the Thousand Nights and One Night. RENDERED INTO ENGLISH FROM. THE LITERAL AND COMPLETE. FRENCH TRANSLATION OF. DR soundofheaven.infoS. "The Arabian Nights" is a magnificent collection of ancient tales told by the sultana Scheherazade, who relates them as entertainment for her jealous and. A Plain and Literal Translation of the Arabian Nights' Entertainments, Now Thousand Nights and a Night. Part 2 PDF (The Caliph's Night Adventure).
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The Book Of The. Thousand Nights And A Night. A Plain and Literal Translation of the Arabian Nights Entertainments by Richard F. Burton. First published – . Arabian Nights - Supplemental Nights - Volume 16 · Read more · Arabian Nights - Supplemental Nights - Volume Read more. PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 78,, eBooks for you to download for free. No annoying ads, no download limits, enjoy .
Laografike idhisis peri to Gallo periigiti P. His translation is full of notes. Islam was seen by the church as the quintessence of evil wheatcroft, , p. It is judged in its second part to represent a direct copy from the Galland manuscript, breaking off at a similar point. Since our analysis focuses on Burton's translation, it is necessary to shed some light on his ideological framework, but due to the limitation of space in this paper, it is not possible to delve into his biography.
Halima itoi Hiliai kai Mia Nyktes, aravika dhiigimata. Ekdhosis oikogeneiaki Halima, i. Thousand and One Nights, Arabian novels. Family edition. Gav- riilidis, This translation was first published in continuously paginated fascicles that were subsequently bound in volumes.
One of the main characteristics of this edition is its rich decoration with woodcuts drawn from the French edition by Bourdin — Moreover, the translation contains a vivid language — or, better even, a creative recasting. It was obviously prepared by a well-known writer of the period, probably Alexander Papadiamandis —; see Ke- hayoglou While the edition of was reprinted in seven volumes in , data for further reprints are not available.
The only Greek translation prepared directly from an Arabic text is the product of Greek diaspora in Egypt. This translation still deserves a prominent place in Greek literature both for its precision and sumptuousness. Metafrasis Kosta Trikog- lidhi apo to gnision Aravikon keimenon.
Translated from the original Arabic text by Kostas Trikoglidis. I Vassiliou, vols. Epilogi apo tis Hilies kai mia Nyhtes. Metafrasis apo to aravikon keimenon K. Trikoglidhi Halima. A Selection from the Thousand and One Nights.
Translated from the Arabic text by Kostas Trikoglidis. Eleftheroudakis, reprint in 7 vols. Iridanos Edi- tions, — Trikoglidis was educated in Alexandria where he spent twenty years of his life. According to his detailed afterword he began his translation in with the assistance of an Egyptian scholar who was also his mentor.
At first, he com- pleted about five-eighths of the text according to the Bulaq edition. He then continued on his own, consulting an unspecified contemporary Cairo edition. By he had completed the whole translation in the formal, archaic form of the Greek language katharevousa.
Following this, he revised the text adapting it to contemporary spoken Greek. The cultural kinship between Greece and the Orient probably supported the development of a style faithful to the original, as it allowed the exact rendering of integral expressions as well as of everyday habits and features preface by Voutieridis in Trikoglidis — Trikoglidis translated the whole of the Nights into Greek. Unfortunately, his translation has never been published in its entirety. The published part in- cludes about half of the stories considered as canonical — i.
Trikoglidis also abandoned the division into nights. Some of the stories in his translation had never before been translated into Greek.
Actually, the published part might contain more original plots than the sheer numbers indicate, since Trikoglidis must have selected at least one from each group of the stories that occur in more or less identical form within the collection. From this group of six stories only two have been published in Greek. The seventh volume contains three stories that were not part of the original corpus of the Nights: Syntipas i i panourgies kai i mihanorrafies ton gynaikon.
Translated by Kostas Trikoglidis from the Arabic edition. Ganiaris  reprint Athens: Iridanos Editions, Even though that collection and its embedded stories are included in the prin- cipal Oriental editions of the Nights, their history in the Greek language has been independent, as a Greek version of Syntipas already existed in the elev- enth century.
With the addition of these stories, the total number of stories from the Arabian Nights translated into Greek comes up to Only Sindbad remained Sevah, as his name was so well established in the Greek language that it was difficult to introduce a different one Trikoglidis — Hilies kai mia nyhtes. Metafrasi — Epilogi Stavrou A. Vlachou epimeleia Aggelou S. Vlachou Thousand and One Nights. Translated and Selected by Stavros A.
Vlahos [edited by A.
Hermeias, We can thus safely assume that any influence of written versions of the Nights in Greek oral tradition is due to the European translations, in particular those by Galland and Burton.
The only Greek translation prepared directly from an Arabic text comes too late to interfere decisively with oral tradition. Kaplanoglou However, the most important observation concerning the Greek trans- lations is related to the fact that at least half of the main corpus of the Nights has never been published in Greek translation.
This gap could probably be filled with the publication of the unpublished part of the Trikog- lidis translation. Written Literature and Orality The exchange between Greek oral tradition and Oriental tradition neither be- gins nor ends with the Greek translations of the Nights. Well before the Euro- pean translations from Arabic, oral channels of transmission existed. These channels must be considered in a mutual perspective. On the one hand, traces of classical and Hellenistic Greek literature and culture have been detected in the corpus of the Nights see Chauvin ; Macdonald ; Horovitz ; Grunebaum On the other, Greek folklorists usually consider the long Ottoman occupation an influential phase in the exchange between Greece — and the Balkans in general — and the Orient.
While, during this process, Turkish culture may to some extent have transmitted its own imagery through the Arabian tales, the effect of direct Arabic influence on Greek tradition is considerably lighter. Meraklis In this respect, prominent Greek folklore scholar Georgios A. Already eighteenth century travelers in Greece observed that kind of narrative kinship which they largely attributed to an Oriental and Arabic heritage de Guys Nikolaos G. Politis — , the founder of Folklore Studies in Greece, also referred to those analogies in one of his early studies in discussing a motif from the Odyssey Politis Politis avoided committing himself to any particular origin instead preferring to explain the phenomenon by a model of three traditions communicating with each other: In general, the distinct cultural background of each era affected the thematic loans as well as the style of narration ruling the various translations.
As a case in point, explicit references to sexual intercourse are extremely rare in Greek oral tradition where meaningful standard expressions are preferred in- stead. Papachristophorou In contrast, oral folktales such as the majority of the reg- istered Greek ones, opt for an everyday type of speech avoiding complicated expressions.
In a similar vein, Greek folktales would extend their length by ad- ding episodes, whereas tales in the Nights turn to describing details or deviate into poetry see MacDonald The distinction between Greek folktales and stories from the Arabian Nights relates to both narrative style and cultural specifics.
At the same time it is in accordance with the mnemonic procedure of remembering and retelling folktales as well as the maintenance of an interior rhythm during the time of narration. Another possible reason for the stylistic differences between the Nights and Greek folktales is the socio-historical context of the two corpora. The registers of the Greek folktales here referred to originate from traditional agricultural communities of the late nineteenth and the twentieth centuries.
This means that the narration was clearly posited in the framework of an acceptable social behavior according to the rules of those communities. Their rules would in- clude a sense of economy, and the resulting modesty would permit a certain degree of diversion only for jocular narratives, even though there again de- tailed descriptions would not be tolerated.
In other words, laughing about a jocular narrative is more due to the signified than to the signifier.
These stylistic arguments affect all of the tale-types dis- cussed below. Therefore, the amount of registered Greek variants in the following table above all indicates the dissemination of a given tale-type in the Greek ter- ritory before The Arabian Nights in Greece No. AT No. None 60 vol. None 75 69 vol. On the other hand, only a few of the tales belong to those popular in Greek tradition with more than 20 registered variants while not regularly corresponding to a translated story from the Nights.
The quantitative evalu- ation suggests that the Greek translations of the Nights are not a main point of entrance into Greek oral tradition for those tales. The Forty Thieves, AT Independently of a high or low dissemination of the Greek variants, some of the plots and themes have evolved in unexpected ways in Greek tradition.
Search for the Golden Bird. In the Greek variants, several elements are not represented, such as the lower maternal origin of the third son or his mar- riage with two or three princesses during his adventures.
A major difference in the Greek vari- ants of AT The Animal Languages is the fact that the laborer has received the gift to understand the language of the animals from a grateful snake. This motif is also known from Greek mythology in the story of Melampous. Instead of AT A: The Greek variants of AT The Entrapped Suitors, corresponding to three stories from the Nights Chauvin: In the Greek texts, faithfulness and faithlessness are described in the same contexts and become extremely confusing in very similar plots.
Here, we recognize a process common in oral tradition, especially jokes and gossip, to consistently confuse truth and falsehood in order to veil deviant social beha- vior Papachristophorou The motifs related to the clever peasant girl Mot. J Here the debate of the couple consists of a codified dialogue, quite dif- ferent in each variant, or in the intelligent way the girl divides a roast chicken for the members of her family according to their status such as in AT The Wise Carving of the Fowl.
Apart from the clever argument, however, the two plots differ so much that they can hardly be considered as two variants of the same tale-type. Dissimulated inversions of certain themes are indicated by Greek variants of AT In the Greek texts, the daughter of the sea refuses to speak to her human husband un- less he tells her about her origins.
Julnar in the Nights, on the contrary, breaks her self-imposed silence herself in order to tell her human husband about their forthcoming child and explain her own origins. It is a standard motif in the Greek variants of tale-type AT Through the motif of the supernatural wife, tale-type AT is affiliated with types AT The Mouse Cat, Frog, etc. As Megas has shown By further adding to the above-mentioned tales tale-type AT The Four Skillful Brothers, which is connected to the same story by the in- troduction of the three brothers who have fallen in love with the same woman, four tale-types from Greek oral tradition are in close connection with the tale from the corpus of the Nights.
The archery contest serves as an alternative introduction for two more tale- types in the Greek corpus, AT and AT Tale-type AT also pre- serves a considerable amount of points in common with the Arabian tale.
Megas The animal form of the supernatural wife is also a dominant element in the Greek corpus of AT A: The Quest for the Unknown, even in those vari- ants that contain an alternative introduction. There, the hero is of low social condition, usually a fisherman, and the supernatural bride appears in the form of a turtle he has captured in his net. According to Megas f. This form of the tale-type is so popular in the Greek corpus 32 out of 80 and so similar to the three stories from the Nights that it can be considered their Greek equivalent.
These variants are close to the Greek legends about fairies with the only difference that the quest for the lost wife is successful. The alliance with a fairy always brings the hero to a position of power and wealth, a develop- ment that is in accordance with the legendary benefactor effect of the alliance between fairies and human beings. Another persistent narrative element in those stories is the attachment of fairies to their children that is typical for fairy legends in general.
Loans from legends appear to be quite common in the stories and tales we have examined on this occasion, revealing a more complex level of affiliation with this genre of orality, a suggestion enhanced by the kinship of the fairies of Greek oral tradition with the Nymphs and the Moirai Fates of Greek mythology Papachristophorou The Greek fairies are thus close to the three Fates who always predict an irrevocable destiny for humans on the third day of their life. Moreover, they are close to the figure of Fortune that, while being unique for each human being, can be changed.
This contradictory perception of destiny has probably affected the dissemination of several tale-types related to stories from the Nights elaborating the theme of destiny. Conclusion While Greek oral tradition offered a fertile soil for the creative adaptation of various tales included in the corpus of the Arabian Nights, it did not do so for all of them. At the same time, the similarities discussed above are neither al- ways explicit nor do they always concern entire tale-types.
Even so, they sug- gest a considerable exchange between the narratives of the Nights and Greek oral tradition. Most likely, the introduction of specific narratives into Greek oral tradition was not, however, due to the literary tradition of the Nights in Greek translation or other European translations. Since the peoples of the Eastern Mediterranean area share a secular history of co-habitation through both invasions and commercial ex- change, the reception ground was even more fertile.
This fact applies in general to the Balkan region. The period of four or five centuries of Ottoman occu- pation had profoundly familiarized the peoples of the Balkan with Oriental mentality. That historical impact affected the approach of modern Greek scholars, who, starting with the middle of the eighteenth century, debated the argument of an uninterrupted historical continuity whose origins were posited in ancient Greece, and instead argued for a cultural kinship with the Occident towards which the newly born Greek nation was bound to turn see Dimaras Against that backdrop, the Arabian Nights at the historical mo- ment of their introduction into scholarly consciousness in Greece could not offer an attractive field for comparative research.
Nevertheless, the field for studying the similarities of narrative constituents and the socio-cultural el- ements that facilitated their reception is vast, while divergence and variety be- speak the mechanisms of oral tradition. Georgiou A.
Katalogos ellinikon paramythion George A. Catalogue of Greek Folktales. AT —; vol. AT — Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia, Mille et un contes de la nuit. This confrontational relationship manifested not only in the battlefields, but also in an immense body of knowledge that sought to depict Islam in negative terms as a threat against Christianity during the crusades. The ideologically-motivated translation of the Quran was instrumentalized by the church to portray Islam as a barbaric and backward religion.
In addition to translation, the negative Christian image of Islam intensified in the Renaissance through poetry and popular superstitions to the extent that it became apparent to European thinkers that "something would have to be done about Islam" Said, , p.
To this end, they focused on the oriental tales and the mythology of the East. However, the general tendency toward the East was Eurocentric, representing the East as a backward place, populated by irrational and passive people practicing a violence-driven religion. For Said, such misrepresentations of the Orient were the counter-image of the West. In his critique of Orientalism, Said introduces a format for colonialism and its motives by colonial powers.
He demonstrates how Orientalist studies created a political vision in favor of promoting a discourse based on the "Self" and "Other" dichotomy for the sole purpose of western domination and supremacy. The following statements made by the British diplomat, Lord Cromer sum up the West's biased perceptions of the Oriental people: He is a natural logician, albeit he may not have studied logic.
He is by nature skeptical and requires proof before he can accept the truth of any proposition. The mind of the Oriental on the other hand, like his picturesque streets, is wanting in symmetry. He is deficient in the logical faculty. He is incapable of drawing the most obvious conclusions from any simple premises" Said, , p. As we will see, Burton also in his Arabian Nights assumes the Easterner's acceptance of the Western governance.
Cromer's statements about the East and the West show that the Orientalist discourse, whether it takes the form of a translation, a political statement, a traveler's account, developed historically into a power knowledge. In the following sections, we will analyze Burrton's translation of The Arabian Nights to see how they relate to the dominant discourses about the Orient.
Drawing on Said's definition of Orientalism, we have selected Burton for our study to show how the discourse of Orientalism manifests itself in literature and translation.
The rationale behind selecting Burton for our study is that he belonged to England, a country with a long history of colonialism and Orientalist scholarship. Furthermore, he had a close contact with the Orient on account of his long stays in the Middle East as Britain's intelligence service agent. The method adopted in this study is corpus- based. Burton's English translation of The Arabian Nights constitutes the corpus for this study.
Instead of the texts, we have focused on meta- texts, i. The narrative of The Arabian Nights The story of "Shahryar" and "Shah Zaman", the two brothers who rule over China and Samarkand respectively forms the introductory frame to the remaining tales.
One day, Shah Zaman leaves Samarkand for China to meet his brother. In the middle of the way, he is backing home to fetch something. All of the sudden, he catches his wife, red-handed, in a situation of adultery with a black slave.
He kills his wife on the spot and resumes his journey to visit Shahryar. In his brother's palace, Shah Zaman is still depressed as a result of his wife's infidelity. His brother tries to relieve him and bring him some comfort, but to no avail. One day, when Shahryar is out hunting, Shah Zaman discovers his brother's wife committing adultery with a slave.
He then realizes that he shouldn't feel any envy towards his brother as both are now victims of the same fate.
As soon as Shahryar returns, Shah Zaman informs him of the sad incident. Pretending to go on another hunting expedition, Shahryar surprises his wife in the same amorous situation. As his brother did before, Shahryar executes his wife, her lover and all the slaves involved in the betrayal.
Shahryar carries out this revengeful plan for three years until the day when all the women of the kingdom start to shun the fate that Shahryar has reserved for them. Shahryar orders his minister to find a woman for him to marry. To succeed in her suicidal endeavor, Shahrzad has to use her talent of story-telling to escape a certain death. She starts to narrate a story in Shahryar's presence, but makes sure not to end it before the break of a new day.
This careful plan allows Shahrzad to delay her execution. The narrator for example, tells the story of the tailor who, in turn, tells the story of the barber who tells the story of each one of his brothers.
Such a juxtaposition of the tales in the form of Story-inside-a story technique to which Shahrzad resorts not only allows her to stay alive, but also to prove her faithfulness to Shahryar and to safeguard the women of the kingdom from a certain death. Systemic analysis of The Arabian Nights According to Itamar Even-Zohar's polysystem theory , literary works belong to a system of systems examples are canonized literature, children literature, banal literature, etc.
Translated literature also is considered as a system. These systems all are competing to occupy a central position position of canonicity in the polysystem and to avoid marginalization. Compared to the dominant literary discourses in the Islamic world, the tales of The Arabian Nights were viewed as a marginalized and second-class literature in the periphery of the poly-system , not worthy of criticism in the literary circles.
The reason for this is that in the Islamic world, the tales proliferated at a time when poetry was the most excellent literary genre, assuming centrality in the literary polysystem and dictating the standards of literary excellence.
Unlike in the East, it was one of the most translated and widely- read works of literature in the West, whereas the major figures and classics of the Eastern literature were unknown. Contrary to the Western world, these tales in the Eastern world were not welcomed warmly by erudite audience, but were just received by readers whose conception of literature was that of entertainment.
Our aim is not to search for the reasons why these tales were disregarded in the Eastern world; we aim to understand the reasons for the great interest triggered by the tales in the literary salons of London and Paris. These reasons will be discussed in the following sections of the paper.
Cultural analysis of The Arabian Nights We would like to start our analysis by raising a question: In other words, did the translation of The Arabian Nights fulfill the primary objective of literary translation, i.
A close analysis of Richard Burton's translation will help us to determine if and how he has contributed to the Orientalist discourse. Since our analysis focuses on Burton's translation, it is necessary to shed some light on his ideological framework, but due to the limitation of space in this paper, it is not possible to delve into his biography.
Suffice it here to say that he was a secret agent in the British intelligence service, serving in the East Indian Company besides British Navy. To carry out our cultural analysis, we will look into the meta-texts of Burton's translation, i. In the preface to his translation, Burton writes: Here two terms emerge: His translation is full of notes.
They are a rich reservoir of knowledge about Eastern culture. He does not leave anything related to Orient without a comment. These notes and comments show Burton's full acquaintance with the culture he studies. If these misrepresentations had been made by a person not familiar with the East, we could have attributed them to sheer ignorance or a difficulty to understand an alien culture.
Since these views come from Burton's deep knowledge of the Eastern culture and his long stay in the East, they certainly carry a new value which is related to the dominant Orientalist discourse of his time.
To shed some light on the relationship between Burton's views of the Orient as expressed in his notes and Orientalist discourse, we have selected here a number of notes that revolve around the notion of slavery, sexuality, ideology and Islam: An uncivilized Orient Here is what we read in the original text when king Shahzaman catches his wife, red-handed, in amorous love-making with one of his slaves: Burton's translation faithfully reflects the incident, but portrays the slave as following: Burton documents all practices of sexual perversion supposedly prevalent in the Orient.
His comments on Eastern sexuality, however, are a kind of pornography. The note goes as follows: I measured one man in Somali-land who, quite quiescent, numbered nearly six inches. This is a characteristic of the Negro race and of African animals, e. In my time, no honest Hindi Muslim would take his women- folk to Zanzibar on account of the huge attractions and enormous temptations there and thereby offered to them. It is easy to detect some exaggerations by Burton about some aspects of Easterner's relationships with each other.
Burton translates this passage in this manner: In addition to his customary degradation to anything related to black, Burton adds the following meta-text: Burton astonishes the readers by the ambiguity of his assumption.