2 Security, Prevention and Detection of Cyber Crimes Introduction. In our daily life, economic activities, and national security highly depend on stability, safely. The purpose of this paper is Understanding Cybercrime: Phenomena, Challenges and Legal Response is to assist everyone in understanding the legal aspects. Keywords: Cyber Crime, Information Security, Cyber threats, Hacking, Cyber Crimes relates to the word cyber which encompasses the computer network.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Indonesian|
|Genre:||Business & Career|
|ePub File Size:||27.46 MB|
|PDF File Size:||17.74 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Regsitration Required]|
PDF | On Dec 27, , Muhammad Hamza and others published CyberCrime and Security. This chapter examines the tools used by cybercriminals to breach information system security; the impact of cybercrime; and the legal responses of the UK. Brainstorming. ❑ Definition Security. ❑ Security Features. ❑ Concept of Cyberspace. ❑ Concept of Cybercrime. ❑ Concept of Cybersecurity. ❑ The way forward.
There is no reliable and precise statistics of the losses the victims gain as the fact that victims do not detect many of these crimes Cyber Crime. Securing hardware and software, and, 4. It converts the information in message composed in an ordinary text, into cipher text. Access devices have multiplied and diversified to include a variety of portable and wireless accesses. Don Gotternbarn argued that, there is nothing special on the crimes that happen to involve computers.
Internet Security Chapter 6. National Legislation and Commentary—Australia Chapter Industry Case Studies Chapter United States B. Council of Europe Project on Cybercrime: Cybercrime Legislation: Cybercrime Legislation and Cases in Japan: Securing Taiwans Cyberspace: Nation at Risk: Faking It: Cyberspace Policy Review: Cyber Security Enhancement Act of [Pub.
American Century Companies, Inc. Partygaming Ltd. The Vanguard Group, Inc. Perez, F. Strauser, F. Paroline, F. Robert A. Hall 3. Gary McKinnon D. Martin Dist. Auernheimer indictment 4. Grokster, Ltd. Net indictment 5. Ralsky, F. Keynetics, Inc. Court, D. Universal Law Publishing Co. In arguing against Gotternbarn, it is true that, we may not categorize other crimes in accordance to tools, equipment, mechanism or means through which they were committed.
However, due to the nature and features of Cyber Crimes8 which differentiate, the traditional universe and the cyber universe, led the traditional universe tremble like an earthquake, makes crimes difficult to control than they were before, this initiates the concept of these crimes being necessary categorized as Cyber Crimes.
Therefore, let Cyber Crimes be Cyber Crimes. Forester and Morrison argued that, cyber crime is a criminal act in which a computer is used as a principal tool. In that matter, the theft of computer hardware device, would not qualify as computer crime. As a result of these features, it achieves unprecedented reach, and makes available vast amounts of information, of varying degrees of quality. Internet users cannot be regarded as a homogenous group. Cybercrime in a narrow sense computer crime: Any illegal behaviour directed by means of electronic operations that targets the security of computer systems and the data processed by them.
Cybercrime in a broader sense computer-related crime: Any illegal behaviour committed by means of, or in relation to, a computer system or network, including such crimes as illegal possession and offering or distributing information by means of a computer system or network. Girasa, Cyber law: Therefore, it involves a crime in a relationship with a computer.
Morris , the accused invade the security system through a worm Morris Worm so as to measure the weakness of MIT which in turn prevented the use of federal interest computers, thereby causing loss.
Fraud risk in emerging markets.
It is believed the first recorded cyber crime took place in the year Therefore, fraud in a computer scheme emerged. One of the first cases cited as an instance of the computer fraud involved equity-funding Corporation in the US, fraud was simple.
When the fraud was discovered, some 64, out of 97, policies allegedly issued by the company proved to be false, almost 1 Billion pounds estimated to be the loss. Information Technology Law at Pg.
There is no reliable and precise statistics of the losses the victims gain as the fact that victims do not detect many of these crimes Therefore, fights against computer crime began.
The founder and father of the knowledge of computer crimes are by many observers considered to be Donn B. Parker, USA. He was involved in the research of computer crime and security from the early ties.
This manual became soon an encyclopedia also for law enforcement outside US. In a traditional means, a term crime covers a broad range of offences.
It is from this broad range, the typology or classification of cyber crime became difficult. Computer Crime at Pg. His first book on the subject was: Offences against the confidentiality, integrity and availability of computer data and systems, such as illegal access, illegal interception, data interference, system interference, and misuse of devoice;34 2.
Computer-related offences, such as computer-related forgery and computer-related Fraud 35 ; 3. Content-related offences, such as offences related to child pornography;36 and 4. Copyright-related offences, such as offences related to copyright infringements and related rights. Nonetheless, the categories serve as a useful basis for discussing the phenomena of cyber crime globally. A Guide for Developing Countries, page , , at: In the old days people used to hide their faces, draw their guns and rob the local bank or stage- coach.
Currently the way crimes are conducted become more technological creative. For instance, we have gone from in-person robberies to nameless and faceless crimes involving computers. A crime such as spamming, passing on computer viruses, harassment, cyber stalking, and others have become common in our modern world. This is why Cyber Security is needed. Securing computer, computer system and computer networks, 2. Securing devices, products and applications, 3.
Securing hardware and software, and, 4.
Confidentiality;45 2. Integrity;46 3. A set of activities and other measures, technical and non-technical, intended to protect 42 Section 2 1 nb of the India Information Technology Act of Creating a National Framework for Cyber security: The degree of protection resulting from the application of these activities and measures; 3. The associated field of professional endeavour, including research and analysis, aimed at implementing and those activities and improving their quality.
Sometimes when defining computer security, issues involving cyber security overlap with concerns pertaining cyber crime, and sometimes privacy. However, not all cyber crimes amount to infringement of cyber security. For instance, soliciting sex with young children, traffic drugs through internet, download copyrighted music and others, do not infringe cyber security.
As against many people believe, that cyber security began in s, viruses and worms have been part of the background noise of cyberspace since its earliest days. Access devices have multiplied and diversified to include a variety of portable and wireless accesses. The Cuckoo's Egg: Pocket Books. They started to slow down, because they were running a malicious code that demanded processor time and that spread itself to other computers.
The purpose of such software was to transmit a copy to the machines and run in parallel with existing software and repeat all over again. When questioned about the motive for his actions, Morris said 'he wanted to count how many machines were connected to the Internet'. His explanation was verified with his code, but it turned out to be buggy, nevertheless. Three years later, the number was more than six times higher.
Thus creating a Cyber Security was inevitable. Beyond the Moat: New Strategies for Cyber security, in: Cyber-Threats and Countermeasures: URL http: There are several types of computer securities that are completely based on protecting from different types of viruses, worms and Trojans.
In some authors,57 they called them aspects of cyber security. The common types of computer security are as follows; 2. This is a common type of computer security which deals with securing the networks, that is from privately owned computer networks58 to the internet itself against different types of viruses and also many other forms of threats to keep the working of computer networking smoothly. Having set the right kind of network security assures the stable working of computer network.
Another important form of the computer security is the data security. It mainly concerns about malicious programs that can disrupt and sometimes destroy the computer systems. Computer security is important because it can provide the opportunity for the users to protect their important information present on the network and also in the system right to privacy. So, we should use computer security solution on some level to protect our data from different type of sniffing stolen problem.
In general, Computer Security is vital for protecting the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of computer systems, resources, and data. Without confidentiality, trade secrets or personally identifying information can be lost.
Without integrity, we cannot be sure that the data we have is the same data that was initially sent i. Without availability, we may be denied access to computing resources i.
As cyber crime increasingly breaches national borders, nations perceived as havens run the risk of having their electronic messages blocked by the network. There has to be something to either prevent or eradicate cyber crimes. Cyber prevention, it is the act of restricting, suppressing, destructing, destroying, controlling , removing, or preventing the occurrence of cyber attacks, in either, computer systems both hardware and software systems, networks and data, or any other electronic devices capable of 67 Stein Schjolberg and Solange Ghernaouti-Helie, A Global Treaty on Cyber Security and Cyber Crime, second edition, AaiT Oslo, , p.
Cyber Detection systems, it detects an irregularity and misbehaviour activities of the Netizen. It can scan a network for people that are on the network but who should not be there or are doing things that they should not be doing, for example trying a lot of passwords to gain access to the network.
However, as is true with any technology, these same opportunities also carry risks. This is simply because one among the methodology of cyber prevention and detection is cyber security. They both exist due to the development of science and technology which at the end resulted to insecure of cyberspace by the year of s. Fighting viruses, defending the net". The best methodology for fighting against cybercrime is through education, enforcement of laws and highly developed security services.
Technical expertise in online security is necessary, which can ensure that people of all the ages including children, teenagers, students, parents and the business community are always safe. Rolf Oppliger argued that, firewall is a blockade between the internal privately owned network such as intranet that is believed to be secured and an external network, such as internet which is not assumed to be secured.