Dapelo 1 Literary Defiance of La Celestina By Nichole C. Dapelo The literary work to earn the crowning title of the first modern text has long been a subject of. The Tragicomedy of Calisto and Melibea (Spanish: Tragicomedia de Calisto y Melibea), known in Spain as La Celestina is a work entirely in dialogue published. Celestinesca 38 (): La Celestina: A Novel. Howard Mancing. Purdue University. In this essay I want to present a case for La Celestina as a novel.
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Free kindle book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg. CELESTINA a free version and adaptation by. José María Ruano de la Haza based on the English translation by. James Mabbe. (first printed in in London. 1 All quotes from La Celestina are from Russell's edition (Rojas). Hereafter all numbers in parentheses without other indications will refer to this edition.
An Ars Combinatoria of Desire. This shows you how extraordinary is the religiosity of that good man called John: Rimedio, Bulzoni, To be sure, there have always been scholars who have occasionally dealt with particular problems of textual corruption, interpolations or omissions and others who have tried to clarify some aspects of the relationship existing among the early editions.
Because male honor was based on the female sexual restraint, the insatiability of a noblewoman undermined the Catholic claim of superiority founded on biological purity, thus proving honor based on female chastity, just like the concept of purity of blood, to be fallacy The provocation of questioning truth through the reinstatement of the hymen further subverted the system of values employed by the monarchy through the exploitation of both the marital market seller and buyer.
Therefore, the most destructive tool of Celestina was her ability to liberate a woman from patriarchal control through freeing her from consequence. Just as with the Inquisition, the violence of the thread, the girdle, and the chain wound, disfigure and dismember their owner, ultimately leading to death, yet through the circular nature of the paradigm, the violence leading to death would also breed renaissance of a generation far worse than its predecessors.
In La Celestina, Fernando de Rojas employed rhetoric to attack the foundation of religion, the structure of capitalism, and the ideal of courtly love of unified Spain. Throughout the course of the work, Celestina speaks of her loyalty to the diabolical.
Her belief in the powers of evil is rarely questioned, and her devotion is evident. Before her encounter with Melibea, a project that promises immense profit from a wealthy client, Celestina calls on the power of the devil to assist her in its successful completion. Indeed, even the paraphernalia she carries with her have been blessed with the powers of the Devil.
The irony in the religious zeal of the procuress is twofold. First, of all the characters in the novel, the Catholic Melibea and Calisto readily dismiss the religious ideals that have most likely been ingrained in them since early childhood. The gesture serves a dual purpose. On the one hand, it could be a means of safeguarding by the author against the Inquisition.
On the other, the desire to confess by the depraved Celestina manifests Christian principles of repentance, which leads to forgiveness. Secondly, the devotion of Celestina to evil parallels the religious zeal of the Catholic. Her prayer for diabolical intervention to assist her in her mission mirrors the common Christian prayer for God to move within their lives, to facilitate their objectives, and to influence those around them.
Dapelo 10 Despite the fervency of her prayers, her god, does not deliver. The bawd finds no success until she puts her natural abilities to practice. It is Celestina, and not the Devil, that is responsible for the success of her mission, the loss of virtue, and the physical and moral damage of the surgical repair of the hymen. If the Catholic Inquisitionist truly believed in the efficiency of prayer, there would be no need for human intervention.
The impatience and doubt of Celestina, similar to the impatience of the Catholic Inquisitionist in the deliverance desired results, paved the way to depravity and violence. Because her prayer for the power of Satan proves useless, thus illustrating the incompetence of the Devil, Rojas is able to circumvent censorship while proving that it is the human actions of Celestina and the Inquisition that, in the name of higher powers, are the true causes of destruction.
Certainly Rojas is not condoning witchcraft or devilworship. However, considering the distinction between witch and sorceress, and how such incorrect labeling leads to condemnation by the Inquisition, it is evident that this may imply how the poor administration of justice led to the incorrect persecution of innocent blood.
Her means of substance is the commodity of words. There is a deepseeded yearning within humanity for verbal affirmation; Celestina gift is the instinct and insight to tap into and capitalize on this human need. Language became a means of attaining. It is through her rhetoric that bodies, desires, and reputations were exchanged.
Through the trade of words and objects, Rojas creates a means of commerce through a system of barter that operates outside the parameters of governmentregulated currency. A recognized figure within her community, Celestina is treated with surprising deference by even the highest levels of hierarchy, including invitations to the wedding and religious ceremonies of the church.
Celestina is acutely aware of her financial needs and the limited resources she has available to attain a profit.
For this reason, she admonishes Elicia to study the trade of repairing maidenheads, to which the girl is uneager to learn Fraker Celestina cannot be replaced. Language proves itself the most influential of commodities. The facility of Celestina to manipulate through rhetoric substantiates the integral corruption of Spain and allowed Fernando de Rojas to contradict the idealized society and the notion of limpieza de sangre intended by the efforts of the Inquisition. The commerce of bodies and enterprise of sex outside of the bonds of matrimony would be the antithesis of such renewal.
Another means by which Fernando de Rojas undermines the societal structure of the Catholic monarchy is through the disparity of courtly love.
Upon exposure to La Celestina, the medieval public would perhaps have found nothing revolutionary about the theme. The basic plot reflected the customary storyline of courtly love: The genius of Rojas is that he followed the literary didactic paradigm of medieval courtly love and turned it on its head.
In La Celestina, the procuress is, in many ways, the courtier to the public. Just as the palace requires the courtier, so society is in want of a procuress, and the two share surprisingly similar roles. The value of both courtier and Celestina is based on the ability to achieve. Their success is limited neither by poverty, age or beauty, nor by ethnicity or religion. Their exploitations and triumphs are purely a matter of agency, mediation and negotiation.
Dapelo 14 The standards of the beauty and gallantry of courtly love created expectations that could only be achieved through the finesses of language Hamilton As rhetoric was the indispensible skill of both courtier and gobetween, words were the instrument that upheld the illusion of courtly love.
In this way, another layer of hierarchical elitism is established, and though the intention of the church was to encourage morality, it permitted arrogance, pride and prejudice from those who successfully suppressed their sexualdesires, or at least did not get caught.
With an explicit grasp of the inescapably base nature of society, Rojas utilized his exceptional literary talent to expose the fabricated ideals that were imposed on all living in the Iberian Peninsula by the monarchical authority of recently unified Spain.
Espasa Calpe: Qui creaturam deo preponit, idolatra est. Negabis te idolatram esse quasi non preponas creatori creatum? Piccolomini, Rimedio He who places a woman before God is an idolater. And you deny being an idolater as if you were not putting before the Creator a created being? Cogita, quot beneficienti premia in celestibus sedibus Rimedio Consider the rewards awaiting the righteous in the celestial order of seating.
La Celestina, first Act, Scene 1: Namque cum mulierem diligis, non in te sed in illa vivis Rimedio In fact when you love a woman, you do not live in yourself but in her. Scene 3: Illam amas, illam promoves, illam somnias, de illa cogitas, de illa loqueris, de illa suspiras Rimedio It is she you love, it is she you elevate [glorify], of her you think, of her you speak, of her you sigh. Tu nihil te extimas Rimedio You have no esteem of yourself.
Scene 4: Cum ergo, Ipolite, captus sis amorique servias, scias te morbosus esse. Si mor- bosus es, liberari studes Rimedio Being a captive and a servant of love, you should know your sickness. If you are sick, you should try to be cured.
Mulier est animal imperfectum Rimedio Woman is an imperfect animal. De his loquor mulieribus, que turpe admittunt amores. Rimedio, I speak of those women who practiced disgusting sexual acts. Tu tamen non in coitu sed in visu sermoneque forsitan oblectaris Rimedio — Scene Narrat tibi nonnumquam et cum alio amatore quo pacto iacuerit, quid doni receperit, quam cenam habuerit, quibus voluptatibus fuerit usa Rimedio She tells you the ways in which she had sex with another lover, what gift she received, what dinner they had and to what voluptuous pleasures she lent herself.
Utinam sola carnem interimeret et non occideret animam Would that it destroys only the body and not kill the soul. Scene, 3: Based on philosophical and theological grounds, there was until now a very strong possibility that the verbs of the sentence might have been inverted. Given, however, our present knowledge of late Quattrocento humanists who would have been capable of writing such an accomplished work, we still lack the necessary data and factual information to even begin to speculate about possible candidates.
Nevertheless, one point seems to me indisputable. In any case, were the Italian origin of the comedia to turn out to be true, it would have to have been translated either in Spain or Italy, sometimes in the middle years of the s. As for those literary critics who I am sure will not accept this conclusion and defend their respective traditional interpretation, it is incumbent on them to apply the same criteria of judgment I have used in documenting my findings.
Whatever the case, it is my hope that the result of this research should be viewed as a point of departure for new lines of inquiry aimed at solving the puzzling origin of this work and the problematic question of its multiple authorship. As things now stand, a critical edition of La Celestina, with which we began this study, presents a challenge of unsuspected complexity.
With no specific author or authors whose presumed last intention, or lack thereof, has served until now as a crutch for explaining and determining the correct lessons of the text, we are left with a literary work whose text is the result of the cumulative effort of multiple anonymous authors and, to a lesser but in no way insignificant extent, of correctors, book sellers, sponsors and printers.
But a careful analysis of the entire work reveals instead how hopeless it is to connect the text to a coherent plan and a single authorial intention. It uncovers, moreover, various contradictory elements that fail to hold the text together. But no matter how dissuasive are these textual conditions from attempting to establish the text of La Celestina, they do not negate the possibility of undertaking a critical edition. What they simply indicate is that the type of critical edition with which we have become familiar is no longer feasible.
The very fact that the philological analysis has been able to identify these destabilizing internal factors within the text, confirms that the textual study that goes into a critical edition is needed more than ever in order to make sense of such genetically intricate work. Given the unusual complexity presented by this text, it may be necessary to pursue new lines of inquiry in the attempt to unravel the layered entanglements of its composition.
Equally crucial would be to identify as best as possible the various stages of this open work instead of concentrating on an elusive closed version. In short, while never losing sight of the latest expanded version of the Tragicomedia, which represents the compendium of all previous additions, special attention should be devoted to the process of the text in the making. It is by starting to decipher the intellectual codes that have remained encased in the lexical concreteness of the text for so long, that we may finally do justice not only to the different voices, but also to the many hands who contributed to the book called La Celestina and who still clamber to be recognized.
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Description Comments Ungluers 1 More The Tragicomedy of Calisto and Melibea Spanish: Tragicomedia de Calisto y Melibea , known in Spain as La Celestina is a work entirely in dialogue published in It is attributed to Fernando de Rojas, a descendant of converted Jews, who practiced law and, later in life, served as an alderman of Talavera de la Reina, an important commercial center near Toledo. The book is considered to be one of the greatest works of Spanish literature, and traditionally marks the end of medieval literature and the beginning of the literary renaissance in Spain.
Although usually regarded as a novel, it is written as a continuous series of dialogues and can be taken as a play, having been staged as such and filmed.