies of environmental design.
Embodied energy and digital design Two trends in buildingconstruction which are drivingchange in architectural design are concerns about t he environment, andt he introduction of computer controlled manufacturing. The effect of building con- struction on the environment has been of concernsinceat least the Is.
The effect in buildingconstruction is a growingaware- ness of the energy required to construct buildings, or'embodied energy', and secondly the energy required t o operate t he building when in use.
The embodied energy part of the equat ion is concerned wit h bot h the amount of energy needed t o manufacture the materials,transport t hemt o site,then install them on sit e. This interest hasfavoured the useof t imber,which absorbs C02 dur- ing its growth and can be re-planted when cut down for useas a buildingmaterial.
However,mucht imber is used as a'clad- ding' mater ial to an envelope constructed of quite different materials. The idea of'c1adding' buildings involves increasing t he number of layers, andhas led to a desireto reduceall the different requirements of construction by making t he external walls loadbear- ing rather than beingcladding panelsto a structural frame. This interest is linked to a preference for reduced amounts of glazingin many buildingtypes, where structural frames were enclosed in highly transparent enve- lopes.
While high levels of glazingencourage Detailedimages of a glazing systembased on a voronoi pattern increased levels of natural daylight in build- ings,they also admit solargain and provide poor thermal insulat ion in all climates.
The preference for loadbearing construction isin some ways a return to pre-industrial forms of construction. This interest in a 'leaner' higherperformingconstruction is possible wit h computer controlled manu- facturing tools that are linked to drawings and 3D modelsproduced by the design team.
Although in practice it is manufactur- erswho providethe final drawings for CNC machines,this islargely a requirement based on how buildings are procured rather than an imperative of the design process. Conse- quently, designers canproduce a full set of drawings for manufacturers to make a much wider range of componentsthan has been the case wit h mass production.
This link of design directly to construction, rather than re-interpretinga design as a set of drawings that in turn 'get built' isforginga muchcloser linkbetween design and construction. In common wit h the re-introduction of load- bearing construction, the useof computer controlled mass customisation tools isbring- ingthe design of buildingsmuchcloserto the process of constructing them, a privilege enjoyed in the pre-industrial world of con- struction prior to around The second essential aspect of environmental concern is of the energy consumed by the building in use.
Natural vent ilat ion,thermal mass and associated issues of night-timecoolinghave becomeprimary tools to reduce energy consumption for heatingand coolingbuild- ings.
This has resulted in the re-introduction of opening windows and of cross vent ilat ion in buildings. Material systems This Second Edition isaimed as a guide to using material syst ems in contemporary buildings, wit h material systems shown as views of 3D modelsin order to understand how they fit together spatially rather than treat them as 2D sections. This isbecause traditional vert ical andhorizontal drawn sec- tions assume most systems are continuous throughtheir length,that they are extruded in a linear direction either side of the section taken.
This method of representation also assumesthat a drawn section, both vert ical andhorizontal, isat ypical condition. While plan, section andelevation explainthe over- all scope of the design, junctionsof the sepa- rate planes represented inthesedrawings are rarely resol ved in thesedrawings, leaving some coordination issues to be resolved at a later stage.
Expressing information as images from a 3D model allows the system'sbehav- iour to be understood from a geometrical point of view of how the components, assembliesor panel s are set out. Traditional detail drawings can show how to describe assemblies in a waywhich is useful when progressing from design ideas to a design ready for construction, andthe material systems shown inthis book are set out in more detail inthe accompanying books Modern Construction Facades and Modern Construction Roofs.
Froma design perspective,rather than production of infor- mation for tender or for construction, a 3D model andthe controlled manipulation of that model in relationto the constraints of the material systems such asglass sizes or bending constraints on panels, is as valid as a 2D section through a building of constant section.
Drawings can show the 'kit of parts' requiredto describe the scope of the build- ing, which is essential to understanding and settingout how muchmaterial isrequiredto construct the building. Fromthesedrawings, the embodiedenergy requiredto construct the building can be calculated. The systems of modern construction set out in this book suggest a gradual move forward to methods of production based on mass customisation techniquesthat are evolvingin manufacturing, as well as show- inghow current mass producedmaterial systems canbe modifiedand'diverted' to the end of producing an architecture rooted in the constructiontechniquesthat makeit possible.
Archit ect: KenzoTange MCH 20 Architectural interest in metals in the early industrial world can be seen inthe writ ings of Jean-BaptisteRondelet, anadmirer of industrial Britain inthe early 19th century.
His bookTraite theorique et pratiquede l'art de batir discussed architecture from the point of view as comprisinga mixture of t he visual andthe technical rather thanthe prevailing valuesof the time of Renaissance architecture, which were primarily of art and symbolism. He alsotaught stereotomy, that is, the art of cuttingstonesto form complex shapessuch as archesand vaults,which is enjoyinga revival wit h an interest in complex geometry in contemporary archit ecture.
As a constructiontextbook,the Traite theorique set out many of the components needed for a complete metal construction, such as prefabricated market buildings, showingan approach towards an integrated assembly that follows on from his passion for stereot- omy.
The metal castings securingthe bases of the supporti ng arches illustrate both the needfor the cont inuity of material needed to fix the archesto their bases as well as the elegance associated wit h their use.
The drawings in Rondelet's booksare both a 'kit of parts' showing what components are neededas well as a 3D representation of the assembly of key components. This inter- est inthe physical modelling of junctions rather than in reducing them only t o 2D views helpsto explainthe more complex nature of t he construction, whosedesign approach is embraced rather than simplified. The combinat ion of rolled members, castings and connecting brackets creates avisually striking form of constructionthat was char- acteristic of later 19thcent ury construction.
Inthe 20th century, theTokyo Ol ympic Stadium of , designed by KenzoTange, comprises st eel tensioncables in a catenary form, support ed by concrete masts at each end.
The completetent-like structure is used to support a metal skin,which would t ypi- call y be used on a rigid substrate.
The metal roof skin is actually a series of metal plates welded together to form a sealed surface. Welded metal roofs have been used in more recent projectsfor large-scale roofs, but few combinethe possibilities of a continuous, welded metal surface wit h that of a skeletal or tent-like structurethat can form a metal cable structure.
Eventhe cablestructure is made from short lengths bolted together to form a structure that can support the metal roof plates wit hout an intermediary material.
The metal structure and skin is not a'mini- mal' structure, but is certainly one where thesetwo components are interdependent. The all-metal roof structure and skin isheld in place by a reinforced concrete structure beneath,whose form echoesthat of the metal structure rather than contrasting visu- ally wit h it.
More recently. This canopy is used t o provide solar shading, andmoves in order t o provide different experiences of light. Here a folding structure wit h a building performing differ- ent functions and forming different spaces Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, Spain. Frank Gehry Milwaukee Museumof Art. SantiagoCalatrava, through moving, ispossible because of the relative lightness andflexibility of metal, allowing the possibility of movingparts to be used to form part of the structural frames of buildings.
Inthe Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao by Frank Gehry,the architectural form of the building isgenerated as a form of complex geometry, enabled by the pos- sibilities of metal construction, andworking wit h techniques associated wit h modelling in metal rather than concei vingthis innova- tive form of construction from 20 draw- ings.
The examples described demonstrate the ability of metals to form building enclo- sures of complex form in a single material where structure and skin are a visible part of the architectural design. In more rectilinear building designs, steel frames can be used which do not necessarily produce a rec- tangulargrid of cladding panels across their surface. Federation Square in Melbourne, Australia, designed by Lab Architecture uses atriangularspace frame as a point of depar- ture from which to createa structure which gently departs from this principle, creating junctions which form moment connections rather than the pin joints associated wit h triangulated frames.
Thisapproach alloweda range of glass panels to be addedwhich are still based on atriangulargrid. This method of startingwit h regularforms of construc- tion andworking wit h their geometry is well suited to metal frames, where standard rolled sections arejoined wit h plates or nodes.
Thetechnical success of the system lies partly in creating a limited number of nodet ypeswhich can provide a visually rich construction with a small number of node types or bracket sizes. The useof a limited'kit of parts' can provide a visually rich structure andenclosure that can respond to particular design requirements such as positioning of openings or links wit h adjacent structures wit hout needing to be aligned to a rectilinear grid.
More recently, designs for metal frames to support cladding systems have begun to use identical polygons which might be twist- ed or pulledout of plane in their geometry andwhich produce complex shaped surfaces when joined together.
In addition, the 'cold bending' of metal panel sto cladding systems can createmore complex formsfor enclo- sures from flat sheet or profiled sheetwit h- out the needfor any special manufacturing. Thiscan combinethe benefits of more com- plex steel frames that are straightforward to construct wit h metal wall systemsthat are usually more associated wit h rectilinear forms wit hout changing the waysuch enclo- sures are constructed.
However; for all these examples of tectonics in metal,the designer isobliged to set out the construction of the structure and enclosure in a more detailed waythan that expectedfor more generic forms of construction, just as Jean-Baptiste Rondelet set out examples from hisTraite theorique, completed in Milwaukee Museum of Art. Frank Gehry MCH 22 Steel isan iron-basedmetal alloyedwith small amounts of other elements, the most important being carbon.
The three main forms of steel used in the building industr y are sections, sheets and castings. Steel sec- t ions are currentl y formed using a rolling process.
It can be extruded to form complex secti ons, but th is curre nt ly has only limited applicat ions due t o the high pr essure need- ed to extrude st eel. Aluminium is a much soft er materi al, making it easier t o extr ude.
Even when alumi nium is alloyed wi t h ot her materi als such as bro nze, the extrudable size of sections drops dramatically Extrusions in steel cannot exceed shapes that fit into a circle approximate ly mm 6" in diameter. This is too small for structural sections, but their smooth appearance makes them suit- able for components such as stiffeners in curtai n walling to provide a fin t hat is visu- ally mo re refined than an I-section or a t ee.
Historically, cast iron and wrought iron were the forerunner s of steel. Cast iron, a brittle material wit h high compressive st rength, came into general use as a build- ing mater ial at the end of the 18th cent ury. Wrought iron is a more ducti le material and has greater tensile strengt h, making it less susceptible to shock damage. The Eiffel Tower; in Paris, was one of the last large structures to be constructed in wrought iron.
By the end of the 19t h cen- tury. Steel was first prod uced around , but was not available in large quant it ies unt il Bessemer invented his converter in Thi s device introduced a method of blasting air int o th e furnace hence blast furnace t o burn away t he impurities that inhibited the extraction of a purer iron.
By , standard shapes in wrought iron, mainly rolled flat sec- ti ons, t ees and angles were available wh ich could be fabricated int o structural compo- nents which are then assembled by rivet ing them together. By ,the rolling of steel I-sections had become wi despread, leading the way to th is material event ually replacing wrought iron as a mat erial of choice.
Production process of raw material There are several steps in the manu- facture of steel. First, iron is refined from ores containing iron oxide.
The iron oxide is heated in a blast furnace until it is mol - t en, using carbon as a reducing agent. The mo lten materia l is poured into moulds to prod uce pig iron. It is then re-heated to remove impur it ies, including carbon, to make Federation Square, Melbourne,Australia. LAB Architecture St udio cast iron that has a carbon content of 2. Steel is produced by reducing the carbon cont ent to approxi- mately 0.
It can be poured when molten to make castings or formed into ingot s to be rolled into sheets or sect ions. Properties and data The main proper t ies of structural carbon steels are as follows: Densit y: High rigidity in both t ension and compression. Since theYoung's Modulus is constant for all these types, the strength of mater ial increases but the st iffness remains const ant. Frank Gehry The Barcelona Fish, Barcelona, Spain. LAB Architecture Studio higher levels of strength, both in the cost of the raw material and in the working of the material.
In addition, as strength increases in the material, welding becomes more difficult and consequently more specialized. In some high strength steels,which undergo heating and quenching during their manufacture, the effects of welding could potentially undo the work of manufacture if sufficient care is not taken.
Standard rolled sections are manufac- tured in the low to medium strength grades but higher strength steels are made mostly in the form of plate, due to lower demand for their use. Consequently, compound shapes for structural components, such as beams and columns, must be specially fabricated. Cold worked mild steels are used for much smaller scale structural components such as lightweight structural framing in metal framed housing and low-rise commercial buildings, used mainly in the USA, and dry- wall partitioning.
Cold-formed steel sections are made from structural carbon steel to form sheets or strips approximately l. Complex sections are formed by folding and pressing, rather than rolling which is the casewith hot formed sections.
Working with the material Sections and sheets can be curved to small radii. Bolting and welding are the most common methods of joining sections, sheets MCH 24 and castings. Steel can also be sawn and drilled. An essential characteristic of steel- work is that it will continue to rust if a sur- face protection is not provided.
When drilling or cutting the material, the newly exposed surface requires protection, which is par- ticularly important if the material has been factory coated prior to drilling and cutting. The economic protection is galvanising, a zinc coating that is corrosion resistant, applied to the steel in a hot dip bath or as a flame spray Galvanising occurs after fabrication of steel components to cover all the welding and drilling.
This process can cause distortion of smaller steel components, so may not suit all types of fabrication. The appearance of galva- nising when new is a mottled shiny grey,turn- ing to a dull grey with weathering asthe zinc oxidizes.
Its visual appearance is often not suitable for exposed structural steelwork or cladding in buildings, where paint coatings are more common. Flame sprayed aluminium can be used as an alternative to galvanising. Paint can be applied by hand on site or in a factory as part of a proprietary finish. Care must be taken to ensure that touching up on site of visible components is done in controlled con- ditions that ensure the finish both matches and blends into the surrounding coating.
When used as primary structure in a building, steelwork requires fire protection. This can be done by either encasingthe material in concrete, by enclosing it in a fire resistant board, or by coating it in intumes- cent paint. A spray-applied coating that yields a very rough, fibrous surface appearance is often used where the steel frame is con- cealed behind finish materials. Coatings Many factory applied proprietary sys- tems are available for coating steel; the most common types are thick organic coatings and powder coating.
Organic coat- ings provide high levels of protection against corrosion but have a distinctive orange peel texture. They are applied to steel coil, from which sheet is cut, during manufacture. These finishes have methods of touching up surfaces that become exposed or are damaged dur- ing installation, but colour matching remains an important consideration in successful re- touching. Recycling Steel can be recycled at reasonable cost, and requires much lessenergy than the origi- nal production process.
Federation Square, Melbourne,Australia. FrankGehry Stainless steel Stainless steel isan alloy of steel which contains betweenapproximaately I I to 25 per cent chromium,together wit h nickel in some t ypes, givingit properties that are distinct from carbonsteels, the mainone being a high resistance to corrosion wit hout the needfor an addit ional coating.
Since the material isconsiderably more expensi vethan carbon steels, stainl ess steel is most com- monly used in small building components and in cladding panels where durability isa prime concern.
Separation at junction isusually required, such as a nylon or neoprenespacer. Material selection Although the material develops athin oxide layer that protects it from further corrosion, different grades of stainless steel are available to suit the severity of exposure from polluted urbanto maritimeto rural environments.
A limited range of standard sections is available and usually in small sizesonly. The needfor a highdegree of fabrication of memberscan make construc- tion time slower than that for carbonsteel applications. For example, plate isfolded to form angles andtubes, and hollow sections areformed by bending and seam welding. As wit h carbonsteels, the highstrengths types, which have been heat-treated, are more difficultto weld, as the process can undo the heat strengthening.
Different finishes are available which are achieved by using a variety of rollingtechniques from smoothto textured, in an appearance from matt to pol- ished. In addition, the sheet can be coloured as part of the manufacturing process. Working wrth the material The fabrication of stainless steel follows the traditional pattern of fabrication for carbonsteel membersexcept that more useis madeof pressing andbending to form suitable shapes.
Fabrication of stainl ess steel should be kept entirely separate from that of carbonsteel to ensure that the processes of cuttingand grinding do not causeimpreg- nationof carbonsteel particles onto the stainless surface, which can lead to rusting. Fabricated elements should seek to eliminate standing seams or edges where water can collect, in order to avoid crevassing corro- sion. Stainless steel has highductility which gives the material excellent resistance to impact loading.
St udio Daniel Libeskind MCH 26 Aluminium wasfirst produced in , and by the late 19th cent ury a method had been foundto mass produce t he material by the electrolysi s of alumina and cryolite. Production process of raw mate- rial Aluminium ismadefrom bauxite, which is essent ially anhydrated alumina, or alu- minium oxide, Mined bauxite ist reated chemically to remove impurit ies and obtain alumina, which is aluminium oxide. Themetal ist hen cast into ingotswhich form the basis for producingaluminium alloys.
Pure aluminium istoo soft for st ructural use andistherefore combined wit h ot her metalsto form alloys to increase its strength and hardness,t hough reducing its ductility. Magnesium, silicon and manganese are the most common additives, Aluminiumalloys makestrong, lightweight structural components. In common with steel , aluminium is a material that can be extruded, rolled and cast into complex shapes: Future Systems For comparisonwit h other materials, alu- miniumalloyshave the following general properties: Glass systems Stick systems Unitised glazing Clamped glazing Bolt fixed glazing Glass blocks and channels Steel windows Aluminium windows Timber windows.
Glass roofs Greenhouse glazing and capped systems Silicone-sealed glazing and rooflights Bolt fixed glazing Bonded glass rooflights. Timber roofs Flat roof: Passive design Natural ventilation Solar shading and daylight controls Solar power Solar heating.
Low energy material systems Straw bales and hemp Rammed earth, cob and adobe bricks Green oak and bamboo Green walls. A future for building construction Folded glazing Metal solar shading: You'll now receive updates based on what you follow!
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